ELT Theorists and important names in ELT

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ELT Theorists and important names in ELT
ELT THEORISTS AND IMPORTANT NAMES
2 ASHER James
3 AUSUBEL David??
4 BACON Francis
5 BERLITZ
6 BROWN Douglas
7 BRUNER Jerome
8 CHARLES A. Curran
9 CHARLES Fries et al.
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1 ALWRIGHT Dick
Dick Alwright ve arkadaşları grammar öğretildikten sonra paragraf ödevini yazmayı
başaramayan öğrenciler deneyiminden sonra yöntemleri sorgulamaya başlıyor. If he
language teacher's management activities are directed exclusively the learners are
solving communication problems in the target language, then language learning will
take care of itself...' Bunlar product of learning'den (grammar ve kelime öğretimi)
learning process'e geçmiş. Yani dilin amacı iletişimdir. Postmethod (bir metoddan
ziyade alternatif teknik ve stratejiler). Exploratory practice ile T sınıfın yaşam kalitesini
belirlemeli ve anlamalıdır. Daha sonra bir Learning Puzzle belirlenmeli, bilgi toplanmalı
ve puzzle çözmenin farklı yolları aranmalı ve bir sonraki seviyede ne yapılacağı
kararlaştırılmalıdır. (Bak.: Ivan ILLICH: Deschooling; Richard SCHMIDT; Michael LONG)
TPR= Comprehension Approach=Comprehension-Based Approach. A professor of
psychology. The approach is based on the coordination of speech and action. Asher
defines TPR method as one that combines information and skills through the use of
the Kinesthetic sensory sysem. The S assimilates information and skills at a rapid rate.
He says T is a director; Ss are actors. Harkens back to Gouin's Series Method which
affected D.M.
Ausubel's meaningful learning vs. rote learning. Influenced by Piaget (and other
cognitivists) the most important factor is what the learner already knows. Meaningful
so that Ss relate, subsume new information.
Behaviorist. Behaviorists like him say one is born a tabula rasa, a blank slate and all
learning is the result of outside stimuli (Bak.: John LOCKE, PAVLOV, SKINNER,
WATSON, THORNDIKE; aksi görüş için CHOMSKY)
D.M. is the brainchild of him. Ticari dil okullarında D.M. uygulamış Gouin'den
esinleniyor. Berlitz wanted to immerse Ss in language by imitating children's learning
process. (Bak. Gouin)
Ego enhancement motivasyon için ana etken. Bunun için adımlar: 1- Need for an
exploration (being overweight), 2- Activity (going to a gym), 3- Stimulation (Desire to
lose weight), 4- new knowledge (new slim body), 5- Ego enhancement (Positive mood
of being slim)
Constructivist. Bruner says language is the most significant tool for cognitive
development. He observed how adults employ language to support children's
development (Scaffolding). He also says formats and routines provide opportunities
for children language development by creating contexts for them to predict meaning.
Bruner's LASS (Language Acquisition Support System)= Adults provide a framework of
scaffolding helping children to learn. In contexts that are one step ahead of children
lead them to response (Some strategies mothers or adults use for scaffolding:
motherese=teacherese= caretaker speech= foreigner talk
Developed C.L.L. İn 1972. C.L.L. is patterned upon counselling and learning techniques
developed by CURRAN. Ts are language counsellor; Ss are clients and emotionally
delicate.
1940s. A structuralist linguist: Language is a set of system rule governed in sound and
form.
11 COFFIELD Frank et al.
12 CUISENNAIRE George
13 DEWEY John
14 EDGE Julian
15 FREIRE Paula
16 FREUD
17 GAGNE Robert
18 GARDNER Howard
19 GATTEGNO Caleb
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10 CHOMSKY Noam
1960s. He says speakers have a knowledge of underlying abstract rules (Universal
Grammar= Languages share basic properties and parameters useful for language
transfer) by which they understand and create novel utterances (through
LAD:Language Acquisiton Device: like an empty box). Language is not a product of
habit formation but rather of rule formation. Acquiring a language is a procedure
whereby people use their own thinking process, or cognition (their minds are not a
tabula rasa as behaviorists say (Bak.: PAVLOV, SKINNER, WATSON, THORNDIKE,
BACON, LOCKE) to discover rules of the language themselves. COGNITIVE APPROACH
appeared as a result of this view: Learners are actively responsible for their learning by
hypothesizing and testing their hypotheses; errors are inevitable; deductive learning or
teaching. He opposed the assumptions of structuralism (prescriptive + descriptive
study of language form and use unlike traditional view which is prescriptive) and
criticised it heavily by emphasizing that there is an underlying level for all utterances of
the native speakers. The theory opposed to the empricist theory (pedagogically
audiolingualism, psychologically behaviorism and linguistically structuralism). It
emphasized mental activity and proposed that humanbeings have the capability to
learn a language. It is the inborn ability instead of practice (drilling, memorizing,
instructing) that enabled humanbeings to obtain rules of a language and comprehend
or produce unlimited numbers of utterances (Lexical approach opposes this:
production is not unlimited, chunks/collocations/utterances are limited Bak.: Michael
LEWIS) (Ayrca Chomsky'nin linguistic competence'ına communicative competence'ı ile
cevap veren Dell HYMES)
Coffield uzun bir öğrenci tipi listesi yapmış
(Bak.: Cale GATTEGNO) Cuisennaire Rods
Constructivist. Active learning. Cooperative Language Learning=Collaborative Learning.
Maximum use of cooperative activities so Ss scaffold eachother=team work. It is an
extension of C.L.T, learner centered. Critical thinking; communicative competence;
Cooperation vs. competition
Hataları 3 ana kategoriye sokar: 1- Slips (öğrencinin kendisinin düzeltebilecekleri), 2Errors (konuyu bilmediği için yaptığı hatalar, yardıma ihtiyaç duyar), 3- Attempts
(Hakim olmadıkları konuda söylemeye çalışırken ortaya çıkan hatalar. Mistake: Konu
biliniyordur ama gözden kaçar; Error: Konu bilinmediği için yapılan hata
Freirean Approach/Participatory approach: Content-based gibi ama farkı matematik,
fen gibi alan derslerini değil daha insanın gündelik yaşamına yönelik işsizlik, kadın
hakları gibi konuları L2 aracılığıyla öğretmeyi hedefler
Focused on sub-conscious
(and BRIGGS; they are both behaviorists and constructivists- geçiş yapmışlar)
Combination-information processing. Breaking down of the instruction process into
'conditions of learning'
Intelligences. Kazazedeleri incelerken beyin hasarlarından yola çıkıyor. İnsan zekasında
baskın olan özellikler öğrenim tarzını oluşturur der.
The Silent Way=Cognitive Code Approach. Shows certain principles of Cognitive
Approach but not directly. He believes that learning a language is a process just as
babies and young children learn a language. We integrate "new" into ourselves making
learning automatic by encouraging students to discover rather than memorize. Bu
yüzden T is silent (Bak.: Noam CHOMSKY; George CUISENNAIRE)
Series Method. Action Series. Affected D.M. He was not acclaimed much in his era.
Almanca öğrenmeye çalışmış ezberleyerek ancak 3 yaşındaki yeğeni kendi dilini çok
akıcı bir şekilde öğrenmiş bunu görünce, we can learn like children demiş sıralı ve
kısaltılmış cümleler halinde öğretmeye dayalı yöntemini geliştirmiş. (Bak.: Berlitz ve
D.M.)
NLP is an alternative form of therapy developed in 1970s. Grindler and Bandler
examined successful people's thought patterns, beliefs, and behaviors to draw a
conclusion as to how people become successful.Thought + emotions NLP trains the Ss
to eliminate their negativity and decrease anxiety and transform them into positive
ways
20 GOUIN
GRINDLER John and
BANDLER Richard
22 HALLIDAY Michael
23 HYMES Dell
24 ILLICH Ivan
25 JOHNSON Keith
26 KRASHEN Stephen
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21
İngiliz dil bilimci. Systemic functional grammar (sistemik işlevsel dil bilgisi) yaklaşımıyla
uluslararası etkide bir dil bilgisi modeli ortaya koymuştur. Halliday (1975) erken
çocukluk dönemiyle ilgili yedi dil işlevi tanımlar. Bu dil işlevlerinin dördü, çocukların
fiziksel, duygusal ve sosyal ihtiyaçlarına yardımcı olur. Bu işlevler, araçsal
(instrumental), düzenleyici (regulatory), etkileşimsel (interactional) ve kişisel (personal)
işlevlerdir. Diğer üçü ise, deneyimsel (heuristic), imgesel (imaginative) ve anlatımsal
işlevlerdir. Seven basic functions of language: 1- Instrumental (araç olarak kullanılır), 2regulatory (Control others' behavior), 3- Interactional (Interacting with others), 4Personal= personal emotions and meaning expression, 5- Heuristic: using L to learn
and discover, 6- Imaginative: to create world of imagination, 7- representational: using
L to communicate information.
Communicative competence: the ability to use and interpret the language
appropriately and effectively according to where, when, whom,and why you are
talking to. The context in short, plays a crucial role in shaping the language used during
the interaction. (Chomsky'nin linguistic competence'ına eleştirisi: It is inadequate for
communication skills in L2. Chomsky's linguistic competence is too limited because it
does not justify social and functional rules of the language)
Deschooling society kitabı var. Formal eğitimin amacını sorgular. Dil öğreniminde
formal eğitime ihtiyaç varsa neden anadilde çocuk daha başarılı. Anadilde daha çok
maruz kalıyor + motivasyon + dil kullanım fırsatı= Başarı. O yüzden 1-Exposure 2Motivation 3- Opportunity to use önemli (Bak.: Dick Alwright)
PPP sürecinde deep-end-strategy'yi öne sürer = Donne BYRNE ise bunu tekrar eder.
Natural Approach'u Tracy TERREL ile yayınlamıştır. Developing communicative
competence through meaningful exposure =comprehensible input= i + 1 = input
hypothesis. Also MONITOR, AFFECTIVE FILTER hypotheses. Communication and
Acquisition vs Analysis. L1'e izin var. (D.M.'de yoktu) 1980'lerde Rogers (Bak.: ROGERS)
'ın fikrini geliştirip Affective filter teorisini ilerletiyor ve C.L.L.'ye ilham verdiler.
MONITOR MODEL of LANGUAGE ACQUISITON: (5 Hypotheses): 1- The Acquisition and
Learning Hypothesis: Sub-conscious and conscious focus on language (L1 is acquired,
but L2 is generally learned); 2- The Natural Order Hypothesis: Morphemes are
acquired in a predictable order; 3- The Monitor Hypothesis: Acquisition (not learning)
is responsible for fluency. Learning functions as a monitor.; 4- The Input Hypothesis: Ss
acquire L2 when they receive comprehensible input.; 5- The Affective Filter
Hypothesis: Ss cannot acquire a language unless they feel confident, relaxed and
diverted. (Ayrıca Bak.: Tracy TERREL; Meryl SWAIN's output hypothesis)
28 LEWIS Michael
Lexical Approach. He developed lexical approach. Focuses on the exclusive need for
building vocabulary knowledge in the foreign language. Concentrates on lexis, or
words and word combinations. Unlike Chomsky L.A. suggests that only a small
proportion of language consists of entirely novel creations, the rest; however, consists
of multi word chunks which are used in everyday interaction. Bak.: Noam CHOMSKY
29 LOCKE John
30 LONG Michael
31 LOZANOV Georgi
32 NAIMAN Neil
33 NUNAN David
34 PAPERT Seymour
35 PAVLOV
36 PIAGET Jean
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27 KUMARAVADIVELU B.
post-method pedagogy: T are knowledgeable, skillful, and autonomous people who
have adequate amount of information to design their own method based on practice.
T meets Ss social and pedagogical needs with 'practicality, particularity, and possibility
parameters.
Behaviorist. (Bak.: Francis BACON, PAVLOV, SKINNER, WATSON, THORNDIKE; aksi
görüş için CHOMSKY)
Interaction hypothesis: Dil comprehensible input yanı sıra interaction ile daha iyi gelişir
der. There are two forms of the Interaction Hypothesis: the "strong" form and the
"weak" form. The "strong" form is the position that the interaction itself CONTRIBUTEs
to language development. The "weak" form is the position that interaction is simply
the way that learners FIND LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES, whether or not they make
productive use of them. (Strong) Focus on form: Planlı bir içerik ve dil yapısı; (Weak)
Focus on content: içerik aracılığıyla yeni formla karşılaşma.
Suggestopedia in 1979. Bulgarian psychologist. Human brain can process great
amount of material given the right conditions of learning like relaxation. When
limitations to learning are "desuggested", we can make better use of our mental
capacity. No psychological barriers.
İyi bir öğrencinin karakterini sıralamıştır. 1- Tolerance of ambiguity, 2- Self-esteem, 3High aspiration, 4- Goal orientation, 5- Perseverance (sebat). Bak.: Joan RUBIN ve Irene
THOMPSON
The Chomskyan revolution in linguistics drew the attention of linguists and language
teachers to the "deep structure" of language, while psychologists took account of the
affective and interpersonal nature of learning. As a result, new methods were
proposed, which attempted to capitalise on the importance of psychological factors in
language learning. David Nunan (1989: 97) referred to these methods as "designer"
Constructivist; Inventor of LOGO; Children have a natural curiosity to construct
meaning.
Behaviorist. Pavlov's dog; Classical conditioning; stimulus-response (Bak.: Skinner,
Watson, Francis Bacon; J. Locke; Thorndike)
(Constructivist) Observed progressive stages of development in human mind (Bak.:
Ausubel) In 1970 designer methods were developed (Bak.: Nunan DAVID and designer
methods). Piaget'ye göre çocuk sürekli etrafıyla etkileşim içindedir. Nesneleri
deneyimler. Piaget bu etkileşimden ve deneyimlerden intellectual (zihinsel) gelişimi
nasıl etkilediğine bakar. Teorisine göre: Öğrenme problemle karşılaştıklarında onlara
karşı eylemleriyle gerçekleşir. Learning is not imitated (behaviorists say) or innate
(cognitivists say); it is constructed by children through active engagement. Cognitive
development occurs through assimilation (no change in childs behavior or inner
representation of a language) and accomodation (adjusting to features of the
environment; restructuring in L2 or reorganizing te mental representation of a
language)
38 RESNICK Mitchell
Constructivist
39 ROGERS Carl
Humanistic thinker. Humanist Thinkers like him insisted that people are unique
individuals who respond in their unique way to any given situation. All living creatures
are motivated to live up to their potential; but are blocked by environmental and
personal problems. (Bak.: Charles Curran; Krashen) C.L.L.i inspire etmiştir.
40
RUBIN Joan ve
THOMPSON Irene
41 SCHMIDT Richard
42 SKINNER Bernard F.
43 SWAIN Meryl
44 TERREL Tracy
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37 PIENEMANN Manfred
Lexical-functional grammar (use of speech processing model to explain learner
output)= teachability/processability hypothesis: Eğer bir öğrenciye hazır olmadan bir
şeyleri öğretmeye çalışırsanız öğrenme gerçekleşmez. (seviye seviye gitmeli)
Processability theory states that learners restructure their L2 knowledge systems in an
order of which they are capable at their stage of development. For instance, In order
to acquire the correct morphological and syntactic forms for English questions,
learners must transform declarative English sentences. They do so by a series of
stages, consistent across learners.
45 THORNDIKE Edward L.
Neil NAIMAN'ın iyi öğrenci karakterine ek olarak: autonomous, creative, intelligent
guesser, creating opportunities for practice, accepting errors as normal, use contextual
clues, genel anlamı sözlüğe bakmadan kavrama, telaffuzda zorlansa da iletişim kurma.
(Patsy LIGHTBOWN, Nina SPADA da benzer şeyler söylemişler. Bak.: Tony WRIGHT,
Keith WILLING)
Noticing Hypothesis: L2 öğrenenler dil yapısını yeterince gördüklerinde onu
farkederler. Bu karşılaşmanın bir yolu öğretmenin öğretmesi ve ilgiyi o yapıya
çekmesidir. (Ayrıca reklamlar, TV, filmler vs. de bunu yapar) Salient (yani attracting
attention) daha çok ilgilerini çeker. Örenciler L2 kullanmaya ihtiyaçları olduğunu
bildiklerinde dili edinir. L2 yapılarını sıralı öğrenmek yerine communicative task içinde
anlama dayalı bağlamlar içinde daha iyi kavrarlar. (Bak.: Dick ALWRIGHT, Michael Long,
Ivan ILLICH)
Behaviorist. Operant conditioning= Focused on observable behavior. Learning results
from a change in overt behavior. (Bak.: J.B.WATSON, PAVLOV, THORNDIKE, F.BACON,
J.LOCKE)
Swain's output hypothesis: Meaningful output (by Ss) is important. Vs. Input
hypothesis of KRASHEN
Natural Approach'u Krashen'la yayınlamıştır. (Bak.: Krashen)
Behaviorist. Klasik koşullanma ilkesini ilk ortaya atan kişi. Haz temelli
bağlaşımcılık/connectionism; deneme yanılma (haz varsa devam). Hazırbulunuşluk,
tekrar, etki (Haz güçlü mü değil mi). Uyarıcı ve tepkinin sinirsel bağla bağlandığını
düşünür: Connectionism (Bak.: Francis BACON, PAVLOV, SKINNER, WATSON,
THORNDIKE; aksi görüş için CHOMSKY)
46 VYGOTSKY Lev
Social Constructivist. Viygotsky's socio-cultural theory: He puts language and social
interaction at the center. Intellectual and language development occur by social
interaction with people. ZPD is the distance between what children can do with help of
others and what they can accomplish on their own. Cognitive Development is related
to social development (Bak.: Wertsch) Scaffolding'in başarılı olabilmesi için kritik
dönem ZPD. Vygotsky bütün öğrenmelerin social interaction içinde yardımlaşarak
gerçekleşeceğini savunmuş. Öğrenme ona göre 'assisted performance'tır. Daha bilgili
birinin yardımcı olması (scaffolding: bak.: Jerome BRUNER). (Bak.: Krashen and i + 1)
47 WATSON J.B. & Ragner
Father of behaviorism. Çocuğu kedi varken demire çekiçle vurarak korkutuyor, çocuk
tüm kedilerden korkar hale geliyor. Asıl amacı bu korkuyu söndürmek ama
başaramıyor. Klasik koşullanmayla korkuları yenmeye odaklı.
49 WILLING Keith
50 WRIGHT Tony
51
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48 WERTSCH
Constructivist. Socio-cultural Theory'nin çıktığı nokta (bak.:Lev VYGOTSKY) : World
seen by children and adults. There is a difference. The difference is ZPD (Bak.: Lev
VYGOTSKY; Jerome BRUNER). T should identify it and find where the S is in this zone
and build upon it through scaffolding (Bak.: Jerome BRUNER) process. Start from what
the Ss know, anchor new items on past experience.
Dört öğrenci kategorisi: 1- Convergers: Solitary ones, independent, confident, analytic,
cool, pragmatic 2- Conformists: Focus on learning about language over learning to use
it,dependent on authority, work in non-communicative classrooms doing what they
are told. They like well-organized Ts 3- Concrete learners: Like conformists but enjoy
social aspects of learning. Both use and communication= Enjoy games and group work
4- Communicative: Language use oriented. Comfortable out of class. Confident, willing
to take risks, social interaction, happy without guidance of T. Ayrıca Bak.: Neil
NAIMAN, Joan RUBIN and Irene THOMPSON, Tony WRIGHT)
Dört öğrenci tipi tanımlamıştır. 1- Enthusiast, 2- Oracular (Focus on T + but more on
personal goals, 3- Participator= concentrate on group goals, 4- rebel (satisfaction of his
personal goals. Bak.: Neil NAIMAN, Joan RUBIN and Irene THOMPSON, Keith WILLING
Marion DIAMOND, Robert SYLWESTER, Susan KOVALIK= bunlar brain-based
learning'ciler
THEORIES OF LEARNING
1- BEHAVIORISM (Observable habti/behavior)
2- COGNITIVISM (unobservable internal/mental processes)
3- HUMANISM (whole person: intellect + emotion + spiritual needs, Ss are humans first.
4- CONSTRUCTIVISM (Knowledge is constructed both socially and cognitively)
LINGUISTIC VIEWS
1- TRADITIONAL VIEW (prescriptive, written language over spoken, Spoken language is imperfect, L is tool for
2- STRUCTURALIST VIEW (prescriptive + descriptive. L is structurally related items to convey meaning
3- GENERATIVE TRANSFORMATIVE VIEW (Chomsky, cognitivist view)
4- COMMUNICATIVE VIEW

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