Which Adam, Which Eden - Springfield Park Baptist Church

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Which Adam, Which Eden - Springfield Park Baptist Church
Which Adam, Which Eden ?
A talk to
Springfield Park Baptist Church
On Tuesday 7th July 2009
by
Gary Auker
Tuesday 7th July 2009
Which Adam, which Eden ? by Gary Auker
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Adam & Eve by 16th Century German painter Lucas Cranach
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• Adam & Eve story had an oral tradition probably
a few thousand years before it was written down
• Written form of the Adam & Eve story took shape
shape between 1000 to 500 BC
• Adam & Eve story in Genesis reached its final
form without further editing about 450 BC
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Ways of reading the 1st few chapters of Genesis
• Literalistic view:
Early Church Leaders like Origen (185-254 AD)
& St. Augustine (354 - 430 AD) did not accept a literalistic reading
of scripture but an allegorical one, that is one with a deeper meaning
to scripture than just a direct unimaginative reading would convey.
Literalism is a relatively recent idea in the church. It gained in popularity
after the 16th century Reformation led by Martin Luther (1483 – 1546)
& Jean Calvin (1509 –64). James Ussher (1581-1656) most notably used
a literalist interpretation in 1650 to work out the date of creation to 4004 BC.
Literalistic readings of Genesis appear to make our understanding of
God’s Word contradict God’s World which cannot be true.
Most theologians do not take a Literalistic reading of Genesis too seriously.
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Ways of reading the 1st few chapters of Genesis
• Literalistic view: not a serious option
• Mythical view:
This view rejects any historical content to the Adam & Eve account in Genesis
and views the text as purely a religious picture which conveys important truth’s
about man & his moral condition. It is not about the origin of sin but the nature
of sin – being cut off from God. The Mythical view which rejects any historical
content undermines the concept of redemption (bought back at a price) and the
forgiveness of sins through Christ’s sacrifice on the cross.
The Mythical view is not thought to be compatible with Biblical Christianity
and is therefore not a serious Christian Theological view.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Ways of reading the 1st few chapters of Genesis
• Literalistic view: makes knowledge of God’s Creation disagree
with God’s Word, not a serious option.
• Mythical view: undermines Christian redemption, not a serious option.
• Historical view:
This view says that not every point in Genesis 2 – 4 is to be taken literally
(e.g God making Eve from Adam’s rib) but allegory is interwoven with real
historical events in time & space e.g Gen 2:10 – 14 for the location of Eden .
This view preserves our need for redemption after rejecting God in the Garden
without leading to a too rigid reading that leads to conflicts with what is known
about God’s Creation from human reason a concern raised by St. Augustine
in his 408 AD work “ The Literal Meaning of Genesis”
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• This talk will use the Historical Interpretation of Genesis 2-4 that combines
both allegory & historical information as a guide to see when & were Adam,
that is Man came from.
• The talk will also use the latest information from science to help illuminate
our understanding of Humanity’s Ancestral homeland .
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
What’s in a name ?
• Adam is Hebrew for “Man” so the story of Adam is the story of Mankind
• According to Genesis 2:7 Adam or Man was created from the earth by God
(there is a word play in Hebrew ‫'( ֲא ָדמָה‬adamah) meaning "earth")
• Name Eve is derived from the Hebrew word ‫( חוה‬chavah) "to breathe“
or the related word ‫( חיה‬chayah) "to live".
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Where was Eden ?
• The Bible gives information on the location of Eden Gen 2: 10 - 14
• Scholars have attemped to use Genesis 2:10-14 to try and identify the location
of Eden.
We will now look at 2 possible locations in the Middle East consistent
with the account in Genesis 2: 10 -14
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Was Eden
near Mount Ararat
in Eastern Turkey ?
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
The Bible repeatedly implies that Adam and his immediate offspring
were farmers
Genesis 2:15 And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress
it and too keep it."
Genesis 3:23 Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden to till the
ground from whence he was taken."
Genesis 4:2 And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground."
When did farming 1st originate (Adam’s tribe)
It is known that agriculture spread from the Middle East to Europe during the Neolithic period
starting about 10,000 years ago, but for many years archeologists have debated how this occurred.
Evidence of domesticated crops in the core area dates to about 10,000 years ago, while the earliest
signs of farming elsewhere are about 9,300 years ago.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Four Great Rivers in Genesis :
"Perath is simply the Hebrew version of Arabic
Firat and Greek Euphrates;
"Hiddekel is Hebrew for Sumerian Idiglat
from which the Greek Tigris derives."
Gihon; "... the River Aras, was once
called the Gaihun
Tuesday 7th July 2009
"Pishon - "Hebrew (West Semitic) name
derived from the old Iranian Uizhun
Iranian vowel 'U' had been converted into the
Semitic consonant 'P‘.
Thus we have Uizhun to Pizhun to Pishon.
The river Uizhun (the modern Qezel Uzun)
- thus identified as the biblical Pishon
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Zagros Mountains in Iran
Eden means Paradise in Hebrew. In Persian Paradise means walled Garden.
The mountains surrounding the valley’s in this part of the world act like walls.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Spread and Evolution of Languages
A family tree of Indo-European languages
suggests they began to spread and split
about 9,000 years ago. The finding hints
that farmers in what is now Turkey drove the
language boom.
After The Flood Genesis talks about people
being dispersed with different languages
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Is Eden now at the bottom of
the Persian Gulf ?
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• Persian Gulf stretches from Iraq to the
Strait of Hormuz.
• Persian Gulf quiet shallow.
Average depth ~ 50m ; Max ~ 90 m
Iraq
outflow of
Tigris & Euphrates
rivers
Kuwait
Iran
Strait of Hormuz
• Persian Gulf was a dry land oasis until
15,000 BC when sea level rose
as Ice Age began to thaw
• Persian Gulf flooded ~ 9,000BC
when sea level rose
as Ice Age ended
Tuesday 7th July 2009
Saudi
Arabia
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Persian Gulf dry basin 15,000 BC when sea level 115 m below today’s value
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is
gr
Ti
Land of
Cush
rat
ph
Eu
Gih
on
?
Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Pi
sh
Eden ?
W
ad
iB
ati
n
found
Eden in
Gulf ?
on
?
es
Land of
Havilah
Genesis 2:11-12
Gold, Onyx
Riverbed dried up
before 5,000 years ago
Dr. Zarins claims that the Garden of Eden was situated at the head of the Persian Gulf
In ancient times the "source" or "head" of the river is what we would call the "mouth"
of the river today. (Hess & Tsumura, 1994, 178-9).
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Persian Gulf 17,000 years ago would have been similar to Dhofar Mountains,
in Oman today, a Green Lush Paradise surrounded by Desert.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Scientific evidence on were the
first people walked the Earth
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Human Fossil evidence
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
TL dating in 1988 of flints used to make fire found among bones
• Modern human fossils in Qafzeh, Israel found to be 87 - 97,000 years old using
Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of burnt flints used to make fire alongside the bones
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Early Modern Man (Homo Sapien Idulta) 154 -160,000 yrs old
Herto, Ethiopia, AFRICA uncovered in 1997, Published 2003
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Oldest human remains found in the World
in 1967 in this valley near the Omo River, Southern Ethiopia, Africa
Tuesday
7th
July 2009
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Omo I fossils
Dated in 2005 with modern & accurate
40
39
Ar / Ar technique to between
190,000 to 200,000 years old
Tuesday 7th July 2009
Omo I & II
The high domed skull cap is a
defining feature of Modern Humans
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Traditional
Biblical
Eden region
Oldest Human
Fossils found in AFRICA
~ 200,000 years old
Oldest Human fossils found to date are from AFRICA. Genesis puts Eden in Middle East.
Can we find another way of checking were the first people came from ? Yes we can !
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
DNA evidence
On
Human Origins
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• Jeffreys had a "eureka moment" in his Univ. Leicester
lab at 9:05 am on Monday 10 September 1984,
which unexpectedly showed both similarities and
differences in his technician's family's DNA.
• The DNA profiling method has become important in
forensic science to assist police detective work,
and it has also proved useful in resolving paternity
and immigration disputes.
• DNA analysis has now been used to trace how
different people groups are related to one
another & to track when & how they migrated
around the world.
Tuesday 7th July 2009
Sir Alec Jeffreys F.R.S.
Invented DNA
“Fingerprinting”
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
DNA evidence can the analysed down both:
• Male line
DNA on a man’s Y chromosome, only
directly available to men.
• Female line
Mitochondrial DNA inherited exclusively from your
Mother’s egg that was fertilized to make you.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• DNA evidence
-Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
Male Y chromosomal 60-90 kyrs
- MRCA Female mitochondrial (mt) DNA 140 kyrs
Difference in Male & Female MRCA possibly due to
the Male MRCA (60-90,000 yrs ago) had more
than one wife pushing the MRCA in female line back
even further in time.
- 1st Human’s appeared ~ 200,000 year ago
in agreement with Omo I & II fossil age in Ethiopia, Africa
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Tracing our Human Origin through our DNA
• The human population with the greatest
genetic variation due to mutations
(i.e DNA copying error down the generations)
must be the oldest Human population
where people have been settled the longest.
• If a member of the oldest population
then moves to another part of the world
they will not carry all the variety of mutations
in those that stay in the homeland only a
sub-set hence the genetic variation of the
new population will have less variation within
its members.
• The African population has the most varied genetics in the world.
Hence people must have come from Africa.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
San bushmen - Africa was the cradle of ALL Humanity
DNA evidence shows we are all descended from the San peoples distant ancestors
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
The DNA evidence clearly shows Men & Women came from East Africa
and is in agreement with the Human Fossil evidence
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Humanity’s Timeline
Climate (based on Vostok Ice Core data)
Warm
Period
Warm
Period Ice Age Glacial Epoch
220
210
200 190 180 170
160 150
140 130
Significant Human Events
Oldest Human
fossils
Omo, Ethiopia
220
210
200 190 180 170
160 150
120 110
100
90
80
140 130
120 110
100
90
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Reading Genesis
Crucifixion
indicates farming
used by Adam &
Great
Man
Cain, hence dates
Pyramids
on the
built
to New Stone Age
Moon
~ 10,000 years ago Agriculture
Qafzeh cave
Human fossils
Israel
If we accept St. Paul’s view
1 Cor 15:45 – Adam was 1st man
would put him living in Middle Stone Age
~ 65 - 200,000 years ago. Thousands of
Tuesday 7th July 2009
Ice Age Glacial Epoch
Human’s finally leave
Africa for rest of World
Human fossils
Herto, Ethiopia
Warm
Period
80
70
60
Super Volcano Toba erupts
Human’s driven
close to extinction
50
40
30
20
10
0
Writing
Persian Gulf
Floods
Black Sea
Flood
years before present
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
How do we resolve the Genesis Story that points to Adam in Eden in Middle East
with the overwhelming fossil & DNA evidence showing Africa is the
Ancestral Homeland of ALL People alive today ?
• Based on the Historical view of Genesis the geography puts Eden in Middle East
but the Adam that lived there was not the first Human being.
The Bible itself hints of other people around , Cain’s wife (Gen 4:17) and who was
Cain afraid of (Gen 4:14 ) when he was sent away after killing Abel.
• Adam not being the 1st Man appears to contradict St. Paul 1 Corinthian 15:45
were it states Adam the 1st man in the context of Jesus being the 1st new man
bringing in the Kingdom of God.
• Can only reconcile if view St. Paul’s comments as a theological statement of
the 1st man (Adam means Man) rejecting God but not necessarily the Adam
in the Middle East.
The Historical view of Genesis allows both Allegory & History interwoven together.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Getting a feel for how long ago the first Modern people walked the Earth
Human existence scaled into a single Human lifetime, say
80 years
Event
Oldest known Human fossils - Omo river , Ethiopia AFRICA
Herto Human fossils , Ethiopia AFRICA
Sahara Desert shrinks allowing Modern Man's 1st attempt to leave AFRICA
Human fossils Qafzeh cave, Israel - World drys & cools, Desert returns, 1st attempt out of AFRICA fails
Toba super volcano, Sumatra - Human population reduced
2nd attempt to leave Africa via Arabia when sea level 82m (~270 ft) below today's level. Stone tools Oman 60,000yrs old
Man sails 90 miles to Australia when sea level 87 m ( ~285 ft) below today's level. Mungo Man fossil 40,000 yrs old
Man walks into Europe & Central Asia - sewing needle allows better clothing , aids survial in cold North
14
Man 1st walks into North America: Cactus Hill site, Virginia, USA ( C Cal yrs ~ 18 - 22,000 yrs)
Man 1st walks into South America (Monte Verde, Chile dated 14,000 yrs old)
Persian Gulf Floods - Ice starts to melt
End of most recent Glaciation in Ice Age
Agriculture found 1st time in archaeological record in Middle East
Black Sea Flood
1st Writing, Sumeria (Iraq), Kish Tablet
Sumerian Flood
Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt built
Man 1st sails to New Zealand
Crucifixion of Jesus ~ 32 AD ( based on Total Lunar Eclipse 14 April 32 AD )
Man 1st walks on Antartica (Sealer John Davis 1821 AD)
Man 1st walks on the Moon (Astronaut Neil Armstrong 1969 AD)
Ice Age
Tuesday 7th July 2009
Warm periods
Regional Floods
Which Adam, which Eden ? by Gary Auker
Scaled
Years
Age
Actual Years
Preof Individual
Before Present 80yrs Unit in Years
195,000
78 yrs
2
156,000
62 yrs
18
125,000
50 yrs
30
92,000
37 yrs
43
76,000
30 yrs
50
65,000
26 yrs
54
42,000
17 yrs
63
40,000
16 yrs
64
24,000
10 yrs
70
14,000
6 yrs
74
12,000
5 yrs
75
11,400
5 yrs
75
10,000
4 yrs
76
7,600
3 yrs
77
5,500
2 yrs
78
4,900
2 yrs
78
4,500
22 mo
78
2,000
10 mo
79
1,977
9 mo
79
188
1 mo
80
40
6 days
80
Space Age
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Thankyou for listening.
Any Questions ?
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
BACK UP SLIDES
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Who were the Nephilim ?
in
Genesis 6:4
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
Nephilim
•
Nephilim may simply mean "giant," champion, or “strong man”.
• Genesis 6:4 states "The Nephilim were on the earth in those days…”
• Nephilim were possibly a hybrid race between two distinct but
sexually compatible beings.
• Is it possible that Neanderthal Man could be the Nephilim of Genesis ?
• Neanderthal’s & Modern Human’s are known, from the fossil record, to have
co-existed for thousands of years before the Neanderthal’s died out.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• Genesis 6:4 talks of a group called the Nephilim
(possibly Giants or Strong Men)
• The DNA evidence suggests that there was little if any
inter-breeding between Neanderthal’s & Modern Humans.
However one skull found in Gibralter & another in Israel
exhibit hybrid features of Neanderthal’s & Modern Humans
• Base on Neanderthal DNA
we know some had red
hair & light coloured skin
• Most recent Neanderthal’s
fossils found to date are
about 30,000 yrs old.
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• Neanderthal Man confined to Europe,& parts of Middle East & Asia
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• Neanderthal’s were meat eaters, and based
on their bone structure are thought to have
been stronger than Modern Humans
• Neanderthal’s bones show more fractures
than Modern Human’s possibly showing they
fought large game in close combat rather than
Modern Human’s hunting strategy that seeks
to weaken or kill larger game from a distance
by using a sling shot or bow & arrow.
Neanderthal hunter
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Modern hunter
Neanderthal man
Which Adam, which Eden ? by Gary Auker
Modern man
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Which Adam, Which Eden ?
• Modern humans Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
(SNP’s) variation 0.1 %
• SNP variation between Neanderthals & Modern humans ~ 0.5 %
so Neanderthal’s were different to Modern Human’s.
• Draft Neanderthal genome released 12 Feb 2009,
Max Planck Inst. Germany.
Neanderthal genome 3.7 Gbp c.f Modern human 3.04 Gbp
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