Draft Conference Paper - Inter

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Transkript

Draft Conference Paper - Inter
Modern Turkey, a traumatized society ─
The repressed experience of torture and killing after the putsch in 1980
Georg Friedrich Simet
Abstract
After the military seized power in Turkey on 12 September 1980, about
600,000 people were arrested, 150 died under torture, 50 were executed, and
many disappeared. Only recently, the day of the 30th anniversary of this last,
third putsch, constitutional changes were approved in order to reshape the
judiciary and curb military powers. Among the 26 amendments was a
measure annulling an article blocking legal action against the leaders of the
coup. Even the next day, on 13 September, Turkish rights groups launched
petitions to try Kenan Evren, a former general who became president in the
wake of the putsch.
The paper will reflect on three exemplary cases.
At first, the poet Enver Karagöz, well known in Turkey but unknown outside
the Turkish communities, will be introduced, as he represents a politically
less engaged intellectual who was arrested, tortured and been exiled. (He met
his torturer again many years later.)
At second, Doğan Akhanlı stands for an intellectual who addresses
unwelcome truths (e.g. the Armenian genocide). He was arrested for
membership in an illegal leftist political group. Recently, on 10 August 2010,
he was again taken into custody for a murder committed 21 years ago.
Last but not least, the paper will focus on Yılmaz Güney, a Kurdish film
director, scenarist, novelist and actor of Kurdish descent. He escaped from
prison in 1981 and took the negatives of his film Yol (Road) with him. The
film was banned until 1999, as it is one of only a few documents that looked
at the society of the early 80s.
Key Words: Enver Karagöz, Doğan Akhanlı, Yılmaz Güney, Yol, coup
d'état,
*****
1.
Militarism and nation building in modern Turkey
It is important to note that the Republic of Turkey emerged from
war. According to the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 16 May 1916, the
governments of Britain and France intended to disintegrate the country by
dividing the Otoman Empire between several states. Subsequently, the Greek
Modern Turkey, a traumatized society
2
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as well saw their chance to realise their μεγάλη ιδέα (“great idea”) of taking
over the government of Turkey. In order to defeat this purpose(s), generals,
first of all the hero of Gallipoli, Mustafa Kemal, organised the national
resistance and defeated the invading troops. Remembering its War for
Independence, since 1923 the whole country celebrates its Victory Day
(Zafer Bayramı) on 30 August. The army sees itself and is seen by the most
Turks as the guarantor of both independence and unity.
The parliamentary system was introduced by the military. Whenever
its elite saw the state in danger later on, it reserved the right to intervene and
to govern the country temporarily. Up to now this happed three times, at last
in 1980, when, again, “the polity dissolved, the public administration began
to collapse and the terrorist militancy on the left and the right escalated.”1
The intention to re-establish internal security was executed radically
and with brute force. From the perspective of the generals, everyone who
seemed more “right” or, in particular, more “left” than normal was suspected
and pursued.2 According to official figures, “230,000 people were prosecuted
in military courts.”3 The most of the imprisoned were tortured; 299 of them
died.4
Violence was countered with violence, but the violence of the
executive authorities was and is not punished. All constitutions of Turkey
were and are still influenced by its military (regimes). In particular the fourth
constitution ratified on 7 November 1982 is seen by Turkish intellectuals as
“a product of the 12 September (1980) military coup”. 5 It guaranteed
impunity for the putschists. Only on the 30th anniversary of the last coup
d'état, the ruling AKP gave the people the opportunity to put an end to
impunity. The voters approved a reform package including the repeal of the
Provisional Article 15 “barring prosecution of members of the National
Security Council and technocrats who had legislative and executive power”
following the coup.6 Even one day later, human rights groups leaped into
action filing petitions calling for former President Ahmet Kenan Evren and
other coup leaders to be tried.7
Enver Karagöz – Extermination of “the Rose of Resistance”8
The Turkish-German Human Rights Association (TÜDAY), Köln –
founded by Enver and Işılay Karagöz – also stated a petition to try the
putschists.
Enver Karagöz was born on 2 May 1948 in the uttermost northeast
province of Turkey, Artvin. He graduated from the University of Erzurum. At
this time he tended to the leftist movement; he read a lot and recited poems
for the masses during protest meetings.
On 30 April 1970 Karagöz was assigned to the Senior High School
of Artvin to teach Turkish literature. He joined the Turkish Teachers’ Union
2.
Georg Friedrich Simet
3
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(Tüm Öğretmenler Birleşme ve Dayanışma Derneği) and took part in all of
their activities.
The principal of the school was not very pleased that he had to work
with this young and progressive teacher. So, during the turbulent years about
the 2nd coup, the principal reported the Ministry of Education of Karagöz’
misdemeanour which included the reciting of Nazım Hikmet – the world
renowned but in Turkey as communist disliked poet who was stripped of his
nationality twenty years before9 – whilst protest meetings. In reaction on it,
the Ministry dismissed Karagöz. He served in the Turkish Armed Forces for
his compulsory period of 18 months. Afterwards he was lucky enough to
return to his beloved profession with the assistance of his previous inspector
of education who happened to work at the ministry.
His future wife, Işılay Kaya, was at this time a student at his school.
Once she requested to visit his lesson. She was amazed by his method of
teaching – antiauthoritarian and humanitarian. She fell in love with him; on 5
November 1977 they got married.
The military intervention on 12 September 1980 interrupted the
private happiness. In order to identify all supporters of left parties and
movements, Karagöz – together with almost all colleagues, students and
intellectuals of Artvin who were suspected of being progressive (teenagers
and retired people included) – was placed in the Teachers’ Education
Institute which was transformed into a torture and interrogation camp. They
all had to undergo systematic and ruthless torture from beatings to
electroshocks. His wife remembers that the feet’s flesh of her husband was
torn to bone and his body was burnt at the places where the electrodes were
applied.10 His wife was tortured in the cell next to him so that he could hear
her cries. She was released after more than a month, 11 but her husband’s
times of pain continued. One day his torturers forced his jaws open and
poured boiling water through his mouth. They told him “from now on you
will not be able to talk anymore; [...] we do not give you more than six
months to live”.12 Karagöz’ vocal cords were so terribly burnt that he
instantly lost his voice. His situation deteriorated every day and he was
transferred to the specialized army hospital in Ankara to cure the throat
cancer he suffered from.
One of his older colleagues, Kazım Köroğlu, reports why Karagöz’
nick name “The Rose of Resistance” (Direnç Gülü) is so well befitting for his
character: he withstood the torture. In his file there were only details of his
identity; he hadn’t revealed any information at all.13
In 1984 Karagöz was released of confinement without any
punishment, but the same day the newspaper Hürriyet commentated: “The
principal defendant of Artvin’s Revolutionary Way is released”.14 – Three of
the Artvin activists of the Revolutionary Way (Devrimci Yol) movement lost
their lives in the fight against the military regime. 15 – Karagöz decided to
Modern Turkey, a traumatized society
4
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leave the country. On 9 March 1984 he and his wife took different planes to
Germany. He asked for political asylum; his request was granted. Till his
death, he lived in Köln. Until his death he continued to be active for the just
cause of human rights in Turkey.
After being granted German passport he visited Turkey in 2004. At
the Atatürk Airport in Istanbul during passport control the policeman on duty
told him to follow to the Police Department, the Bureau of Terrorist
Activities. Approximately an hour later an officer came into the room and
asked Karagöz whether he recognized him. Yes, he did. It was one of his
torturers.
Karagöz died of throat cancer on 27 March 2007 in a hospital room.
He left behind a loving wife and two children as well as a collection of
poems. Though Hürriyet addressed Karagöz in 1984 as one of the main bad
revolutionists, on 19 June 2008 it published an article nicely formulated:
“Remembering the country’s ‘Rose of Resistance’ that lost its voice”.16
Doğan Akhanlı – The ongoing persecution17
The case of Doğan Akhanlı, we will look at now, shows that “the
judiciary as the wing of the military armed with paragraphs is unpredictable
and fights full of hatred against dissenters”.18
Akhanlı and Karagöz were born near the same town, Şavşat, in the
Artvin province, but Akhanlı, born on 18 March 1957, 19 is about nine years
younger. In opposite to Karagöz he left the remote place and moved to
Istanbul at the age of twelve.20 Six years later, he was imprisoned for the first
time. His crime was that he bought the “left-wing” newspaper Halkın Sesi
(Voice of the People) – that today, supports racist positions21 – at a kiosk. He
was “questioned” eleven days,22 arrested and held in custody for five
months.23 Although he was acquitted in the process that followed, his bad
experience had a lasting influence on him: “Since then my confidence in the
Turkish state was completely undermined.”24 His stay in prison made him a
communist.25
During the 1980 coup d’etat Akhanlı was enrolled at the Karadeniz
Technical University.26 At this time he became “a member of the Albania
orientated TDKP” (Türkiye Devrimci Komünist Partisi).27 As he knew that he
was still in danger of being arrested, he went underground. Nevertheless, in
1985, he was detected and detained again.28 He and his wife “were tortured in
the presence of their child.”29 One year after his wife and son were released,
but he had to stay on for two more years. The experiences left all of them
“feeling as small as breadcrumbs"30 (unufak olmuştuk).31 In September 1987,
when his prison stay was temporarily suspended, he used the chance to go
underground again. The next most important events will be summarized very
brief:
3.
Georg Friedrich Simet
5
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In 1991, he [his wife and son] fled to Germany, where he was
granted political refugee status. In 1998, Turkey stripped him of his
Turkish citizenship. He became a German citizen in 2001. Since the
mid-1990s, he has been living in Cologne.32
The very well documented present phase of Akhanlı’s life started
with his travel to Turkey on 10 August 2010. Although he knew that it will
be not harmless, his wish to see his 87 years old sick father once again before
his death prevailed all concerns. At the Sabiha Gökçen airport of Istanbul
Akhanlı was detained and taken to the same cellblock, called Siberia, in the
Metris Prison where he was held in detention 24 years ago.33 Based on this
event Akhanlı wrote a short story called Siberia.34
Akhanlı was and still is blamed for i) a robbery attack against an
exchange office in the Eminönü district of Istanbul on 20 October 1989, ii)
the killing of the owner İbrahim Yaşar Tutum during the escape, and iii)
being the leader of the TKP-YKB-HKB (Türkiye Halk Kurtuluş PartisiYeniden Kuruluş Birliği- Halk Kurtuluş Güçleri) terrorist gang35 which raided
– as it is claimed – in order to raise funds for sustaining terroristic acts in
future,36 whereas Akhanlı doesn’t know of and disbelieves in the existence of
such an organization.37
Although it turned out after a few days that the testimonies of the
witnesses were obtained through the use of force and torture and renounced
later on,38 the accusations against Akhanlı were not withdrawn. The news of
his father’s death reached him in prison.39 Only after nearly four months in
jail and after the first hearing on 8 December 2010, he was released.40 Since 6
January 2011 Akhanlı is back in his exile – defined by Akhanlı as a place free
of torture.41 Although the next hearing is scheduled for March 2011, it is not
clear yet, if Turkey would be interested in the follow-up of this, for the state
embarrassing story and allow Akhanlı’s entry.
4.
Yılmaz Güney and his film Yol – A Way out?
Last but not least we will focus on the impact of the coup on
Turkey’s largest ethnic minority, the Kurds. This minority still suffers the
most, as all Kurds were and are seen in principle as separatists.
We exemplarily look at Yılmaz Güney and his film Yol (The Way).
Although all his films reflect on social conflicts in Turkey – mainly from the
perspective of the Kurds, Yol is unique. As Karzan Kardozi rightly puts it:
Yol is the gem of the Kurdish cinema, it is perhaps the best Kurdish
film […] and still is the most honored of all the Kurdish films,
winning Best Picture the Palm’Dor and International Critics’ Prize
at at Cannes Film Festival in 1982.42
Modern Turkey, a traumatized society
6
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Yılmaz Pütün alias Yılmaz Güney is of Kurdish descent. He was
born as a son of a farmhand in Yenice, a village close to Adana, on1 April
1937. At the age of 14 he moved to Adana, as he did not wish to live in
dependence from the large landowners like his parents. In 1953 he discovered
his passion for movies. Even a few years earlier he started to write short
stories. His literary talent and personality impressed Atıf Yılmaz, one of the
most renowned Turkish film directors 43 and Yaşar Kemal, one of the most
important Kurdish-Turkish novelists. Both invited Güney to co-write on their
screenplay.44 In addition, in 1958, Güney was asked to play the main part in
Bu Vatanın Çocukları (The Children of this Country). Yet his just started
acting career was interrupted quite soon. In 1961, he was imprisoned for 18
months for having disseminated communistic propaganda. Nevertheless,
even this event could not hinder his career. Güney became ‘The Ugly King’
(Çirkin Kral) of Turkish Cinema due to his “rude and upright tough-guy
image”45 and the fact that he mostly played underprivileged social crooks.46
His popularity reached its climax in 1965, when he took part in not less than
twenty two films.47
Finally, in 1968, Güney became a filmmaker and produced his first
own film, Seyyit Han. Four years later Güney was arrested again, as he
harbored anarchist students.48
Due to the proclamation of a general amnesty in 1974, Güney was
released, but even that same year he was re-arrested again. He was accused
for shooting Sefa Mutlu, the public prosecutor of the Yumurtalık district in
the Adana Province on 13 September that year. 49
Güney was found guilty and given a prison sentence of 19 years.
Although there is much evidence that he shot Mutlu,50 until today it is not
absolutely clear,51 respectively as some his colleagues and friends claimed
that they did it.52
In October 1981, Güney used a prison holiday to escape. 53 He fled to
Europe – as one of some 29,500 people.54 Prior to his flight to France he
finalized the screenplay of Yol and asked Şerif Gören to direct the film.
In anticipation of his own escape, Yol tells the way of five Kurdish
prisoners who took their long-awaited leave from prison, but in opposite to
Güney they do not leave the country. The most of the stories told in the film
are “truthfully recounted”.55 As the prison can also be seen as a metaphor to
describe Turkey itself,56 the film “provides an evocative glimpse of what life
was like for the ordinary people during this period”. 57 Violence dominates the
life. The only way out is empathy and compassion, but even that does not
serve as an option in normality. In the film these attitudes are introduced
shortly before the death of the other is inevitable.
Having realized some more important films in exile, Güney died of
gastric cancer at the age of just 47, in Paris on 9 September 1984.
Georg Friedrich Simet
7
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Güney and his films are still famous in Turkey, as he further
developed the new, socially critical type of film.58 After Güney other
filmmakers also tried and sentenced the last military coup.59 In particular the
film Gülün Bittiği Yer (Where the Rose Withers) by İsmail Güneş narrates
very drastically “how violence continued.”60
5.
Conclusion
It is important to remember repeatedly that the Turkish republic is
built by the military in a War of Independence based on heroic principles and
having caused heavy losses. The importance of the military as the guarantee
of the state is still visible even in the expression of non-military
associations.61
This view is the main reason that state violence was and still is
tolerated. The clash within the Turkish society can be described as “a
collision between those who are state-oriented and those who are civilsociety oriented”.62 The development of a civil society in Turkey depends not
least on the extent to which it succeeds to name and to overcome the culture
of violence in daily life – by individuals 63 and movements like Genç Siviller
(The Young Civilians), people that “have no connection to violence at all”,
“being ‘noone’s man’” and “non-uniformed”.64
Notes
1
U Steinbach, Die Türkei im 20. Jahrhundert, Schwieriger Partner Europas, Gustav Lübbe Verlag, Bergisch Gladbach,
1996, p. 197
2
Experts like Udo Steinbach believe that people from the left and the right wing were pursued equally (U Steinbach, ‘Die
Türkei…’, op. cit., p. 198), but other experts like Başak Çalı argue: “The 1980 coup involved an unprecedented degree of
state violence, especially toward the political activity of all left-wing groups”. (B Çalı, ‘Human Rights Discourse and
Domestic Human Rights NGOs’, in Z F K Arat, Human Rights in Turkey, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia,
2007, p. 221)
3
Associated Press, ‘Turkish exhibit displays coup-era torture instruments ahead of constitutional referendum’, in
foxnews.com, 7 September 2010, viewed on 10 January 2011, <http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/09/07/turkish-exhibitdisplays-coup-era-torture-instruments-ahead-constitutional>
A very detailed list titled “Results of the putsch” (Dabenin Sonuçları) was published by NTV-MSNBC, ‘12 Eylül’ün
bilançosu’, in ntvmsnbc.com, 12 September 2007, viewed on 9 January 2011,
<http://arsiv.ntvmsnbc.com/news/419690.asp>
4
Hürriyet Daily News, ‘Exorcising Sept 12 coup’, in hurriyetdailynews.com, 11 September 2009, viewed on 10 January
2011, <http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=exorcising-sept-12-coup-2009-09-11>
5
A Ağaoğlu et al., ‘Citizens Declaration‘, in esiweb.org, 27 April 2007, viewed on 13 January 2011,
<http://www.esiweb.org/pdf/turkey_citizens_declaration_pre_July2007_elections.pdf>
6
A J Yackley, A Sarioglu and K Liffey, ‘Factbox: Turkey’s constitutional amendments’, in reuters.com, 12 September
2010, viewed on 06 January 2011, <http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE68B28B20100912?pageNumber=3>
7
Aljazeera, ‘Call to try Turkish coup leaders’, in aljazeera.net, 13 September 2010, viewed on 7 January 2011,
<http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2010/09/2010913172313425174.html>
8
The text about Karagöz is discussed with Karagöz’ wife Işılay and based on a draft provided by Yavuz Kürkçü who gives
colorful presentations of Karagöz’ life and his poems. (Doğan Haber Ajansı, ‘Şair Enver Karagöz Şiirleriyle Anıldı’, in
haberler.com, viewed on 31 January 2011, <http://www.haberler.com/sair-enver-karagoz-siirleriyle-anildi-haberi>)
9
A Flood, ‘Turkish poet Nazim Hikmet regains citizenship’, in guardian.co.uk, 07 January 2009, viewed on 16 January
2011, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/jan/07/turkey-nazim-hikmet>
10
Karagöz, I, ‘Esi Karagöz’ün Kalbinden‘, in Öztürk, A (ed.), Direnç Gülü, Enver Karagoz’ün anısına, Penta Yayıncılık,
Ankara, 2008, p. 40
11
ibid, p. 43
12
ibid, p. 46
13
Köroğlu, K, ‘Öğretmenin ardından‘, in Öztürk, A (ed.), Direnç Gülü…, op. cit., p. 354
14
Karagöz, I, op. cit., p. 53
15
Devrimci Yol, ‘Buradaki isim listesi "Unutulmasınlar Diye" isimli albümden alındı’, in devrimciyol.org, viewed on 16
January 2011, <http://www.devrimciyol.org/Devrimci%20Yol/kitaplar/kitap8_a16.htm>
16
Hürriyet, ‘Sesini kaybeden ülkenin ’direnç gülü’ anıldı’, in hurriyet.com.tr, 19 June 2008, viewed on 16 January 2011,
<http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ankara/9226935_p.asp>
17
This part of the paper is written in discussion with Doğan Akhanlı.
18
A Kieser, ’Doğan Akhanlı ist frei‘, in Stadtrevue, Das Kölnmagazin, January 2011, p. 19
19
S Gannott, ‘Ein Mann mit zu viel Geschichte‘, in taz.de, 3 December 2010, viewed on 19 January 2011,
<http://www.taz.de/1/politik/europa/artikel/1/ein-mann-mit-zu-viel-geschichte>
20
Recherche International, ‘Biograhie | Biografi | Biograhy’, in justice for doğan akhanlı, viewed on 9 January 2011,
<http://gerechtigkeit-fuer-dogan-akhanli.de/blog/?page_id=24>
21
D Akhanlı, ‘Die Fremde und eine Reise im Herbst‘, in hagalil.com, March 2008, viewed on 19 January 2011,
<http://www.hagalil.com/archiv/2010/09/20/akhanli-4>
22
ibid.
23
S Gannot, ‘Ein Dutzend Romane‘, in freitag.de, 17 August 2007, viewed on 11 January 2011,
<http://www.freitag.de/2007/33/07331401.php>
24
ibid.
25
U Kux, ‘Gefangen in der Gewalt – Eine Flaschenpost um Doğan Akhanlı (24.8.2010)‘, in gerechtigkeit-fuer-doganakhanli.de, viewed on 22 January 2011, <http://gerechtigkeit-fuer-dogan-akhanli.de/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2010/11/Gefangen-in-derGewalt_UllaKux.pdf>
26
Turkuvaz Kitap, ‘Doğan Akhanlı’, in turkuvazkitap.com, 26 May 2009, viewed on 13 January 2011,
<http://www.turkuvazkitap.com/index.php?news=440>
27
The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT), ‘Writer Dogan Akhanli jailed in Turkey’, in tuerkeiforum.net, viewed
on 20 January 2011, <http://www.tuerkeiforum.net/enw/index.php/Writer_Dogan_Akhanli_jailed_in_Turkey>
28
J Gottschlich, ‘Dürftige Indizien’, in taz.de, 26 August 2010, viewed on 20 January 2011,
<http://www.taz.de/1/politik/europa/artikel/1/duerftige-indizien>
29
K Strittmatter, ‘Without Mercy’, translated by J Bergeron, in qantara.de, 10 December 2010, viewed on 20 January 2011,
<http://www.qantara.de/webcom/show_article.php/_c-476/_nr-1428/i.html>
30
ibid. – Quotation from ‘Die Fremde und eine Reise im Herbst‘, op. cit.
31
D Akhanlı, ‘Gurbet ve Sonbahar Yolculuğu‘, March 2008, in gerechtigkeit-fuer-dogan-akhanli.de, viewed on 23 January
2011, <http://gerechtigkeit-fuer-dogan-akhanli.de/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2010/11/GurbetveSonbaharYolculugu_DoganAkhanli.pdf>, p. 4
32
Gerechtigkeit für Doğan Akhanlı, ‘Biography’, in gerechtigkeit-fuer-dogan-akhanli.de, viewed on 20 January 2011,
<http://gerechtigkeit-fuer-dogan-akhanli.de/blog/?page_id=24>
33
K Strittmatter, ‘Without Mercy’, op. cit.
34
D Akhanlı, ‘Siberia’, translated by J Bergeron, in K Strittmatter, ‘Without Mercy’, op. cit.
35
S Günday, ‘21 yıl sonra yakalanan Yazar Akhanlı'nın müebbet hapsi istendi’, in milliyet.com.tr, 7 September 2010,
viewed on 22 January 2011, <http://www.milliyet.com.tr/21-yil-sonra-yakalanan-yazar-akhanli-nin-muebbet-hapsiistendi/turkiye/sondakika/07.09.2010/1286354/default.htm>
36
V Ziflioğlu, ‘German writer comes to Istanbul to support Akhanlı in murder case’, in hurriyetdailynews.com, 8 December
2010, viewed on 22 January 2011, <http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=german-writer-in-istanbul-in-support-offriend-2010-12-08>
37
All parts of the article related to Akhanlı were discussed with him on 24 January 2011. We found out that not all
information provided on the internet is true and corrected these data discreetly.
38
M Z Özkartal, ‘“Oğlum hapisteyken ölmem” diyen babasına yetişemedi’, in milliyet.com.tr, 4 December 2010,
<http://www.milliyet.com.tr/Pazar/HaberDetay.aspx?
aType=HaberDetay&ArticleID=1322258&Date=16.01.2011&Kategori=pazar&b=%E2%80%9COglum%20hapisteyken
%20olmem%E2%80%9D%20diyen%20babasina%20yetisemedi>
39
D Akhanlı, ‘“Sie haben meinen Vater getötet“‘, Interview with K Strittmatter, in sueddeutsche.de, 13 December 2010,
viewed on 23 January 2011, <http://www.sueddeutsche.de/kultur/im-gespraech-dogan-akhanli-ich-konnte-auf-tuerkischnicht-weinen-1.1035443>
40
Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT), ‘Writer Dogan Akhanli jailed in Turkey’, op. cit.
41
M Oehlen, ‘Kein Visum für die Haft im Gefängnis‘, in ksta.de (Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger), 6 January 2011, viewed on 23
January 2011, <http://www.ksta.de/html/artikel/1294060147674.shtml>
42
K Kardozi, ‘YOL: The Road of Yilmaz Guney’, in themovingsilent.wordpress.com, 15 December 2010, viewed on 21
January 2011, <http://themovingsilent.wordpress.com/2010/12/15/kurdish-cinema-yol-yilmaz-guney-1982>
43
Only in 1999, Yılmaz made his own film on the last coup, Eylül Fırtınası (The September Storm).
44
M Ciment, ‘Eine Unterhaltung mit Yılmaz Güney‘, in in J Heijs (ed.), Yılmaz Güney. Sein Leben – Seine Filme, translated
from French by B Mantilleri and from Turkish by Ü Güney, Buntbuch-Verlag, Hamburg, 1983, p. 31
45
A Suner, New Turkish Cinema; Belonging, Identity and Memory, I. B. Tauris, New York, 2010, p. 5
46
K Kardozi, op. cit.
47
J Heijs, ‘Yılmaz Güney: Filmemacher des türkischen Volkes’, in J Heijs (ed.), op. cit., p. 7
48
D Yates, ‘Biography for Yilmaz Güney‘, in imdb.com, viewed on 31 January 2011,
<http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0351566/bio>
49
E Kazan, ’Besuch bei Yılmaz Güney oder die Vision eines türkischen Gefängnisses’, in J Heijs (ed.), op. cit., p. 55
50
A Dorsay, ‘Yılmaz Güney ve Sefa Mutlu cinayeti‘, in sinemareyting.blogspot.com, viewed on 26 January 2011,
<http://sinemareyting.blogspot.com/2009/09/ylmaz-guney-ve-sefa-mutlu-cinayeti.html>
51
E Işık, ‘Yılmaz Güney katil mi, yoksa kurban mı?‘, in blog.milliyet.com.tr, 30 July 2007, viewed on 26 January 2011,
<http://blog.milliyet.com.tr/Blog.aspx?BlogNo=54852>
52
E Kazan, ’Besuch bei Yılmaz Güney oder die Vision eines türkischen Gefängnisses’, in J Heijs (ed.), op. cit., p. 56
53
M Ciment, ‘Eine Unterhaltung mit Yılmaz Güney‘, in J Heijs (ed.), op. cit., p. 26
54
E Yavuz, ‘[Nation set to confront coup legacy] Turkey to decide today on trying coup generals’, in todayszaman.com, 12
September 2010, viewed on 30 January 2011, < http://www.todayszaman.com/news-221402-nation-set-to-confront-couplegacy-turkey-to-decide-today-on-trying-coup-generals.html>
55
M Ciment, ‘Eine Unterhaltung mit Yılmaz Güney‘, in J Heijs (ed.), op. cit., p. 36
56
ibid., p. 37
57
A Kenny, ‘Coming to terms with Turkey through films: ‘Yol’ - by Yılmaz Güney’, in todayszaman.com, 20 September
2010, viewed on 18 January 2011, <http://www.todayszaman.com/news-222104-coming-to-terms-with-turkey-throughfilms-yol-by-yilmaz-guney.html>
58
A Suner, op. cit., 4 ff.
59
B S Yalçın, ‘Turkish cinema’s rise up against military coups’, in todayszaman.com, 19 September 2010, viewed on 30
January 2011, <http://www.todayszaman.com/news-222030-turkish-cinemas-rise-up-against-military-coups.html> [the
translation of the film titles is not always adequate]
60
J Leicht, ‘Zeichen der Hoffnung - und viele Fragen, Teil 1‘, in wsws.org, 11 May 2000, viewed on 30 January 2011,
<http://www.wsws.org/de/2000/mai2000/turf-m11.shtml>
61
Just one example:
A poster of the Aydın Chess District Representative in 2009 shows Atatürk in front of marching soldiers saying “The
Turkish nation loves its armed forces; and regards it as the preserver of its ideals.” (Aydın Satranç İl Temsilciliği, ‘30
Ağustos Zafer Bayrami Turnuvasi’, in aydinsatranciltemsilciligi.com, 30 August 2009, viewed on 26 January 2010,
<http://www.aydinsatranciltemsilciligi.com>
62
E Shafak, ‘There Is No Clash of Civilizations’, in qantara.de, 2005, viewed on 26 January 2010,
<http://www.qantara.de/webcom/show_article.php/_c-476/_nr-459/i.html>
63
Just two examples:
i) Akhanlı processed his torture experiences in Fasıl. The novel tells two stories. One starts from the first, the other one
from the last page of the book. One explains torture from the side of the torturer and the other from the perspective of the
tortured. Both parts form a single whole and end in the middle – both separated and bridged by a transparent page.
ii) The experience of emigration is topic of some films in which affected children speak for themselves like in Eylül
Çocukları (Children of September) by Hülya Karcı and Meltem Öztürk, produced in 2009.
64
Genç Siviller Rahatsız!, ‘Who are Young Civilians?’, in gencsiviller.net, 6 April 2008, viewed on 30 January 2011,
<http://www.gencsiviller.net/haber.php?haber_id=40>
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Georg Friedrich Simet is co-founder and Vice President of the Neuss University for International Business, Germany,
where he teaches Theory and Propaedeutics of Science. While also interested in Practical Philosophy, he is involved in the
Society of Intercultural Philosophy. His main research area in this respect is the development of the EU with a particular
focus on Turkey.

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