Here - Brunel University

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Here - Brunel University
Abstracts of the QuickLakeH2014
An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions
15-19 September 2014, Ankara and Konya, Turkey
Organized by
Kuvaterner Araştırma Grubu (Quaternary Research Group – KAG)
Ankara Üniversitesi (Ankara University – AU)
Organizing Commitee
Nizamettin Kazancı (Ankara University)
Suzanne Leroy (Brunel University)
Hükmü Orhan (Selçuk University)
Alper Gürbüz (Niğde University)
Zeynep Ataselim (Ankara University)
Esra Gürbüz (Aksaray University)
Koray Koç (Akdeniz University)
Özgür Yedek (Ankara University)
Onur Tahsin Yücel (Ankara University)
Scientific Commitee
Meryem Beklioğlu (Middle East Technical University)
Namık Çağatay (İstanbul Technical University)
Catherine Kuzucuoğlu (University Paris 1, CNRS)
Hamid Lahijani (Iranian National Institute for Oceonography)
Michel Magny (Université Franche-Compté, CNRS)
Faruk Ocakoğlu (Eskişehir Osman Gazi University)
Neil Roberts (Plymouth University)
Supported by
International Quaternary Association (INQUA)
The Geological Protection Association of Turkey (JEMİRKO)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Turkish National
Commision (UNESCO-TR)
General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey (MTA)
MTA Natural History Museum
Selçuk University
Niğde University
www.kuvaterner.org
quicklakeh2014.kuvaterner.org
www.brunel.ac.uk/ife/meetings/quicklakeh
MTA Natural History Museum, Ankara, Turkey
Floor plans of MTA Natural History Museum
Memoir
Prof. Dr. Oğuz Erol
(1926-2014)
Turkish Quaternary Sciences has lost one of its frontier geoscientists on 11 April
2014. Prof. Dr. Oğuz Erol was one of the most brilliant Quaternary scientists of his
generation, He was born in Bursa on 1926, and finished his primary and secondary
educations in İstanbul. He took his BSc degree from Ankara University, Faculty of
Languages, History and Geography and awarded his PhD degree from the
dapartment of Geography of the same university. He studied as an Research and
Teaching Assistant between 1952-1957, as an Associate Professor between 19571965 and as a Professor between 1965-1987 in the departments of Physical
Geography and Geology of Ankara University. Then he moved to İstanbul and
studied between 1987-1993 in İstanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and
Geography. He had several administrative missions i.e. Dean of Faculty, Head of
departments of Geography, Geomorphology and Geology on different periods. He
awarded the Alexander von Humbolt scholarship between 1961-62 and studied
glacial geomorphology at Mınich University, Germany. His scientific contibutions to
Turkish Quaternary science within special content of Geomorphology and Geology
are instructive for young researchers. In the other hand, he studied also in
climatology, marine sciences, geoarcheology and remote sensing disciplines. During
his scientific life he wrote full papers of over 100, and over 10 books and booklets in
the period 1951-2008.
Some selected papers of Prof. Dr. Oğuz Erol
1952, Trabzon şekilleri hakkında bir not. A note on the terraces of Trabzon, NE of Turkey (Summary).
- Dil ve Tarih-Coğr. Fak. Derg. X, 1-2: 125-135 Ankara.
1969, (with COHEN, H.R,) Aspects of Paleogeography of Central Anatolia. The Geographical Journal.
135, 3: 388-398 London.
1970, Les hauts niveaux pleistocenes du Tuzgölü (Lac Sale) en Anatolie Centrale, Turquie. Ann. de
Geogr. 79: 39-50 Paris.
1973, (with NUTTAL, C.P.) Çanakkale yöresinin bazı denizel Kuaterner depoları. Some marine
Quaternary Deposits in the Dardanelles Area. Coğrafya Araşt. Derg. 5-6: 27-91- Ankara.
1976, Quaternary shoreline changes on the Anatolien Coasts of the Aegean Sea and related
problems. Changement des lignes de rivage quaternaire sur la cote Anatolienne de la mer Egee et
problemes lies (resume). Bull. Soc. Geol .France. XVIII.2: 459-468: Coll.Intern. CNRS, Paris, No. 244:
263-272 Paris.
1978, The Quaternary history of the lake basins of Central and Southern Anatolia. Brice W.C. (Ed.).
The environmental history of the Near and Middle East since the last Ice Age: 111-139 Akademic
Press London.
1979, Türkiye’de Neojen ve Kuvaterner aşınım dönemleri, bu dönemlerin aşınım yüzeyleri ile yaşıt
(korlan) tortullara göre belirlenmesi. The Neogene and Quaternary erosion cycles of Turkey in relation
to the erosional surfaces and their correlated sediments. Jeom.Derg. 8: 1-40. Ankara.
1979, Dördüncü Çağ (Kuvaterner) Jeoloji ve Jeomorfolojisinin ana çizgileri. (Outlines of geology and
geomorphology of Quaternary). Ank. Ün.Dil ve Tarih Coğr. Fak.Yay.289.Coğr.Araşt.Enst.Yay.22. 68 s.
Ankara.
1979, (with ROBERTS N, MEESTER T., de UERPMANN HP) Radiocarbon chronology of Late
Pleistocene. Konya lake,Turkey. Nature 281.5733: 662-664.
1980, Geographic reconstructions in the environs of ancient Troy. Science 209.4458: 776-282.
1981, Neotectonic and geomorphologic evolution of Turkey. FAIRERİDGE R.W.(Ed.). Neotectonics.
Zeitschr.für.geom.Suppl.Bd.40: 193-211. Berlin –Stuttgart.
1982, Geology and paleogeographic reconstructions in the vicinity of Troy. RAPP G. Jr.-GİFFORD J.
(Eds.). Troy. Supplementary Monograph 4: 11-42. Princeton Üniversity Press. 115.
1983, Türkiye’nin genç tektonik ve jeomorfolojik gelişimi. Jeomorfoloji Derg. 11: 1-22. Ankara.
1987, (with KAZANCI, N) Sedimentray Characteristics of a Pleistocene Fan-Delta Complex From the
Burdur Basin, Turkey. (Kazancı, N. ile). Z.f. Geomorphologie N.F.31. 2: 261-275. Berlin.
1988, Turkey. In Walker, H.J. (Ed.) Artificial Structures and Shorelines: 241-252. Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
1989, ESR and TL Age Determination of Caliche Nodules (Özer, A.M., Weiser, A., Göksu, H.Y.,
Müller, P., Regulla, D.F. ile). Applied Rediation Isot. 40.10-12: 1159-1132.
1991, Holocene Raised Shorelines on the Hatay Coasts (Turkey).: Palaeocalogical and tectonic
Iplications (Pirazzoli, P.A., Laborel, J., Saliege, J.P., Kayan, I..Person, A.ile). Marine Geology 96: 295311.
1991, IGCP Project 274. 1990 Annual Report for Turkey. In Annual report of ICGP (Coastal Evolution
in the Quaternary) and Newsletter: 115-118.
1991, Geomorphological Evolution of the Taurus Mountains Turkey. Zeitschr. Für Geom. N.F.Supp.
Bd 82 : 99-109.
2008, (with TÜFEKÇİ, K., AKMAN, Ü. A.) Morphotectonics and seismicity in the east of Marmara
region, Turkey, Zeitschr. Für Geom. N.F.Supp., 52 (1), 65-83.
2011, (with ÖNER, E.) Fiziki Coğrafya’da Hava Fotoğrafları: Folojeoloji-Fotogeomophology (Aerial
Photos in Physical Geography: Photogeology-Photogeomorphology), Ege Üniversitesi Yayınları,
Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayın No:171, 205 s. ISBN: 978-975-483-929-6.
Contents
Holocene climate and its significance for Mediterranean civilisation
by Neil Roberts, Plymouth University, UK …………………………………………………………………… 1
The Neolithic-Bronze Age-transition in pollen diagrams of different regions of Europe and the Near
East
by Walter Dörfler; Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Germany ………………………………….. 2
The late-Holocene lake level changes and vegetation dynamics of Lake Urmia, NW Iran
by Taravat Talebi, Urmia University, Iran ……………………………………………………..…………….. 3
Late Holocene Ecological and Environmental Evalution of Lake Bafa (Western Anatolia)
by Bilgehan Toksoy, İstanbul University, Turkey …………………………………………………………… 4
Tracking long-term human impacts on landscape, vegetal biodiversity and water quality in
the Lake Aydat catchment (Auvergne, France) using pollen, NPP and diatom assemblages,
by Yannick Miras, CNRS, France ……………………………………………………………………………. 5
Abrupt Changes of Shallow Lake Bottom Environment as Paleoseismological Signals
by Koji Okumura, Hiroshima University, Japan ………………………………………………………….… 6
Environmental history and climate change in relation to historical land use changes in East Africa
by Lindsey Higgins, Stockholm University, Sweden ……………………………………………………… 7
Holocene lake water fluctuations recorded in Lake Iznik (Turkey) beachrock based on cement types,
subsurface nature and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating
by Muhammed Zeynel Öztürk, Niğde University, Turkey ………………………………………………… 8
A preliminary assessment of palaeoecological risks caused by heavy metal contents from core
sediments of Lake Çıldır (NE Turkey)
by Serkan Kükrer, Ardahan University, Turkey ……………………………………………………………. 9
Paleoclimate Proxies in Konya Closed Basin: Lacustrine Systems
by Gizem Erkan, Hacettepe University, Turkey …………………………………………………………. 10
Stable Isotopes of gastropoda shells from the Middle Holocene terraces in Lake Sünnet, Göynük, NW
Anatolia
by Faruk Ocakoğlu, Eskişehir Osman Gazi University, Eskişehir, Turkey ……………………………. 11
“A tale of two maars”: comparing lake sediment records of climate change for the last 14 ka BP from
Cappadocia, Turkey
by Neil Roberts, Plymouth University, UK …………………..…………………………………………….. 12
Can Caspian Sea level be reconstructed?
by Suzanne A.G. Leroy, Brunel University, UK ………………………………………………………….. 13
Initial paleomagnetic results from Holocene sediments, Küçükçekmece Lagoon (Western Anatolia)
by Özlem Makaroğlu, İstanbul University, Turkey ……………………………………………………….. 14
Influence Climate and nutrients for Ecology of Shallow lakes in Turkey
by Meryem Beklioğlu, Middle East Technical University, Turkey ………………………………………. 15
Impacts of climate change on hydrological Dynamics and water-related landscapes in SouthCappadocia during the Holocene : preliminary results in the Bor-Ereğli plain (Turkey)
by Catherine Kuzucuoglu, CNRS - Paris 1 University, France ………………………………………….. 16
Late Quaternary evolution of Lake Beyşehir, southwest Anatolia, Turkey
by Nizamettin Kazancı, Ankara University, Turkey ……………………………………………………….. 17
Multi-proxy evidences for Little Ice Age termination in Lake Sünnet, Göynük, NW Anatolia
by Faruk Ocakoğlu, Eskişehir Osman Gazi University, Turkey …………………………………………. 18
Water and People in the Marmara Lake Basin (Middle Gediz), Western Turkey
by Kyle Egerer, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany ……………………………………….. 19
Traces of Bölling-Alleröd and Younger Dryas recorded in fluvio-lacustrine sediments from Central
Anatolia, Turkey
by Ceren Küçükuysal, MTA, Turkey ……………………………………………………………………….. 20
Effect of Water Level Change on Benthic-Pelagic Exchange in Three Turkish Shallow Lakes: A
Paleolimnological Approach
by Eti E. Levi, Middle East Technical University, Turkey ………………………………………………… 21
The Principles of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Dating
by Ülkü Sayın, Selçuk University,Turkey ………………………………………………………………….. 22
Exploring past microbial activity in high altitude lake sediments (Lake Son Kul, Central Asia): a
novel approach of sedimentary facies analysis
by Philippe Sorrel, Université Claude Bernard–Lyon 1, France ………………………………………… 23
Hydrological changes in western Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) during the Holocene as inferred
from a palaeolimnological study in lake Son Kul
by Philippe Sorrel, Université Claude Bernard–Lyon 1, France ………………………………………… 24
ESR analysis and dating of fossil shells
by Gamze Bakkal, Selçuk University,Turkey ………………………………………………………….…... 25
Palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental changes of Late Quaternary travertine deposits in
Kocabaş Basin, Denizli, SW Turkey
by Ezher Toker, Pamukkale University, Turkey …………..……………………………………………….. 26
Formation of Collapse Doline Lakes in the Diyarbakir Basin: Morphological Features, Dynamics
and Geoarchaeological Significance
by Sabri Karadoğan, Dicle University, Turkey …………………………………………………………….. 27
The use of pollution indices to assess metal contamination in the Quaternary stream
sediments around of the Koçali Cu mineralization and the Guleman Cr deposit, Turkey
by Leyla Kalender, Fırat University, Turkey ……………………………………………………………… 28
The properties of recent and late Quaternary sediments of Lake Eğirdir
by Özden İleri, MTA, Turkey ………………………………………………………………………………… 29
Recent Sediments of Beyşehir Lake, Konya-Isparta, Southwest Turkey
by Füsun Yiğit Fethi, MTA, Turkey ………………………………………………………………………….. 30
Drilling core data from shores of lake Manyas (Turkey); possible interaction of the lacustrine
basin and Daskyleion antique settlement through the Irone Age
by Zeynep Ataselim, Ankara University, Turkey …………………………….…………………………….. 31
Lake Suğla, SW Turkey; the possible longest-lived lacustrine basin in Anatolia
by Zeynep Ataselim, Ankara University, Turkey ……………………………………………..……………. 32
Environmental changes in central Anatolia since the LGM: the pollen record from the Cora
maar (Erciyes, Turkey)
by Agnès Gauthier, CNRS - Paris 1 University, France …………………………………………………. 33
Hydrogeological and Hydrogeochemical View of Göksu Delta Lakes (Akgöl and Paradeniz,
Southern Turkey)
by Uğur Erdem Dokuz, Ankara University, Turkey ………………………………………………..……… 34
Exploring The Traces Of Urban Life Through Sedimentological And Geochemical Ways In
Holocene Sediments Of Yenikapı – İstanbul (Turkey)
by Fulya Yücesoy Eryılmaz, Mersin University, Turkey …………………………………………….…… 35
Oceanography of Kuşadası Gulf (West of Turkey)
by Mustafa Eryılmaz, Mersin University, Turkey …………………………………………….…………… 36
Sedimentological properties of shallow glacial lakes on Central-West Taurus Mountains,
Turkey: Lakes Dipsiz, Sülüklü and Çoban
by Tahsin Onur Yücel, Ankara University, Turkey ……………………………………………………….. 37
Grain size parameters variations related to hinterland along the beaches of Lake Beyşehir, SW
Turkey
by Koray Koç, Akdeniz University, Turkey ……….……………………………………………………….. 38
Spatial Interpolation of Climatological Characteristics of the Lake Beyşehir drainage basin
through GIS, Turkey
by Esra Gürbüz, Aksaray University, Turkey ……………………………………………………………… 39
Geological Investigation of Three Shallow Lakes in Ankara (Beypazarı, Çubuk, Kızılcahamam
Karagöl), Central Turkey
by Özgür Yedek, Ankara University, Turkey ………………………………………………………………. 40
Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Lake Beyşehir basin, central-west Turkey
by Alper Gürbüz, Niğde University, Turkey ………………………………………………………………… 41
HoDriP: Holocene Drilling Project for Evidences of Natural, Archaeological and Historical
Events in Anatolia
by Nizamettin Kazancı, Quaternary Research Group (KAG), Turkey …..………………………………. 42
Mineralogical and geochemical properties of Lake Işıklı sediments: Paleoclimatological
approaches in Late Quaternary
by M. Tarık Özcan, Geological Heritage Protection Association (JEMİRKO), Turkey ………………… 43
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
OPENING SPEECH
Holocene climate and its significance for Mediterranean civilisation
Neil Roberts
Plymouth University, Faculty of Science and Environement, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, UK
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract*
During the late Pleistocene natural agencies -particularly climatic change- played the dominant role in
determining the character of environmental systems. The glacial-to-interglacial transition brought
dramatic changes to environmental systems, with rapid shifts in climate. By the early Holocene, the
world‘s environmentals and biomes had begun to take on thier modern ‗natural' form, although this
process was not complete until the mid-Holocene in the Arctic and the tropics. The opportunities
offered by the Holocene world in turn encouraged new forms of cultural adapation to emerge,
including the domestication of plants and animals.
For the Mediterranean basin, increased summer rainfall may also have been responsible for the
dominance of sub-humid forest over most of the basin during the first half of the Holocene. The
elimination of a clear dry season would have disadvantaged drought-adapted forms such as the olive
and would also have greatly reduced the risk of fire, which has otherwise been an important agent in
the maintenance of dry sclerophyll shrub and woodland. However, shifts in atmospheric circulation
during the early-mid-Holocene did not bring increased rainfall to all mid-lattitude regions. Those areas
out of reach of sub-tropical moisture sources instead became drier than they are at present. For
example, in eastern Turkey and western Iran, the readvance of woodland vegetation commenced
around 12500 cal. yr. BP and this time lag may have been linked to early Holocene climatic aridity
(Roberts and Wright 1993). Such climatic and related floral and faunal changes had marked effects on
the stability of some environmental systems and human societies. Holocene records of the
Mediterranean region consist of several dramatic events caused as the results of interactions between
nature and human.
*Adapted from the book of ‘The Holocene: An Environmental History’
1
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
The Neolithic-Bronze Age-transition in pollen diagrams of different
regions of Europe and the Near East
Walter Dörfler
1
Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, 24098 Kiel, Germany
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Numerous pollen diagrams from lake sediments show clear environmental transition in the time
around 2000 cal. BC. How synchronous are these processes and what are the driving forces? As the
Bronze technology is spreading from the south to the north the economic changes that are connected
to this development are time transgressive. How strong do the lake systems react to the human
nduced changes? Can we identify lake systems that are more resistant and others that are sensible?
The intensity of landuse as well as a climate shift or extreme weather events also influence the lakes
ecosystems. Examples from Scandinavia along a transect through central Europe up to Central
Anatolia will elucidate these questions and will show, how strong human activities and climate have
interacted in the past. Dating quality and sample resolution are essentials aspects of such a
comparison as synchronism of processes, and by this common triggers, are hard to proof.
Keywords: Neolithic, Bronze age, palynology
2
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
The late-Holocene lake level changes and vegetation dynamics of
Lake Urmia, NW Iran
Taravat Talebi 1, Elias Ramezani 2, Morteza Djamali 3, Hamid Alizadeh Ketek
Lahijani4 and Alireza Naqinezhad 5
1
MSc Graduate in Forestry, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Assistant Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3
CNRS Researcher CR2, Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d'Ecologie, IMBE CNRS UMR 7263, Europôle Méditerranéen
de l'Arbois, Pavillon Villemin BP 80, 13545 Aix-en Provence Cedex 04, France
4
Associate Prof., Iranian National Institute for Oceanography (INIO), Tehran, Iran
5
Associate Prof., Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, P.O. Box: 47416-95447, Mazandaran, Iran
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
A short sediment core from the SW corner of Lake Urmia, NW Iran, provides a record of lake level
changes, vegetation dynamics and the role of climate and man in the shaping of landscape over the
past 1,600 years. High values of arboreal pollen particularly QUERCUS, and relatively low values of
ARTEMİSİA and CHENOPODİACEAE during the period 1,600-1,200 BP indicate the prevalence of oak
forests and relatively moist climate in the area. The presence of RİELLA spores together with low
values of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and %CaCO3 indicate a relatively high lake level and lower
salinity over this period. The continuous curve of JUGLANS pollen in this period may indicate walnut
plantation in the area. The end of this period is characterized by drastic decline of oak and substantial
rise of chenopods, ARTEMİSİA and wetland pollen types. The high values of steppe/semidesert pollen
types could be attributed to increased aridity and a cooler climate during the period 1,200 to 900 BP.
The decrease of RİELLA and signals of development of halophytic plants in the margins of the lake, are
suggestive for a lowering of water-level and the exposure of saline mud flats suitable for recolonisation
by chenopods and other halophytes. The increase of QUERCUS and RİELLA, the decrease of wetland
types and the low values of MS at around 900-650 BP, may indicate the re-expansion of oak forests in
the area and high lake levels. Synchronous with Medieval Climatic Anomaly, this period has shown to
be wetter and warmer than present in central Hyrcanian forests of N Iran and Lake Urmia region.
During the period 650-450 BP, AP, especially oak, decline, which together with continuous curves of
RİELLA and JUNİPERUS could be assigned to Little Ice Age which has also been evidenced in several
other sites in Iran. Since 450 BP oak and Riella show steady decline and completely disappear
towards the surface of the core, whereas steppe and desert pollen types increase. The curve of
organic matter shows a prominent peak in the uppermost samples indicating lake level lowering and
development of wetland vegetation in recent past. Our findings indicate that forest cover has reached
its minimum extent in the surrounding area, the lake level lowered and its water salinity increased over
the last decades, most likely due to increased anthropogenic activity and drier climate.
Keywords: hypersaline lake, palaeoclimate, palynology, Riella, vegetation history
3
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Late Holocene Ecological and Environmental Evalution of Lake Bafa
(Western Anatolia)
Özlem Bulkan 1 and Bilgehan Toksoy 1
1
Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department, Avcılar, Istanbul, Turkey
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Lake Bafa is characterized as one of the largest inland lakes, located in the Aegean coast of the
2
Eastern Mediterranean Region. Contemporarily, lake has a surface area of 60 km with the maximum
water depth of 21m and altitude of 2m. The geological and tectonic evaluation of the lake was
controlled by the occurrence of the Great Menderes Graben valley. Within the aim of the study, 4.2m
long core (BAF37) was retrieved from the deepest part of the lake. Chemical properties of the recent
lacustrine sediments were investigated, applying ICP-MS analysis. The dataset was used to provide
information about the environmental characteristics of the lake and its surroundings, in terms of detrital
sources, variation of the transported and primary enriched elements, intensity of the primary organic
matter production, chemical processes, lake level fluctuations, etc.
Primary enriched elements were determinated in the range of %10 to 14% for Ca, 345 to 242ppm for
Ba and 554 to 352ppm for Sr. The amounts of the selected detrital sourced elements, such as K, Ti
and Al were also measured. K content of the sediments varies in the range of 1 to 2%. Additionally,
very rare Ti content is determinated in the sediments (0.2 to 0.3). Contrarily, the higher contribution of
Al is observed, within the range of 4 to 6%. Therefore, it could be suggested that fine particulated
grain size fractions were intensively contributed in to the (mainly clay) sedimentary deposits. Since the
detrital material supply diminished down core, during the first stages of Late Holocene, energy level
was less significant. On the other hand, initial enrichment of the primary deposited elements such as
Ca, Sr and Mg and simultaneous increase of the organic matter enrichment markers (Ba and nutrient
elements) were observed in the same layers.
Supportively, elemental ratios were applied to determinate the environmental changes in terms of
intensity of clastic input and energy level. Basically, K/Al (0.3-0.2) and Zr/Rb ratios (1-1.3) indicate low
scale fluctiations. On the other hand marked changes of the water chemistry, in terms of redox
conditions and salinity variations are recorded, in respect to the high range of Th/U (2-6) and Mg/Ca
ratios.
Consequentially, an overall tendency through the permanent fresh water environment is suggested,
during the last 2000 years. The recent clastic transporting processes have been probably forced by
geology, climate and hydrologic conditions.
Acknowledgements: This study is supported by the TUBITAK whit the project number of 113Y070
and Istanbul University research fund (project number of 28942 and 17828).
Keywords: Lake Bafa, Sediment Geochemistry, Ecology, Environment, Late Holocene
4
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Tracking long-term human impacts on landscape, vegetal
biodiversity and water quality in the Lake Aydat catchment
(Auvergne, France) using pollen, NPP and diatom assemblages
Yannick Miras 1,2, Aude Beauger 1,2, Marlène Lavrieux 3,4, Karen Serieyssol 5 and
Valérie Andrieu-Ponel 6
1
CNRS, UMR 6042, GEOLAB, F-63057 CLERMONT-FERRAND cedex 1, France
Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, GEOLAB, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND, France
3
Institut des Sciences de la Terre (ISTO), UMR 6113 CNRS / Université d'Orléans / BRGM, 1A rue de la Férollerie, 45071
Orléans Cedex 2, France
4
Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), ETH Zürich, Dübendorf, Switzerland
5
Laboratoire EVS-ISTHME, UMR 5600- CNRS, Université de Lyon, 6 rue Basse des Rives, 42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2,
France
6
IMBE UMR 7263 CNRS & IRD 237, Aix-Marseille Université, Europôle Méditerranéen de l‘Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-enProvence cedex 4, France
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The creation of accurate and sustainable management strategies for current ecosystems and modern
landscapes is crucial for the development of rural regions such as Auvergne, France. The socioeconomic development for the Chaîne des Puys – a volcanic chain situated near Clermont-Ferrand in
the French Massif Central ‒ needs to be consistent with its environmental legacy such as the future
registration of the Chaîne des Puys at the UNESCO‘s World heritage list (http://www.chainedespuysfailledelimagne.com/). Thus in ecological investigations, scientific challenges are great which aim to
develop accurate retrospective and viable prospective models of ecosystem functioning and
landscape evolution that guarantee both environmental quality and appropriate land-use development
(e.g. tourist and agro-pastoral activities, fishing, residential areas). Lake Aydat, located at the southern
part of the Chaîne des Puys, constitutes a touristic ―hotspot‖, and is therefore heavily impacted by
human activities. For instance, high eutrophicatic levels frequently lead to swimming being prohibited
during the summer months. Consequently, local authorities and environmental management
organisations are particularly interested both in the restoration of its lacustrine ecosystem services
(water quality) compatible with a sustainable socio-economic development and the promotion of this
unique volcanic landscape allowing perspectives for significant ecotourism.
Palaeoenvironmental studies allow an assessment of long-term human-climate-environment
interactions, and can furnish valuable tools for the sustainable management of lacustrine ecosystems.
A good example is the multi-proxy study of Lake Aydat‘s 19 m long sedimentary core, which through
combining different abiotic and biotic indicators (density, magnetic susceptibility, X-ray fluorescence
spectrometry, Rock-Eval, molecular biomarkers, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, diatoms), has
revealed different human-induced ecological disturbances in the lake. Previous research traced the
role of climate and human activities on lake sedimentation, and characterised two sedimentary units
(6700±200 to 3180±90 and 1770±60 cal BP to present) separated by an erosive mass-wasting deposit
(Lavrieux, 2011; Lavrieux et al., 2013a). In this paper, we propose to use pollen, non-pollen
palynomorphs and diatoms assemblages to track the consequences of land use systems on
landscape shaping, vegetal biodiversity and water quality. The close vicinity of Lake Aydat to the
Espinasse fen, located in the same catchment and previously studied (Miras et al., 2004), makes it
possible to conduct the first micro-local comparison in the Southern Chaîne des Puys.
Palaeoenvironmental data was further cross-checked with local archaeo-historical datasets. Results
obtained clearly show that even prehistoric and protohistoric human activities had an influence on
vegetation and lacustrine trophic dynamics, underlining the high vulnerability of such hydrosystems in
Auvergne. Moreover, recurrent and complex models of past vegetation changes, phases of water
nutrient over-enrichment and lake resilience abilities were identified, especially for the Late Holocene.
These were related not only to grazing activities but also to other kind of land-uses which have been
so far overlooked in this region such as mountain agriculture and hemp retting. The development of
the latter activity has been traced from medieval to modern times in Lake Aydat through the use of a
molecular biomarker and pollen indicators (Lavrieux et al., 2013b). This research shows the value of
5
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
palaeoecology for defining accurate tools of water quality evaluation (trophic over-enrichment,
eutrophication and ecotoxicological risk) and adequate policies of mitigation (Miras et al., 2013).
References
Lavrieux, M., 2011. Biomarqueurs moléculaires d'occupation des sols, du sol au sédiment : exemple du bassin-versant et du lac
d'Aydat (Puy-de-Dôme). PhD, University of François Rabelais, Tours, 246 p.
Lavrieux, M., Disnar, J.R., Chapron, E., Bréheret, J.G., Jacob, J., Miras, Y., Reyss, J.L., Andrieu-Ponel, V., Arnaud, F., 2013a.
6,700-year sedimentary record of climatic and anthropic signals in Lake Aydat (French Massif Central). The
Holocene, 23: 1317-1328.
Lavrieux, M., Jacob, J., Disnar, J.R., Bréheret, J.G., Le Milbeau, C., Miras, Y., Andrieu-Ponel, V., 2013b. Sedimentary
cannabinol tracks the history of hemp retting. Geology, 41: 751-754.
Miras, Y., Lavrieux, M., Florez, M., 2013. Holocene ecological trajectories in lake and wetland systems (Auvergne, France): a
palaeoenvironmental contribution for a better assessment of ecosystem and land use‘s viability in management
strategies. Annali di Botanica, 3: 127-133.
Miras, Y., Laggoun-Défarge, F., P. Guenet, H. Richard, 2004. Multi-disciplinary approach to changes in agro-patoral activities
since the Subboreal in the surroundings of the "narse d'Espinasse" (Puy de Dôme, French Massif Central).
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 13, 91-103.
Keywords: Auvergne; lake Aydat; eutrophication ; detrital input ; palynological richness ; diatoms ; pollen; non-pollen
palynomorphs
6
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Abrupt Changes of Shallow Lake Bottom Environment as
Paleoseismological Signals
Koji Okumura 1, Koji Saito 2, Kiyohide Mizuno 3 and Osamu Fujiwara 3
1
Graduate School of Letters, Hiroshima University
Fujiwa Co. Ltd.
2
Geological Survey of Japan, AIST
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Disturbance in sedimentation such as liquefaction, mixing, slumping, and turbidite is usually taken as
evidence of severe shaking owing to a nearby faulting event. Those shaking records, however, cannot
be regarded as evidence of faulting events on a particular structure in case there are a number of
earthquake sources that may generate ground motion strong enough to disturb the deposits. In this
situation, if we are to study an tectonic lake bounded by syndepositional faults, there are chances to
distinguish proximal faulting events from distal ones using the abrupt deepening as a signature of
faulting by the lake. If the tectonic lake has a stable level of outlet altitude and maintains very shallow
(just a few meters) depth over a several recurrence period, the lake deposits would be very sensitive
to faulting events. Suwa lake in Central Japan is an ideal field to test this technique. The lake is
located in a pull-apart basin formed by left-lateral strike-slip faulting of the ISTL. A pair of NW-SE strike
normal faults bounds the rectangular lake-basin from surrounding mountains. The basin-fill sediments
conceals another pair of the NW-SE graben-forming faults inside the basin. The basin is divided into
three tectonic blocks, and the middle block in the graben has been subsided at 2.5 mm/yr in average
over 100,000 years. However, very shallow depth of water and stable level of outlet have been
maintained at least during the last 10,000 years. We drilled 3 boreholes in respective three tectonic
blocks as deep as around 30m. Lithological analyses using soft X-ray photographs indicate normal
accumulation of diatomaceous clay is interrupted by layers of clastic particle accompanying siderite
concentration and bioturbation in more than 10 levels in each core. The clastic particle may indicate
turbidite-like sedimentation caused by shaking. High-resolution chemical and physical analyses were
carried out 5 cm interval on bulk density, magnetic susceptibility, quartz content, diagenetic mineral
assemblage, total sulfur, organic carbon, and L*-a*-b* space color spectrum. Among them, a* value
distinctively shows abrupt decrease and gradual increase repeatedly. The decrease coincides with
increase of total sulfur and decrease of organic carbon. These parameters indicate sudden change
from oxidizing to reducing condition and slow recovery that corresponds with sudden deepening and
slow shallowing of the lake depth in order of a few meters. The average recurrence time of deepening
events is about 1000 years in this core and is much shorter than that previously estimated 3000 to
5000 year faulting recurrence time on shore in trenches.
Keywords: Tectonic lake, paleosesimology, earthquakes
7
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Environmental history and climate change in relation to historical
land use changes in East Africa
Lindsey Higgins 1, Lars-Ove Westerberg 1, Jan Risberg 1 and Helena Öberg 1
1
Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Sweden
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
To improve the analysis of climate/environment and society interactions in eastern Africa, more data
on climate variations during the last 1,000 years are needed. Showing the connections between precolonial land use systems and their environment may allow for better predictions of what could be
expected in the future, especially for those regions expected to be most vulnerable to the changing
climate. In Tanzania there are a number of such land use systems, some of which have been
abandoned. Through knowledge of changes in land use over time, in concert with knowledge of
climate variation, essential information for the construction of predictive models is provided.
Lake Basotu is one of 13 shallow and alkaline crater lakes in the Basotu Lake District of Tanzania.
Using a Russian corer, 3 m of sediment material from an interior crater of the lake has been collected.
The primary focus of this investigation is on diatom microfossils which record changes in temperature,
pH, and salinity. Radiocarbon dating of bulk sediment indicates that the lowest 1 cm was accumulated
around 1700 calibrated years BP and stratigraphic investigations show there have been substantial
water level changes in the past. Mineral magnetic parameters show variations in sediment input and
grain size, while analysis of total organic carbon content indicates fluctuations in lake productivity.
The environmental record from Basotu will be compared to historical information on Engaruka, an
ancient irrigation system located approximately 180 km NNE. Engaruka was initially settled in
approximately 1400 CE and irrigated around 1420 in response to a drying climate. The irrigation
system was subsequently abandoned by the early 1800‘s, but irrigation is again in practice for modern
farmers. For ancient irrigation and agrarian sites in which contemporary practices are present, difficulty
lies in distinguishing the ancient systems from modernization efforts. Engaruka is an ideal location for
this type of work due to the once expansive nature of the abandoned systems which are still present
today.
Keywords: Paleolimnology, Diatoms, Tanzania, Crater Lake
8
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Holocene lake water fluctuations recorded in Lake İznik (Turkey)
beachrock based on cement types, subsurface nature and optically
stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating
Muhammed Zeynel Öztürk 1, Ahmet Evren Erginal 2, Nafiye Güneç Kıyak 3, Yunus
Levent Ekinci 4, Alper Demirci 5
1
Department of Geography, Niğde University, TR-51240, Niğde, Turkey
Department of Geography, Ardahan University, TR-75000, Ardahan, Turkey
3
Department of Physics, Işık University, TR-34980, Istanbul, Turkey
4
Department of Archeology, Bitlis Eren University, TR-13000, Bitlis, Turkey
5
Department of Geophysical Engineering, Bitlis Eren University,TR-13000, Bitlis, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Evidence derived from beachrock cementation on lake shorelines could give some clues to
understanding lake-level changes during the Holocene. Beachrock contains connective carbonate
made of mainly aragonite and high-Mg calcite that bears records of paleo-climatic changes of
evaporated water under dry climatic conditions. Based on this, it can also be supposed that beachrock
on lake shorelines also provide substantial hints to infer paleoclimatic changes that have prevailed in
the lake environments in that connective carbonate polymorphs of beachrock precipitate authigenically
from the evaporated lake water. In this paper, we put emphasis on paleo-climatic implications of
beachrock together with optical dating and subsurface extension of quartz-laden beds on the basis of
electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements.
Knowledge on the existence of beachrock on lake shorelines is limited to a few records. In this paper,
cement types, subsurface nature and optical luminescence age of 33 samples of beachrocks collected
from eight different sites on the shore of Lake Iznik are discussed. Given that formation of beachrock
requires stable lake levels during precipitation of CaCO 3 polymorphs from evaporated lake waters, we
paid attention to dry and/or moist stages in respect of climatic conditions favoring formation of
beachrock and dated using burial ages of quartz grains. The studied beachrocks extend along the
south, north and western shores of the lake and have a maximum thickness of 1.2 m. Observations in
the well protected thickest section at backshore showed that composition of beds is similar to that of
the present beach, composed of coarse grains and small gravels derived from the surrounding
highlands. Extending up to 5 m and 24 m at their most lakeward and landward extents, respectively,
beds have dips inclined towards the lake with angles between 5-10°. The average amount of CaCO3 is
26%. The cemented grains are poorly rounded. Cement textures are made up of micrite envelops and
meniscus bridges as well as acicular aragonite rims on and around the grains. A representative ERT
section taken along a beach where beds have the maximum thickness showed that sand-buried beds
have a maximum thickness of 1.5 m and are followed up to 24 m landward.
A total of 33 OSL ages obtained from quartz grains within inner parts of samples protected against
sunlight revealed that beachrock formation occurred to a large extent at four main periods; namely the
Holocene Climatic Optimum (HCO) I and II (dated to 7.9 - 7.2 ka and 6.5 - 5.6.0 ka, respectively), the
middle (4.2 ka - 2.6 ka) and late Holocene (2.0 ka – 0.8 ka). The oldest age estimates derived from
nine different beds belong to HCO periods when humid and rainy conditions accompanied with
increased temperatures were prevailing as such in the mid-latitude environments. The middle and late
Holocene-aged beds represent higher temperatures when humid periods were ensued by drier
conditions. Much of beds formed during these stages, suggesting that the lake level varied between –
1 and + 1 m in proportion to the present lake level, as confirmed by the drowned beds as well as those
buried under unconsolidated beach sands.
Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by the Scientific and Technological
Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (Project number: 109Y143).
Keywords: OSL dating, beachrock, lake level, Holocene, Lake Iznik
9
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
A preliminary assessment of palaeoecological risks caused by
heavy metal contents from core sediments of Lake Çıldır (NE
Turkey)
Serkan Kükrer 1, Ahmet Evren Erginal 1 and Sebahat Şeker 2
1
Department of Geography, Ardahan University, TR-75000, Ardahan, Turkey
Department of Environmental Engineering, Ardahan University, TR-75000, Ardahan, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The freshwater Lake Çıldır is placed at an altitude of approximately 1959 m and forms the second
2
largest lake in Eastern Turkey. The lake has an area of 125 km with a roughly triangular shoreline,
including the longest and shortest axises of 18.3 km and 16.2 km, respectively. Contrary to the
previous assumptions suggesting controversial depths over 50 m, the maximum depth of the lake is
around 15 m based on our measurements. The lake is surrounded by high volcanic mountains in the
east (Mt. Akbaba, 3026 m) and the west (Mt. Kısır, 3197 m) and is separated from Çıldır Plain to the
south by an E-W-trending volcanic ridge of possibly Quaternary age that lies at elevations between
2000 m and 2150 m. Lake water is currently discharged by a small tributary of the Arpaçay Stream
which is one of the main bracnhes of the Kars River. The lake area receives an average yearly
precipitation of 492.1 mm. Even though the average annual temperature is 5.5°C, long-term
meteorological data recorded denote very low winter temperatures below -30°C. Due to harsh winter
conditions, the upper 70-80 cm of the lake waters becomes frozen for 5-6 months which allows regular
and undisturbed sedimentation during much of the year.
In this paper, we present preliminary data obtained from core samples of Lake Çıldır in order to shed
light on the implications of potential ecological risks in the study area. Core sampling was carried out
at six shallow (max. 75 cm) depths of very fine-grained sediments. Heavy metal contents were
measured from each sub-samples (52 mm diameter x 5 cm deep) using ICP-MS. Contamination (CF)
and enrichment (EF) factors were calculated to designate the origin of heavy metals. To determine
ecological risks (PER) caused by these contaminants, potential ecological risk indices were
considered. Pollution load index (PLI) values were also counted to detect pollution levels witin the
collected soft sediments. AMS radiocarbon ages of fine-grained sediment samples collected from
three different levels at depths of 25, 50 and 70 cm were also obtained from bulk organic carbon. Our
results demonstrated the existence of very slow rate of sedimentation during the last three millenium in
that the lowermost sample yielded an age of 3.2 ka BP. CF values revealed the presence of moderate
level for Pb, As and Cd. On the other hand, moderate to high values were obtained for Mn.
Representing the highest risk level, Hg concentration in the lower samples was likely of exogenic
origin, suggesting impacts of volcanism-related atmospheric sources possibly of Caucacian origin. PLI
values show the entity of pollutants within the upper (10 cm) samples at all stations. Results obtained
from PER index values are also indicative of environmental risk arising from Cd and Hg.
Keywords: Core sediments, heavy metal contamination, potential ecological risk, pollution load index, contamination and
enrichment factors, AMS radiocarbon age, Lake Çıldır
Acknowledgements
First author wishes to thank the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for financial support
(Project number: 113Y205).
10
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Paleoclimate Proxies in Konya Closed Basin: Lacustrine Systems
Gizem Erkan 1 and C.Serdar Bayarı 2
1
2
Hacettepe University, Department of Geological Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
Hacettepe University, Department of Geological Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Lacustrine systems are one of the natural archives which help to reconstruct and understand
paleoenvironment and past climate changes. Physical, chemical and biological features and isotope
contents of sediments in lacustrine systems is used to determine paleoenvironment changes during
precipitation. Lacustrine systems are affected rapidly by changes in climate and they response quickly.
Konya Closed Basin (KCB) hosted a number of lacustrine systems from past to present. Therefore
lacustrine system proxies make of the evaluation of past climate changes in this area. Since 60 ky
before present (BP) hydrologic, cultural and social conditions differed in the basin. In north and south
subbasins of KCB two large paleolake systems are defined as Lake Tuz and Konya Lake,
respectively, formed during Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene pluvial period. Chronological and
geochemical studies in the basin show that lacustrine systems had expansion-contraction-extinction
processes in a few times. Konya paleolake started to form 60 ky BP and disappeared 6 ky BP. It had
maximum lake level between 19.6-17 ky BP. Similarly Lake Tuz had its maximum lake level between
20-17 ky BP and is seen as a small part of the old lake in present. According to radiocarbon and
isotope studies in KCB, paleolakes were linked with each other in Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and
recharged by Mediterrenean origin precipitiation. After relatively cold and less humid period, defined
as LGM, temperature increased around 17 ky BP and hydrological conditions changed. At the
beginning of Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene period relatively humid and warm conditions are seen
by positive water budget proxies in paleolakes. Also, at the beginning of Holocene forests and wetland
areas are known to exist. Paleoclimate evaluations made by lacustrine sediments are corresponding
to Incesu Cave stalagmites, located in the south part of basin, Karaman. Stalagmites and lake
sediments have the same results on large time scale despite the different sensitivities of age
techniques and rapid response behavior of lakes. Oxygen-18 and carbon-13 isotope signals of Incesu
Cave stalagmites indicate that relatively cold and less humid period until Early Holocen changed to
relatively warm and humid conditions after Early Holocene. Oxygen-18 isotope signals of stalagmites
support the positive water budget approach. Also extinction of Konya Lake in 6 ky BP is seen in
stalagmite isotope records. Archeobotanical and archeological studies in KCB indicate the presence of
agricultural activity and beginning of permanent settlement between 9-7 ky BP in accordance with
humid and warm conditions. Studies in Can Hasan III (Karaman) and Çatalhöyük (Çumra) prehistorical
settlements show that climatic and seasonal fluctuations effected the agricultural, economic and social
developments.
Keywords: Konya Closed Basin, paleolake, paleoclimate
11
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Stable Isotopes of gastropoda shells from the Middle Holocene
terraces in Lake Sünnet, Göynük, NW Anatolia
Faruk Ocakoğlu 1 and Sevinç Kapan Yeşilyurt 2
1
2
Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Department of Geological Engineering, 26480 Eskişehir, Turkey
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Geological Engineering, Çanakkale, Turkey
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
We studied two detailed sections (each about 10 m thick) of Middle Holocene lake margin terraces
(calibrated radiocarbon ages ranging from 8000 BP to 5000 BP) in Lake Sünnet (Göynük, NW
Anatolia) in terms of mollusk palaeo-ecology and stable isotopes of selected gastropoda shells. Bulk
sediment stable isotopes were also used where the mollusk shells were absent. The results are
interpreted in order to explain the Middle Holocene climate variations and lacustrine conditions.
Five mollusk zones are distinguished in the studied record. The first 4 zones cover the time span of
cal. 8000 BP- 6000 BP. They are typical with dominance of Valvata cristata and Gyralus crista in
varying proportions, and represent generally shallow freshwater lake environment. The fifth zone is
characterized by limited individuals of Vallonia sp. that mostly appeared in relatively dry period
between cal. 6000-5000 BP in very shallow ponds.
18
Valvata cristata shell oxygen isotope ratio (δ Oval) display a gradual shift from -9.5‰ to -8.0‰
between cal. 8000 BP-6900 BP. At cal. 6900 BP an abrupt 2 permil positive shift occurred in only 15
years, which makes the first pervasive drought event in Middle Holocene. Following several high
magnitude (2 permil), century-long climate fluctuations between cal. 6900 BP and 6400 BP, the
18
δ Oval record gradually shifts to more negative values (2 permil) indicating a climatic recovery until
cal. 6000 BP.
18
Subsequently, bulk sediment isotope ratio of oxygen (δ Osed) exhibits a gradual but strong shift
between cal. 6000 BP and 5500 BP from -9.0‰ to -5.0‰. This enabled proliferation of Vallonia sp. in
mollusk Zone 5. Following a 3 permil recovery (negative shift) at about cal. 5500 BP, positive shift
started again at cal. 5200 BP and continued until cal. 5000 BP when lake record ceased due to
ongoing lake level drop in the studied terrace location.
Keywords: Stable isotopes, Middle Holocene, Mollusk shell, Palaeo-ecology, Lake Sünnet
12
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
“A tale of two maars”: comparing lake sediment records of climate
change for the last 14 ka BP from Cappadocia, Turkey
Neil Roberts 1, Jonathan Dean 2, Samantha Allcock 3, Warren Eastwood 4, Matthew
Jones 5, Jessie Woodbridge 1 and Hakan Yiğitbaşıoğlu 6
1
Plymouth University, UK
NERC Isotope Geosciences Facilities, UK
3
Bournemouth University, UK
4
Birmingham University, UK
5
Nottingham University, UK
6
Ankara University, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Lake sediments are excellent archives of long-term environmental change, but without inter-site
replication, local factors cannot always be separated from those of wider significance (e.g. climate).
Here we compare records from two volcanic maars located 25 km apart in central Anatolia. Eski Acıgöl
is now dry, but contains a ~20m record of limnic sediments laid down since the Last Glacial Maximum.
These are continuously laminated below 6.4 m, and offer a highly-resolved record of environmental
change during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene climatic transition (Roberts et al. 2001, The
Holocene 11, 721-36). Nar lake is larger and has varves forming today, allowing a detailed analysis of
Late Holocene environmental changes (Jones et al 2006 Geology 34, 361-64; England et al 2008 The
Holocene 18, 1229-45; Woodbridge & Roberts, 2011 Quat. Sci. Rev. 30, 3381-92; Dean et al 2013
Quat. Sci. Rev. 66, 35–44). Long (~22m) cores from Nar were taken in 2010, >80% of which are
laminated, spanning the last 14 ka. The rank order of limno-geological proxies between the two lake
18
13
records is δ O (most similar), pollen, authigenic mineralogy/geochemistry, δ C, lithostratigraphy (e.g.
varves), microcharcoals, diatoms and allogenic mineralogy/geochemistry (least similar). Site-specific
non-climatic controls include a long-term trend towards basin infilling and lake shallowing at Eski
Acıgöl, and active catchment erosion into Nar lake which has been accelerated anthropogenically.
The common climatic signal between the two lakes indicates low water levels and aridity during the
Younger Dryas and Bronze/early Iron Ages (4.2-2.6 ka BP), with wettest conditions during the Late
Glacial interstadial and again in the early Holocene.
Keywords: lake sediments, Turkey, Holocene, Late Glacial, climate change, replication
13
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Can Caspian Sea level be reconstructed?
Suzanne A.G. Leroy 1
1
Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB83PH (London), UK
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Caspian sea water levels are changing fast, a hundred times faster than that of global ocean, for
example with a drop of c. 3 m between 1977 and 1995. The impact on the coast has been tremendous
especially for the harbours, the caviar production and the petroleum activities. In the past at the scale
of the Holocene, water levels have also fluctuated very fast, but the chronology, the causes and the
amplitude (150 m of vertical amplitude?) of these changes are poorly known, mostly from outcrops
where low levels are only recorded by sedimentary hiatus. With the developing coring capacity on the
CS, it has become possible to take sediment cores offshore covering the last 15,000 years for
example in a single entry 10 m long core and hence obtain proxy records of past changes.
Contrary to the open sea where corals and oxygen isotopes on foraminifera have been used to
reconstruct past levels, this has not been possible in the CS. In the CS, some promising proxies to
reconstruct past water levels, salinities, and temperatures come from macro and micro-palaeontology:
molluscs, ostracods, diatoms and dinocysts. However for many of these biological groups endemic
forms have developed in the brackish CS since its isolation from the world ocean c. 5 Ma ago. So far
no modern training sets have been set up: i.e. no collections of modern samples with known physicochemical parameters are available in any of those groups. This strongly limits any quantitative
reconstructions of past environment from biological data.
A compilation of the various published curves of past sea levels indicates a lack of consensus.
Historical documents and geological records have been combined to reconstruct Caspian sea-level
(CSL) changes during the last millennium. A comprehensive literature review for the south-eastern
Caspian coast has identified coastal change driven by water-level changes. The overall results
indicate a high-stand during the Little Ice Age, up to – 21 m with a – 28 m low-stand during the
Medieval Climate Anomaly, while presently the CSL stands at − 26.5 m. So climate influenced the
Volga Drainage Basin, which is the main factor for CSL changes. However in the LIA, an additional
rise has been found due to a man-made river avulsion of the Amu-Daria. Even for the last millennium
many uncertainties persist especially before 1300 AD.
Late Pleistocene and Holocene changes have been reconstructed in three locations: in a lagoon in the
SE corner of the Caspian Sea, in deep cores in the south basin and the middle basin. The main results
indicate 1) a 1000 yr long lowstand at the very beginning of the Holocene (the Mangyshlak) distinct
from the Younger Dryas, 2) an unexpected high stand in the first part of the Holocene probably due to
the Amu-Darya inflow to the Caspian Sea, 3) a clear drop of the sea level around 4.0-4.9 cal. ka BP.
So the longer-term changes of water levels are driven by a combination of climatic and hydrographic
changes. The absence or presence of inflow from the Amu-Daria has a significant impact on the
Caspian Sea as the drainage basin of the Amu-Daria reaches the Pamirs that are indirectly influenced
by the Indian Summer Monsoon.
Keywords: Caspian Sea, water level reconstruction, impact
14
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Initial Paleomagnetic Results from Holocene sediments,
Küçükçekmece Lagoon (Western Anatolia)
Özlem Makaroğlu 1,2, Norbert R. Nowaczyk 2 and Naci Orbay 1
1
2
Istanbul University, Geophysics Department, Istanbul, Turkey ([email protected])
Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, GFZ, Section 5.2, Potsdam, Germany.
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The geomagnetic field is one of the physical features of the Earth which is recorded throughout
geologic time. In principle, lake sediments are useful to obtain such records at a high resolution and
accuracy. We present Holocene paleomagnetic records from Küçükçekmece Lagoon (40.98° N,
28.76° E) located at the northern shoreline of the Sea of Marmara. We have studied four cores varying
in lengths from 400 to 520 cm. Cores KCL12P1 and KCL12P2 were recovered from 20 m in the
deepest basin of the lagoon, while cores KCL12P3 and TKC07 were recovered from 17 m water
depths in the SE of Küçükçekmece Lagoon. Lithologically, the cores contain grey to brown colored
laminated sediments with intercalated homogenous black layers. To obtain high-resolution
paleomagnetic records from sediments of Küçükçekmece Lagoon, comprehensive measurements of
the natural remanent magnetisation (NRM), the anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (ARM), the
isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) and magnetic susceptibility were performed on a total of
1000 samples. Measurements and stepwise demagnetization of the NRM of all samples were
performed with a 2G Enterprises 755SRM long-core magnetometer with an in-line tri-axial alternating
field (AF) demagnetizer. AF peaks of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 65, 80 and 100 mT were applied in
order to remove secondary viscous overprints and to subsequently determine the direction of the
characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) of all samples by principle component analysis.
Zijderveld diagrams reveal that the natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) is nearly single component,
with only small viscous overprint, suggesting a stable magnetisation. The paleomagnetic records from
Küçükçekmece Lagoon were correlated with the paleosecular variation (PSV) records that were
obtained from the surrounding area. The inclination records from the Küçükçekmece Lagoon
sediments considerably agree with the archaeomagnetic records from SE Europe and the PSV
records from Volvi, Trikhonis, and Begoritis Lakes. According to the obtained age model the longest
core KCL12P2, taken from the deepest basin, covers a 4200 year long sedimentary unit. AMS 14C
datings for further improvement of the age model are in progress.
Keywords: Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Holocene, paleomagnetic record, western Anatolia
15
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Influence Climate and nutrients for Ecology of Shallow lakes in
Turkey
Meryem Beklioğlu 1, N. Tavşanoğlu 1, A.I. Çakıroğlu 1, E. Levi 1, A. Özen 2, T. Bucak1,
K. Özkan 1, G. Bezirci 1, D. Oğuzkurt 3, S. Brucet Balaman 4 and E. Jeppesen 5
1
Limnology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Cankiri Karatekin University, Department of Forestry, Çankırı, Turkey
3
İnönü University, Department of Biology, Malatya, Turkey
4
University of Vic, Department of Environmental Sciences, Vic, Spain
5
Department of Bioscience and the Arctic Centre, Aarhus University, Denmark
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Mediterranean climate with natural annual and interannual oscillations of wet and dry periods leads to
changes in the water balance, which strongly affects the functioning of shallow lakes with implication
for major ions and nutrient balances. Thirty-one shallow lakes spanning over 5 latitudes from the warm
temperate north to the semi-arid to arid mid and south of Western Anatolian Plate of Turkey were
sampled for physico-chemical and biological variables using well-established snap-shop sampling
protocol. All lakes were analysed using NMDS analysis, which explained large portion of the variance
and resulted in four relatively distinct groups of lakes which lowlands and uplands of both southern
and northern lakes. Southern lowland and upland lakes were saline and more eutrophic characterized
with high fish biomass and the turbid conditions. Whereas northern lakes located in high altitude were
with clear-water, low temperature and low fish and the ones located in lowlands were eutrophic lakes
with high TP and chl-a similar to southern lowland lakes but not saline. Bothe contemporary ans
surface sediment zooplankton and macrophytes communities are appeared to be sensitive to salinity
as well as nutrient enrichment.
Keywords: altitude, eutrophication, latitude, fish predation, paleoecology, salinization.
16
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Impacts of climate change on hydrological dynamics and waterrelated landscapes in South-Cappadocia during the Holocene:
preliminary results in the Bor-Ereğli plain (Turkey)
Catherine Kuzucuoğlu 1, Ali Gürel 2, Lorenzo d‘Alfonso 3, Agnès Gauthier 1, Vincent
Robert 1 and Joël Cétoute 1
1
CNRS UMR 8591 LGP - Paris 1 & UPEC/Paris 12 University - Meudon, France
Geological Engineering Department, Niğde University, Niğde-Turkey
3
ISAW, NY University-USA & University of Pavia-Italy
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Previous and on-going studies on the past geographic, environment and climate evolution during the
Holocene in central Anatolia, evidence contrasts opposing the drier Konya plain and the more humid
Cappadocian higher lands. (Gérard & Thissen, 2002; Kuzucuoğlu, 2002). The study presented here
concerns the intermediate territory linking the southern slopes of Cappadocia (the piedmont of the
volcanic massifs of the Melendiz, Keçiboyduran and Hasan Dağı) and the eastern part of the Konya
plain ( Ereğli area). These lowlands –where Kınık Höyük is located- are composed of a high variety of
geological formations and geomorphological landscapes globally organized NE-SW towards Ereğli.
Because of the semi-arid climatic context of the area, the water-related ecosystems located in these
lowlands (lakes, marshes, streams, closed depressions) are and have been very sensitive to climatic
variations and changes which affected primarily the hydrology. In these conditions, the study of the
geomorphological patchwork resulting from this high sensitivity evidences the succession of past
environments during the Holocene which can be characterized and directly connected to climatic
changes.
Here we shall present the initial results of a two-scaled approach, from regional (satellite imagery and
cartography) to local (cores) records.
First, satellite imagery interpretation will focus on the imprints of past, recent, and present hydrology
on land features: past lake features and deposits; underground network inlets and outlets; spring-fed
marshes; surficial river networks and mountain-fed torrential fans; perennial/vanished waterchannels… These water-related landscapes record wet/dry climatic successions which correspond to
phases identified and dated in cores retrieved from sediment archives located in former (Bayat village)
or present (Pınarbaşı-Bor) wetlands identified in the south-Cappadocian lowlands.
Second, results will be confronted, on the basis of previously published data, to other lake records of
the climate and environment during Early Holocene and the mid-Holocene climatic instability in the
Konya plain and Cappadocia. Some possible relationships between climate changes and population
occupation of this climatically very sensitive area will be evoked.
Acknowledgements: This palaeoenvironmental project in South-Cappadocia is part of the Kınık
Höyük excavation led by Prof. L. d‘Alfonso (http://www.kinikhoyuk.org). It has received a financial
support from the ArcheoMed project (CNRS-INEE) which is part of the PalaeoMex/MISTRALS
14
programme and from AO Artemis ( C dating, LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette).
Keywords: Kınık Höyük, Holocene, environment, climate, Cappadocia, Konya plain
17
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Late Quaternary evolution of Lake Beyşehir, southwest Anatolia,
Turkey
Nizamettin Kazancı 1,5, Zeynep Ataselim 1,5, Alper Gürbüz 2,5, Tahsin Onur Yücel 1,5,
Özgür Yedek 1,5, Esra Gürbüz 3,5 and Koray Koç 4,5
1
Ankara University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara,
Turkey
2
Niğde University Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, 51240, Niğde, Turkey
3
Aksaray University Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, 68100, Aksaray, Turkey
4
Akdeniz University Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, 07115, Antalya, Turkey
5
Quaternary Research Group (Kuvaterner Araştırma Grubu – KAG), 06100 Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
2
Lake Beyşehir with ca 9 m deep and 650 km surface area is still the largest fresh water reservoir of
Anatolia and the environs of that lake became one of the most populated area for centuries because
of water and wide areas for animal growing and farming. The present drainage system clearly
indicates that Lake Beyşehir which was placed at the Taurus range is a southern telescopic part of
central Anatolian closed basin. Subsequently, the geological development of that lake should be
interrelated with a series of subbasins of central Anatolia (Suğla, Konya, Karapınar and Tuz Gölü).
However, knowledge about geological evolution of that lacustrine basin has been limited, mostly from
interpretation of underlying fossiliferous lacustrine deposits of Neogene so far. The Quaternary
Research Group realized some new trenches around the lake (on the lake plain) and took cores from
lake sediments. Surprisingly, there is not any lake deposit beyond modern coastlines except for deltaic
development at the southeast coasts. It means that present water-level represents maximum of the
lake. The second surprise about Lake Beyşehir is thickness of lacustrine sediment; cores displayed
that there are only 4-6 m muddy deposits like a thin blanket on the Neogene bedrock. Seismic surveys
14
of MTA in the lake supports the skin-like deposits. Their ages dated by C method are around 5-9 ka
BP. The present current system and physiography of the lake inspire that a good deal of sediments
have been transported continuously from the lake resulting a small sediment thickness. We suggest
that Lake Beyşehir was initiated after the Late Glacial Maximum time by damming of a meandering
stream. Meanwhile the old Şarkikaraağaç lake had been already formed and its outlet was a
meandering tributary on the lake area. Lake Beyşehir gained its present condition later, ca. in the midHolocene.
Keywords: Lake Beyşehir, paleogeography, sedimentology, Holocene
18
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Multi-proxy evidences for Little Ice Age termination in Lake Sünnet,
Göynük, NW Anatolia
Faruk Ocakoğlu 1, Aydın Akbulut 2, Emel Oybak Dönmez 3, Celal Erayık 1, Sanem
Açıkalın 4, İsmail Ömer Yılmaz 5, Cemal Tunoğlu 6, Suzanne A. G. Leroy 7 and
Osman Kır1
1
Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Department of Geological Engineering, 26480 Eskişehir, Turkey
Hacettepe University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
3
Hacettepe University, Department of Biology, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
4
Badley Ashton and Associates Ltd, Winceby, United Kingdom
5
Middle East Technical University, Department of Geological Engineering, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
6
Hacettepe University, Department of Geological Engineering, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
7
Brunel University, Institute for Environment, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, London, UK
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Lake Sünnet, a landslide-dammed fresh-water lake formed as a result of an earthquake in Early
Holocene, was studied by multi-proxy palaeoclimatic indicators (stable isotopes, diatoms and pollen) in
three cores.
Core SK-4 (172 cm), situated the most remote from debouching creeks and closest to the landslide at
10 m water depth, was radiocarbon-dated by means of three charcoal samples and extends back to
AD 1600 at the base. The period AD 1600-1840 (173-95 cm in the core) is characterizedby episodic
occurrences of either benthic or planktonic diatom fauna in several samples. Following AD 1840,
benthic diatom fauna became permanent and its abundance has gradually decreased from 100% to
20% until early 1990s. The shrub pollen curve displays a gradual declining trend between AD 1600
and 1800 from 3% to almost zero in the same core. A recovery between AD1800-1860 has been
followed with lower shrub pollen abundance until the 1920s. Among herbaceous pollen, the
abundance of Centaurea was significant and continuous until AD 1860s, but totally disappeared from
18
then onwards. The O curve of core SK-4 displays a very clear gradual negative shift in the period AD
1840-1969 for about 1 permil. Additionally, a radical positive shift has occurred since 1960s from -6.1
‰ to -4.3 ‰.
Palaeoclimatic picture revealed by multi-proxy indicators hints that Lake Sünnet has been almost dry,
and shrub flora were significantly expended in its vicinity during Little Ice Age (LIA). Dead but erect
trunk relicts presumably from LIA in Lake Sülük, another landslide lake in close vicinity, testify this
suggestion. Following AD 1840, fully aquatic shallow lake conditions prevailed, and lake level
gradually increased until recently. Lastly, temperature (and aridity) has significantly increased since
1960s, but this did not significantly influence the lake level.
Keywords: Little Ice Age, Lake Sünnet, diatom, pollen, stable isotopes, NW Anatolia
19
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Water and People in the Marmara Lake Basin (Middle Gediz),
Western Turkey
Christina Luke 1, Christopher H. Roosevelt 1, Nicolas Gauthier 2 and Kyle Egerer 3
1
Boston University, Archaeology Department, 675 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, USA
Arizona State University, USA
3
Freiburg University, Freiburg, Germany
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
We present the first detailed analysis of long-term community responses to hydraulic systems in the
Gediz valley. We draw on diverse lines of evidence — including aerial imagery, oral histories, early
traveler accounts, municipal records, engineering reports and maps, paleo-environmental data, and
ten years of intensive surface survey conducted by Boston University‘s Central Lydia Archaeological
Survey — to reconstruct long-term social and environmental conditions in the valley.
Our focus is on the middle Gediz river and Lake Marmara, a shallow freshwater lake known even in
antiquity for its centrality in the region‘s subsistence economy. The depth of this pulse lake, before
modern flood control mechanisms was controlled by seasonal rainfall, mountain runoff, and, most
significantly, the annual flooding of the Gediz and the Alaşehir rivers. The sheer volume of water and
the potential for catastrophic, sustained and flash flooding made large-scale irrigation infrastructure
risky; yet Roman authors and archival data from the 18th and 19th centuries attest to some sort of
water management infrastructure. Here we model water flow in the middle Gediz river and Lake
Marmara to explore the dynamics of large-scale seasonal floodplain agricultural practices, as well as
small-scale irrigation systems, over the past 5,000 years.
We find that communities in this region balanced intensive agricultural and agro-pastoral practices as
part of risk management strategies that would have taken advantage of large-scale, seasonal
inundation patterns, as well as smaller-scale (i.e., controllable) streams, and springs at the local and
regional levels. The construction of earthen dams, irrigation canals, reservoirs and more confirms a
long-term relationship between communities a
Keywords: Lake Marmara, Gygaean Lake, Alaşehir River, Gediz (Hermus) River, Manisa, Archaeology, Hydrology, irrigation,
flood, dam
20
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Traces of Bölling-Alleröd and Younger Dryas recorded in fluviolacustrine sediments from Central Anatolia, Turkey
Ceren Küçükuysal 1, Nurdan Yavuz 1 and Kathleen Nicoll 2
1
2
General Directorate of MTA, Geological Research Dept., Ankara, 06800, Turkey
Geography Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, U.S.A
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
After a warm Bölling-Alleröd (B-A) period, the Younger Dryas (YD) appeared as a cold snap with
warm/humid and cool/arid conditions that punctuated the end of the last glacial period, without
invoking any catastrophic events for such abrupt climate changes. The early Holocene proxies point
more humid conditions over Mediterranean. Fluvio-lacustrine sediments around Lake Mogan were
investigated by qualitative and quantitative mineralogical, stable isotopic and pollen analysis to
reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene climates of the basin by pointing B-A and YD periods.
Significant variations between warm/humid and cool/dry conditions were evaluated by i) the
13
18
mineralogical input of quartz, feldspar, calcite and phyllosilicates; ii) δ C and δ O isotope
compositions which range from -13.02‰ to -5.80‰ and -8.90‰ to -7.22‰ VPDB, respectively and iii)
changing frequencies of arboreal and non-arboreal pollen especially Pinus, ChenopodiaceaeAmaranthaceae and Asteraceae.
18
The chronology is verified by comparison with the Greenland ice core δ O records from the
Greenland Ice-Sheet Project II (GISP2) and North Greenland Ice core Project (NGRIP). The model is
likewise consistent with regional findings of the present study.
The correlation among the studied multi-proxies suggest that the fluvio-lacustrine sediments from Lake
Mogan, Central Anatolia have provided the traces of warm Bölling-Alleröd period which was followed
by cold/dry Younger Dryas. Then, during the Holocene, alternating phases of humidity and aridity were
also recorded by major fluctuations in detrital input, pollen and stable isotopes.
Keywords: Lake Mogan, Central Anatolia, Bölling-Alleröd, Younger Dryas
21
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Effect of Water Level Change on Benthic-Pelagic Exchange in Three
Turkish Shallow Lakes: A Paleolimnological Approach
Eti E. Levi 1, Gizem Bezirci 1, A. İdil Çakıroğlu 1, Simon Turner 2, Lisa Skov Hansen 3,
Martin Kernan 2, Helen Bennion 2, Erik Jeppesen 3,4,5 and Meryem Beklioğlu 1,6
1
Limnology Laboratory, Biological Sciences Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
ECRC, University College London, Pearson Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
3
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
4
Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research (SDC), Beijing, China
5
Greenland Climate Research Centre (GCRC), Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Kivio 2, P.O. Box 570, 3900, Nuuk,
Greenland
6
Kemal Kurdaş Ecological Research and Training Stations, Lake Eymir, Middle East Technical University, Oran Mahallesi,
06400, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Strong natural or human induced water level fluctuations has been known to have an influence on
shallow lakes, especially the ones located in semi-arid to arid Mediterranean climate regions, like
Turkey. Biological variables such as, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton and phytoplankton are also
known to react to ecological changes occuring in lakes and thus are valuable indicators of
environmental changes. Therefore, in the absence of historical data their sedimentary remains may
provide information on the long-term dynamics of the lakes (e.g the effect of water level change). The
main aim of this study, which was funded by EU-FP7- REFRESH, was to test the impact of hydrology
on ecosystem structure and function using long term instrumental water level data and physical,
chemical and biological multiproxies. To achieve this aim, core samples from Lakes Beyşehir,
Marmara and Uluabat were retrieved with a Livingstone Piston Corer from littoral and pelagic of the
lakes, for sub-fossil cladoceran, diatom, plant remain and pigment analysis. Moreover, all the cores
210
were dated with Pb analysis, also X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and loss on ignition (LOI) analysis were
conducted. Results from Lake Beyşehir indicated a gradual change throughout the core from benthic
associated communities to more pelagic ones. However, the cores from both Lakes Marmara and
Uluabat indicated a more benthic ecosystem structure throughout the comprised periods. The results
also suggested that the effect of human manipulation through fish introduction or channel/regulator
construction influenced the response of the proxies and complicated the interpretations of changing
ecological conditions throughout the cores.
Keywords: Plant macrofossil, sub-fossil cladocera, diatom, pigment, eutrophication
22
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
The Principles of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Dating
Ülkü Sayın 1,2, Gamze Bakkal 1 and Ayhan Özmen 1,2
1
Selçuk University, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, Konya, Turkey
Selçuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Konya, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
ESR Dating has been systematically applied in geology and archaeology after Ikeya successfully
dated a stalactite from the Akiyoshi cave in Japan at 1975. The principle of ESR Dating is determining
the concentration of defects produced by natural radiation. If the concentration of the defect is dosedependent, the ESR signal intensity of this defect can be used for ESR Dating. By using this
dependence in the laboratory with artificial irradiation the accumulated dose (ED) can be determined
from the dose-response curve. Finally if the annual dose rate (D) is known, the ESR age of sample
can be determined by the equation T ESR=ED/D. This presentation includes the principles of ESR
Dating and examples of applications in geology.
Keywords: ESR Dating, annual dose, equal dose
23
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Exploring past microbial activity in high altitude lake sediments
(lake Son Kul, Central Asia): a novel approach of sedimentary facies
analysis
Philippe Sorrel 1, Muriel Pacton 1 and Hedi Oberhänsli 2,3
1
Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon: Terre, Planètes, Environnement (UMR 5276 CNRS), Université Claude Bernard–Lyon 1,
Villeurbanne, France
2
Helmholtz-Centre Potsdam, German Geoscience Research Centre (GFZ), Section 5.2, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam,
Germany
3
Museum für Naturkunde, Leibnitz-Institute Berlin (Mineralogy), Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The fabric of sedimentary rocks in lacustrine archives usually contains long and continuous proxy
records of biological, chemical and physical parameters that can be used to study past environmental
and climatic variability. Here we propose a new approach of sedimentary facies analysis based on a
coupled geomicrobiological and sedimentological study using high-resolution microscopical techniques
(petrographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and laser
scanning confocal microscopy) in combination with mineralogical (X-Ray) analyses. We test the
applicability of this approach on sediments from Lake Son Kul, a high alpine lake in central Tien Shan
(Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia), which covers the last 8000 years of the Holocene. This interdisciplinary
study sheds a new light on the mineral fabric and microbial communities observed down to the
nanoscale in lake sediments. The characterization of organo-mineral interactions allows unravelling
the origin of four carbonate minerals (e.g. aragonite, dolomite, Mg-calcite, calcite) as primary or
diagenetic phases in lake Son Kul. Aragonite was mainly of primary origin and is driven by biological
activity in the epilimnion, whereas diagenetic minerals such as Mg-calcite, calcite, dolomite and pyrite
were triggered by bacterial sulphate-reduction and possibly by methanotrophic archaea. Low lake
levels are inferred between ca. 7000 and 5000 cal. BP, as indicated by the presence of interspersed
aragonite deposits and microbial mat structures, in which anaerobic oxidation of methane played an
important role and mediated the formation of a new morphotype of aragonite (i.e., spherulite-like
precursor). Such microbial mat structures enhanced the preservation of viral relics, which have not
been reported in Holocene lacustrine sediments yet. Hence this study advocates that microbe-mineral
interactions screened down to the nanoscale (e.g., virus-like particles) can be used successfully for a
comprehensive description of the fabric of laminated lake sediments. In this sense, they complement
traditional facies sedimentology tools and offer valuable new insights to (i) study microbial and viral
biosignatures in Quaternary sediments and (ii) improve palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
Keywords: facies sedimentology, organomineralization, virus-like particles, high altitude lake, Lake Son Kul, Central Asia
24
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Hydrological changes in western Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) during
the Holocene as inferred from a palaeolimnological study in lake
Son Kul
Philippe Sorrel 1, Xiangtong Huang2, Hedi Oberhänsli3,4 and Hans von Suchodoletz5,6
1
Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon: Terre, Planètes, Environnement (UMR 5276 CNRS), Université Claude Bernard–Lyon 1,
Villeurbanne, France
2
State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, People‘s Republic of China
3
Helmholtz-Centre Potsdam, German Geoscience Research Centre (GFZ), Section 5.2, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam,
Germany
4
now at: Museum für Naturkunde, Leibnitz-Institute Berlin (Mineralogy), Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany
5
University of Leipzig, Institute of Geography, Johannisallee 19a D- 04103 Leipzig, Germany
6
University of Technology Dresden, Institute of Geography, Helmholtzstrasse 10, D – 01069 Dresden, Germany
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The hydrology of Western Central Asia is highly sensitive to climatic perturbations. In order to
understand its long-term variability and to infer linkages between precipitation and atmospheric and
oceanic systems, we conducted a thorough sedimentary and geochemical study on a composite core
retrieved in Lake Son Kul (central Kyrgyzstan) between 8400 and 2000 cal yr BP. A multi-proxy
approach was conducted on lake sediments based on grain size analyses, magnetic susceptibility,
total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses on bulk and
biogenic materials (ostracoda and molluscs shells) in order to characterize the sequence of
18
palaeolimnological changes in Son Kul at a resolution equivalent to ca. 40 years. As indicated by δ O
record of bulk carbonates, mainly consisting of aragonite, the Holocene hydrological balance was
negative during most of time, suggesting an excess of evaporation (E) over precipitation (P).
Limnological conditions fluctuated rapidly before 5000 cal. BP suggesting significant changes in
regional hydrology and climate. In particular, the long-term negative hydrological balance was
impeded by several short stages with marked increase of precipitation, lasting several decades to a
few centuries (e.g., 8300 - 8200, 6900 - 6700, 6300 - 6100, 5500 - 5400 and 5300 - 5200 cal. BP).
18
Precipitation changes as inferred from δ O data are also documented by increased minerogenic
detritus and higher TOC. We propose that the seasonal pattern of precipitation varied transiently in
western Central Asia during the Holocene, although evaporation changes may also account for the
18
rapid changes observed in δ O data. When the annual water balance was less critical (E >= P), the
excess of water might be ascribed to increased precipitation during cold seasons mainly because
18
winter precipitation has more negative δ O than its summer equivalent. Conversely, when the annual
water balance is negative (E >> P), the moisture was mainly delivered during the warm season, as
between 5000 and 2000 cal. BP. Our results thus imply that moisture sources could have changed as
well during the Holocene. Moisture was delivered as today mainly during summer from the extended
Caspian-Aral Basin and eastern Mediterranean; although Arctic and even North Atlantic seas might be
important moisture sources when seasonal precipitation was dominated by winter precipitation.
Keywords: Holocene, Tien Shan (western Central Asia), oxygen and carbon isotopes, aragonite, hydrological balance, North
Atlantic IRD events
25
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
ESR Analysis and Dating of Fossil Shells
Gamze Bakkal 1, Ülkü Sayın 1,2, Ayhan Özmen 1,2, Arif Delikan 3 and Hükmü Orhan 3
1
Selcuk University, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, Konya, Turkey
Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Konya, Turkey
3
Selcuk University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geology Engineering, Konya, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Fossils are the remains of biological species and are indices of geological age. Electron Spin
Resonance (ESR) dating of carbonate fossils is reliable in the time range from a few hundred to a
million years. Shells are composed of the mineral part, CaCO 3, mostly microcrystalline aragonite or
calcite, and the organic part of the protein. Radicals or defects produced by natural radiation in the
mineral part have been used for dating with ESR. This presentation includes sampling, sample
preparation, ESR analysis and determination of radicals or defects and ESR dating procedure of fossil
shells. In addition to these, the relationship between the impurity associated ESR signals and paleoenvironmental changes or/and climate fluctuations will be discussed.
Keywords: Fossil Shells, ESR Dating, CaCO3
26
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental changes of Late
Quaternary travertine deposits in Kocabaş Basin, Denizli, SW
Turkey
Ezher Toker 1, M.Sezgül Kayseri-Özer 2 and Mehmet Özkul 1
1
2
Pamukkale University, Geological Engineering Department, 20070, Denizli, Turkey
Institute of Marine Science and Technology, Dokuz Eylul University, Haydar Aliyev Bul. No:100, 35430 İnciraltı-İzmir, Turkey
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The aim of this study is to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions of Late
Quaternary shallow lake travertines in the Kocabaş area located at 30km in the eastern part of the
Denizli Basin. We accomplished, several investigations on the depositional system, geochemistry
(including stable carbon and oxygen isotopes), radiometric age determination (U/Th) and palynology.
Based on field observations the travertine precipitations at Kocabaş can be classified into seven
lithotypes and one erosional horizon, namely: laminated, coated bubble, reed, paper-thin raft,
intraclasts, micritic travertine with gastropods, extra formational pebbles and paleosol layer and these
terrestrial carbonate deposits were mainly precipitated on a depressional depositional system (shallow
lake), which is composed of Flat-pool and Marsh-pool facies. The results of stable carbon and oxygen
18
isotope analyses of the Kocabaş travertines have δ O values from −10.4‰ to −6.4‰ (VPDB) and
13
13
18
δ C values from 1.1‰ to 2.6‰ (VPDB). δ C and δ O values indicate that the waters of the
depositional environment were mainly thermal in origin occasionally mixed with meteoric water.
Travertine deposition at the Kocabaş area occurred during Middle-Late Pleistocene time (i.e., between
181-80 ka) according to the U/Th dating and under a series of climatic changes including glacial and
interglacial intervals. The U-Th dating of horizontally bedded travertines of the Kocabaş area show that
the travertines were deposited in MIS 5 represented by humid /warm period as well as MIS 4 and MIS
6 dry/cold periods. Palynological results obtained from the paleosols, showed on abundance of the
Non-Arboreal percentage-NAP and xerophytic plant (Oleaceae and Quercus evergreen type) which
indicates drought. MIS 6 is represented by grassland species and straws while MIS 5 is represented
by Pinaceae-Pinus and Abies, Quercus, Oleaceae. The studied sections can be correlated to each
other and as claimed by depositional system modelling, Kocabaş travertines are deposited in the
same lacustrine environment during the MIS 6 gacial period and travertine precipitation has continued
to accumulate towards to southwestern part of the Kocabaş Basin until ~80 ka. Thick travertine
deposits formed in the last interglacial period MIS 5. The lake level changes of Kocabaş Basin during
middle-late Pleistocene occured as a result of tectonic and palaeoclimatic effects. The active fault
systems favoured the rise of deep waters that were discharged at the surface as hot springs and may
have had an important role in this movement.
Keywords: Travertine lithotypes, stable isotopes, pollen analysis, dating, palaeoclimate, palaeoenvironmental evolution, MiddleLate Pleistocene, SW Turkey
27
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Formation of Collapse Doline Lakes in the Diyarbakir Basin:
Morphological Features, Dynamics and Geoarchaeological
Significance
Catherine Kuzucuoğlu 1, Sabri Karadoğan 2 and M.Tahir Kavak 3
1
Laboratory of Physical Geography, Paris 1 University-Sorbonne,CNRS-INEE, CNRS 1 Place A. Briand 92195 Meudon- France
Dicle University, Ziya Gokalp Education Faculty, Department of Geography Education, Diyarbakır, Turkey
3
Dicle University, Ziya Gokalp Education Faculty, Department of Physics Education, Diyarbakır, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The Upper Tigris Basin (SE Turkey) is a Tertiary subsidence basin between the edge of the Southeast
Taurus and the Mardin Plateau. In this region, some very interesting landforms are caused by
geomorphological processes affecting Tertiary-aged gypsum karst. These are collapse dolines related
at places to tectonic fractures of faults, widely occurring east of Bismil city, especially along streams
some of these structures contain deep or shallow lakes contrasting with the surrounding very dry
environment.
Several types of dolines are encountered:
- The majority is circular; a few exhibit an almond-like form.
- Some dolines contain lakes fed by more or less abundant underground water with the possible
addition of a rill eroding the plateau above. Lakes in these karstic structures always occur because an
impermeable clay layer resulting from gypsum alteration covers the bottom of the depression.
- Some (rare) collapse dolines are deep and encircled by cliffs, but the majority consists of shallow
depressions at different stages of evolution. Most of the deep dolines are distributed along a lineament
north of the Tigris valley corresponding to a probable fault line. The shallowest dolines often contain
(but not always) shallow lakes impacted by the drainage of irrigated fields.
If, in the past, the oldest dolines contained permanent lakes fed by precipitation (+ runoff in some
cases) and precipitation-responding underground water, (a) the lake levels must have varied
according to their sensitivity to humidity (precipitation), vegetation cover and evaporation; (b) lake
sediments may record past climatic variations. Besides, these lakes providing a water resource for
human and animal needs, it is not surprising that Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites are found close to
some dolines.
Keywords: Diyarbakır basin, Collapse dolines, Hidden gypsum karst, Archaeological settlements, Landsat satellite imagery.
28
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
The use of pollution indices to assess metal contamination in the
Quaternary stream sediments around the Koçali Cu Mineralization
and the Guleman Cr deposit, Turkey
Adile Polat 1 and Leyla Kalender 1
1
Fırat University, Department of Geological Engineering
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Total concentrations of trace elements in stream sediments as sourced from mine drainage have two
different types of mineralization. Also, stream contamination was identified from surrounding
agricultural fields in the eastern part of Turkey in order to evaluate the level of that type of stream
sediment contamination. The average concentration showed that mineralization originated from toxic
metals in the stream sediments and that it has a controlling influence on the accumulation and
transportation of the contamination, both lithologically and anthropogenically.
The contamination factors (CF) the geo-accumulation (Igeo) and the metal enrichment (EF) values
were calculated according to both background values in bedrocks and the average concentration of
the ultramafic rocks in order to find out effect on stream‘s sediments of the lithological units.
The highest metal and ametal contamination values (> 6) were for Ti, Mn, Ni, Zn, Co, Mo, Pd, Ag, Au,
As, Pb, Th and Rb, Ce in the Koçali Havşa Stream sediments, which denote a "high level of
contamination." The geo-accumulation values show that Ti, Mn Pb, As, Sb, Th and Ga had generally
been in the "heavily to extremely polluted" class. The enrichment factor values of Ti, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn,
Ag, As, Cd, Se, Tl, Pb, Ba, U, Th and Li, Rb were greater than 10, indicating "severe enrichment" and
"extremely severe enrichment" in the sediment from the Havşa Stream. These values indicated that
the stream sediments in the Koçali massive copper sulfide mineralization area were both lithologically
and anthropogenically polluted due to both bedrock composition and polimetallic mineralizations.
The stream sediments in the Alpine-type Guleman Cr deposit area had metal contamination factors of
Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Tl, Pb, Se, Cs and Rb, Li were higher than 1. The geo-accumulation factor values
of Mn, As, Pb, Ba, Li, Rb and Sr, indicating that these values were greater than the background values
in the bedrock. The enrichment factors of aproximately all elements were above 1, in addition to the
enrichment factor of Cr, which revealed moderate contamination due to the high Cr concentration in
the bedrock that was not in accordance with the average Cr concentration of the ultramafic rocks. The
Pollution load index of the Havşa Stream sediment was 8 times higher than the Inci Stream sediment
due to polimetalic mineralizationThere are two settlement locations within the study area, i.e., Koçali
and Guleman townships. Because of contamination factor values, these regions should be evaluated
to determine the relationships between human health and geochemistry through further multidisciplinary studies.
Keywords: contaminant factor, enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, Koçali and Guleman stream sediments, toxic metals
29
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
The Properties of Recent Sediments and late Quaternary of Lake
Eğirdir
Özden İleri 1, Füsun Yiğit Fethi 1, Serkan Palas 1, Hakan Pehlivan 1, Emre Şimşek 1,
Özgür Demirci 1, M. Burak Aydın 1, Mehmet Nur Yanmaz 1, Ayten Cesur 1, Zeynep
Arı 1 and Evrim Şüküroğlu 1
1
General Directorate Mineral Research and Exploration, Department of Marine and Environmental Research, Ankara, Turkey
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The lake Eğirdir is the second fresh water lake of Turkey and provides domestic water for Isparta
2
region. Eğirdir Lake extending 50 km in N-S and 17 km in E-W directions covers 480 km surface area
and average water depth in lake is about 7-8 m. Maximum elevation of water is 919,2 m. The lake has
formed in relation to general tectonic and karstic evolution of the province and limestone is the
prevailing lithological unit around the lake.
In this study geological, geophysical and limnological properties of Eğirdir basin determined. CTD,
sechi disc, temperature, depth and pH measurement performed at 26 observation points in Eğirdir
Lake on July 2012. Lake bottom sampled by Ekman sampler at 1 point and by 2-4 m long Livingstone
cores at 1 point in Hoyran area and at 3 points in Barla-Bedre regions. Cores showed that the lake
bottom sediments almost comprised by clay, with occasional silty or sandy levels and rarely
fossilliferous levels.
Mineralogical, geochemical, δ18O-δ13C isotopes and radiometric age determination analyses
performed on sediment samples taken from Eğirdir Lake. Radiometric age determinations showed
8557 years age for the oldest sample and indicates the Early Holocene. The average sediment
settlement velocity is calculated as 8 mm/year in Hoyran area and 0,65 mm/year in main lake. Isotope
analyses showed positive oscillation of δ13C values for 4200-4800 and 6200-7400 years ago and
these values become negative 7400-8500 years ago whereas negative oscillation of δ18O values for
4200-5800 years ago and these values become positive 5800-7000 years ago. Generalized paleoclimatic profile showed 3 main dry periods and 2 main wet periods for the mentioned time spans.
Geochemical and magnetic data also supports this paleoclimatic interpretation.
The sismic datas with N-S and E-W directions were taken from the lake bottom by various shallow
seismic systems such as Geoacustic Boomeer and sediment profiler. Some faults occurred by seismic
activity were seen in the seismic sections taken from the lake bottom. When seismic records are
analyzed, a consruction with 100 m diameter and 18 m expanse is determined in the middle of lake.
There is densely gas output from the construction mentioned. The gas sample was analyzed and
determined %100 as methane gas according to TPAO laboratory results.
Keywords: Lake Eğirdir, Lake Hoyran, Quaternary, Limnology, Sedimentology, Seismic, Methane, δ18O and δ13C isotopes,
Radiometric age
30
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Recent Sediments of Beyşehir Lake, Konya-Isparta, Southwest
Turkey
Füsun Yiğit Fethi 1, Özden İleri 1, Serkan Palas 1, Hakan Pehlivan 1, Emre Şimşek 1,
Salim Öncel 2, Özgür Demirci 1, Murat Evren 1, Mehmet Nur Yanmaz 1, Nizamettin
Kazancı 3, Suzanne Leroy 4, Ayten Cesur 1, Zeynep Arı 1 and Evrim Şüküroğlu 1
1
General Directorate Mineral Research and Exploration, Depat.of Marine and Environmental Research, Ankara, Turkey
GebzeInstitut of Thechnology Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kocaeli, Turkey
3
Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Geological Engineering, Ankara, Turkey
4
Brunel University, Institute for the Environment, London, UK
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
2
rd
BeyşehirLake, covering 650 km area in Konya-Isparta province, is the 3 biggest fresh water lake of
Europe and has formed in relation to general tectonic and karstic evolution of the province. Lake
Beyşehir is a wetland with international A group certificate, a national park with varieties, a protected
area with the prosperities of history cultures. The water and sediments coming to Beyşehir Lake
discharged firstly to Suğla Lake, then to Çumra Plain and finally Tuzlake. The evolution of Beyşehir
Lake points indirectly to the morfologic and paleogeographic evolution of central Anatolia.
In this study, the formation and character of lake has been investigated by the comprehensive
geological, geophysical and limnological data taken from the lake. General geological properties of the
region in Holocene period identified, by determining sedimentary process and probable tectonic
activities effecting formation of the lake.
Sechi disc (0.5-5 m), pH (8.04-8.95), temperature (30.1-25.4 °C), dissolved oxygen (8.47-7.35 mg/l),
2
electrical conductivity (380-360μs/cm ) measured in 23 observation points in Beyşehir Lake on July
2012. CTD measurements performed at 6 points indicates 2.14-4.28 m depth, 17.72-18.08 °C
2
temperature, 0.35-0.37 s/cm conductivity, 1477-1475 m/s velocity (of sound) and 0.19-0.2 %osalinity
for Beyşehir Lake. In addition to these measurements Lake Bottom has been sampled by Livingstone
cores at 5 points and by grab at 45 points. Visual observations and analyses of cores showed that the
lake bottom sediments almost comprised by clay, with occasional silty or sandy levels and rarely
fossilliferous levels.
Geophysical methods applied for determination of sediment thickness at the bottom of lake comprise
high resolution seismic (Geoacoustics/Boomer and Innomar Sediment Profiler) performed on N-S and
E-W directed lines. Seismic data also showed that some faults and channels formed by seismic
activity take place in lake.
Mineralogical, geochemical, δ18O-δ13C isotopes and radiometric age determination analyses
performed on sediment samples taken from Beyşehir Lake. The XRD analysis shows that the
sediments have homogeneous mineral distribution. It is thought that the homogeneous mineral
content is due to the uniform distribution of sediment influx in shallow lake water by waves.
Radiometric age determinations showed 9223 years age for the oldest sample and indicates the Early
Holocene. The average sediment settlement velocity is calculated as 1 mm/year. Isotope analyses
showed negative oscillation of δ13C values for 4500-6000 years ago indicating rainy period and these
values become positive 6000-7000 years ago indicating dry periods. Generalized paleo-climatic profile
showed 1 main dry period and 2 main wet periods for the mentioned time spans. Geochemical and
magnetic data also supports thispaleoclimatic interpretation.
Keywords: Lake Beyşehir, Quaternary, Limnology, Sedimentology, CTD, Climatechanges, Seismic, δ18O and δ13C isotopes,
Radiometric age
31
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Drilling core data from shores of Lake Manyas (Turkey); possible
interaction of the lacustrine basin and Daskyleion antique
settlement through the Irone Age
Zeynep Ataselim1, Nizamettin Kazancı1, Kaan İren2, Suzanne Leroy3 and Koray Koç4
1
Ankara University, Department of Geological Engineering, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Department of Archeology, Kötekli, Muğla, Turkey
3
Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, London, UK
4
Akdeniz University Department of Geological Engineering, 07058, Antalya, Yurkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
2
Lake Manyas is a fresh water shallow lake (154 km ) located at the Northwestern Anatolia. Previous
studies conducted on the lake show that, the story of this basin started about 4000 years ago as a
shallow marsh and continued as an open lake last 2000 years. In this study, seven drilling data are
presented which conducted in the southeast coast of Lake Manyas. 20-65 m long sediment cores cut
lake coastal sediments and Late Miocene-Pliocene sediments which the lake sits on. Fluvial
sediments that prior to the formation of the lake was able to cut by only one drilling (SK3) and has
been dated as 13500 BP. The primary aim of the study is to determine changes in the shores of Lake
Manyas. Because, Daskyleion ancient city palace is situated at Hisartepe (19 m above the sea level)
which is on the southeast coast of lake. Daskyleion was founded in about 1000 BC. It lost its
importance from 30 A.D and it is in Persian period between 7-6 century B.C. Old lake coasts which
drawn by drilling data not to be safe today, show that this area was an peninsula in the past. It is
possible that Karadere which springs from Lake Manyas and flows into Marmara Sea, was used as a
waterway. Drilling data shows that, lake occured as a set lake due to extreme meandering of Karadere
(15000-4000). Lake area was reached its maximum area in 7-6 century B.C and Kocaçay delta was
prograded in this period.
Keywords: Lake Manyas, Daskyleion, Quaternary, sedimentology
32
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Lake Suğla, SW Turkey: the possible longest-lived lacustrine basin
in Anatolia
Zeynep Ataselim 1 and Nizamettin Kazancı 1
1
Ankara University, Department of Geological Engineering, 06100, Tandoğan, ANKARA
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Lake Suğla is a wetland which the third largest water body in the Konya drainage basin after Lake Tuz
2
and Beyşehir. Water surface of the lake is at an elevation of about 1090 m surface area of 40 km , the
water depth is 4 m. The lake is changing continously since it was formed. Presently, surface area of
2
the lake is ca 40 km since 1994, however it was four times larger in original. West and western
shores of the lake were formed by Mesozoic limestones, however south and east shores formed
Mount Erenler Neogene volcanics and clastics. Lake water has been transported to Konya Çumra
plain by the Stream Çarşamba which gets over 150 km. Lake Suğla is fed by the karstic springs,
rainfall waters and Çarşamba stream water ocassionally transferred to lake. Çarşamba stream is the
main outlet of the Suğla Lake and also lake water level has been generally controlled by karstic
features within the Mesozoic limestones. The aim of this study is that to research Quaternary
sedimantation for the whole area through the examining lacustrine sediments of Lake Suğla. For this
purpose, a 110 m long drilling was performed in the modern lake plain which is used for agricultural
activity today. The core could not cut any older lacustrine deposits however 70 m long young
lacustrine sediment composed of fine sand, silt and clay. Magnetic susceptibility, organic matter,
carbonate content and grain size of sediments were examined systematically along the cores.
Radiometric dating showed the deposition in the lake continued till Pleistocene age. These situation
show that lake located in such a deep basin and Lake Suğla might be enlarged by the tectonism
asssociated with karstic processes.
Keywords: Quaternary, Lake Suğla, Çumra plain, sedimentology
33
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Environmental changes in central Anatolia since the LGM : the
pollen record from the Çora maar (Erciyes, Turkey)
Agnès Gauthier 1, Damase Mouralis 1,2, Catherine Kuzucuoğlu 1, Michel Fontugne 3,
Evren Atakay 4 and Özmen Evcimen 4
1
CNRS UMR 8591 LGP - Paris 1 & UPEC/Paris 12 University - Meudon, France
Rouen University - CNRS UMR 6266 IDEES - Mont-Saint-Aignan, France
3
CNRS UMR 8212 LSCE - CEA & UVSQ - Gif-sur-Yvette, France
4
Department of Geological Research - MTA - Ankara, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The maar of Çora, located on the north-western side of Erciyes in central Anatolia presents ca. 70 m
thick lake sediment. The study presented here concerns to the upper 14 m of the stratigraphic
14
sequence. This well dated (ten C ages) and high-resolution record is mainly characterized by
laminated clays.
The originality of the Çora sequence compared to other published regional vegetation records (e.g.
Eski Acigöl, Tuzla Gölü and Seyfe Gölü) is underlined by the following remarks.
- The Çora sequence is the first pollen record of central Anatolia covering the end of the LGM and the
Holocene allowing a better understanding of the vegetation and climate changes.
- Glacial refuges are located close to the Çora maar.
- The local saline ecosystems (Sultansazligi plain) have a continuous influence during the Holocene on
the vegetation cover.
- Our results point to only few anthropic impacts apart from agricultural activities from 1500yrBP on.
The pollen record identifies four main phases.
- Phase 1, ca18600-11889 cal BP (-14m to -10.24m, sparsely laminated clays). Artemisia,
Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae develop in steppe-like vegetation.
- Phase 2, ca 11889-7749 cal BP (-10.24m to -7.38m, highly laminated clays). Ephedra, deciduous
and evergreen Quercus, Juniperus, Pistacia successively developed with regular occurrences of
numerous pollen grains from thermophilous and mediterranean trees illustrating a specific forest
expansion.
- Phase 3, ca 7749-1920 cal BP (-7.38m to -4.16m, highly laminated clays). Rapid increase in Pinus is
associated with the succesive developments of Cedrus, Juniperus, deciduous and evergreen Quercus
and Ulmus.
- Phase 4, after 1920 cal BP (-4.16m to -3m, massive clays). Trees (except Pinus) decline
progressively while xerophilous and steppic taxa re-expand together with Poaceae and Cerealia-type
developments.
The top of the sequence (-3 to 0m, unstructured clayey silts) was not studied.
Keywords: central Anatolia, Pleniglacial, Lateglacial, Holocene, vegetation history, climatic change, human impact
34
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Hydrogeological and Hydrogeochemical View of Göksu Delta Lakes
(Akgöl and Paradeniz, Southern Turkey)
Uğur Erdem Dokuz 1,2, Mehmet Çelik 2, Şebnem Arslan 2 and Hilal Engin 2,3
1
Niğde University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, Niğde, Turkey
Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, Ankara, Turkey
3
Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, Kırşehir, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Göksu Delta is one of the most important wetlands in Middle East. Delta, formed by the sediments
transported by Göksu River during Quaternary, gets its water from Göksu River emerging from Geyik
Mountains. Göksu Delta, located within Silifke Town of Mersin province, host a total of 332 different
plant species and a total of 328 different bird species. Göksu Delta has been declared as a Special
Environmental Protection Zone, Wildlife Protection Area, Ramsar Convention for Wetlands of
International Importance area due to these features. Akgöl and Paragöl lakes and their
neighborhoods, situated on the southern part of the delta are declared as bird sanctuary.
A water-based ecosystem is developed within the delta and it hosts fertile agricultural fields. This
increases the importance of water resources of Göksu Delta. State Hydraulic works builds up irrigation
channels to use waters of Göksu River for irrigation purposes. These channels, caused contamination
of surface water resources of the delta due to intensity of silty sediments originating from the river. The
discharge of the unused irrigation waters caused Akgöl lake to become shallow and permanent
although it was once a seasonal lake. Besides, Akgöl was connected to Paradeniz via an artificial
channel. General flow direction is from Akgöl to Paragöl; however, flow reverses when tidal action and
winds cause sea level and hence the water level in Paradeniz to rise.
6
3
Water budget calculations show that the reserve of Akgöl is 4.08 x 10 m . Water reserve of this lake
changes in a monthly basis. Akgöl hosts both fresh water and salt water species and the occasional
changes in fresh water-salt water ratio negatively affects these species.
Irrigation channels influence the water quality in Akgöl directly. Akgöl, in contact with Paragöl in the
south, gets its fresh water from channels connected towards northern part. This situation causes a
drop in TDS values in northern part of Akgöl, which is salty in southern parts due to its connection to
Paragöl. Unused irrigation waters carry intense nutrient load and this leads to anoxic conditions and
formation of morass and seaweeds in connection parts of the irrigation channels to Akgöl. Akgöl water
quality is adversely affected by agricultural wastes carried by these channels. Bathymetry
measurements performed in Akgöl and Paragöl in 2009 revealed out that maximum depths in Akgöl
and Paragöl are 93 cm, respectively. These values are about 17 cm higher than the depths
determined by State Hydraulic Works in 1997. The increase in the depths of the lakes are thought to
be related to the increase in the amount of unused irrigation waters diverted to the lakes.
In order to protect the ecological system in the delta, anthropogenic effects of the irrigation channels
Akgöl is exposed to should be minimized. Accordingly, both the amount of water allocated to irrigation
and agricultural fertilizer usage should be controlled to contribute to the sustainability of wild life in the
delta.
Keywords: Hydrogeology, Akgöl, Paradeniz, Göksu Delta, contamination, anthropogenic effect
35
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Exploring The Traces Of Urban Life Through Sedimentological And
Geochemical Ways In Holocene Sediments Of Yenikapı – İstanbul
(Turkey)
Fulya Yücesoy Eryılmaz 1, Mustafa Eryılmaz 1 and Engin Meriç 2
1
. Mersin U. Enginering Fac. Geology Department Mersin Turkey
. Moda Hüseyin Bey Sokak No: 15/4, 34710 Kadıköy/İstanbul
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The archaeological findings unearted during subway work in Yenikapı, İstanbul had revealed the
ancient Port of Theodosius from Roman Byzantine era. Port area now stands in the east of
Sarayburnu Peninsula used to be a bay which filled with sediments carried by Lykos River. Today
study area that has a low topography is 1500 meters inland. In the ancient port area 9 meters from
today‘s sea level has been dwelled and 9 different unit has been determined in area‘s generalised
stratigraphic section. In the samples taken from 10 different levels from the units grain size, organic
carbon, total carbonate, heavy metal analysis (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe, Al) and mineral determinations
(FTR) are done and geological events during the urban developments tried to be explained.
The sample 86 from level 1 that represent the bottom is very muddy (87%) In the sample with high
levels of clay illite, simectite and kaolin clay minerals are observed. Silicate is much more than
carbonates. It is possible that erosion level and/or one of the delta lobes of Lykos River. The reason of
the high metal concentrations in this level should be the depositions remained in clay that‘s been
carried by infiltrated water through sedimentation process. Sample 80A representing level 3 is
composed of coarse material by 91%. It‘s macro-micro shell abundance and quartz content addresses
high energy shallow marine and coastal environments. In the 4th level, samples 80B and 80C the data
of grain size shows the increase of water level. Carbonized wood fragments carry anthroponogenic
traces rather than natural deterioration. Starting from 80D there is no clay in grain size. Increase in
sand grain size and decrease in organic carbon shows the 80D and 83A sediment process to be
straight forward In these two samples mineral features are same (Illite–Smectite,Calsite, Quartz,
Dolomite) Rapid increase of organic carbon in level 83B (6,37%) has traces of anthroponogenic and
natural dynamique. Mineral contents also change in level 83 (Serpentine (antijorit–cysotil)trioktahedric smectite (Hectorit), quartz, calcite). Starting from 80B, increase in metal concentration
peaks, in. Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn that used to meet the needs of urban life accumulated with flood and so-like
factors. Pottery dates 5.6.7th centuries found at this level. 8th level represented by 76A and 76B has
new environment conditions. Mud gradually enters the environment. Organic carbon is high. Metal
concentrations ara also high in 76B. Anoxic like conditions are observed. Has an impression of
decreasing marine connection. 76 C sediments represents shallow marine shore environment by 98%
sand in it‘s washed, fine avarage grain. Over the 76C sediment there is an accumulation of 2 meters of
recent soil, representing the 13th and 14th century AC.
Many factors such as Lykos River, ancient port of Theodosius, changes in coastline due to sea-level
change, accumulation of sediments carried by river all had impacts on the development and
transformation of the area. Anthroponogenic based metal enrichment and organic carbon changes
carries the clues of Istanbul‘s urban development.
Keywords: Geoarchaeology, recent sediment, heavy metal, environmental pollution
36
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Oceanography of Kuşadası Gulf (West of Turkey)
Mustafa Eryılmaz 1, Fulya Yücesoy Eryılmaz 1 and Engin Meriç 2
1
2
Mersin University, Faculty of Engineering, Geological Eng. Department, Ciftlikkoy Campus, Mersin-TURKEY
Moda Hüseyin Bey Sk. No:15/4, Kadıköy, İstanbul-TURKEY
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Gulf of Kusadası is located between the west of Sığacık Bay (Teke Cape) and Strait of Dilek in the
west of Turkey with a maximum depth of 607 m. (North of the island of Samos). Large and small faults
are observed between Seferihisar and Teke Cape in the coast line, perpendicular to the shore. The
region is covered with plateaus and the slope is high. In the shore of Seferihisar and in Doğanbey
Cape there are extensive abrasion platforms. Coastal strip of Kusadasi Gulf is very narrow and shows
a sudden deepening structure. The average slope of study area varies between 2-3%.
In the study area, the sea water physical parameters were measured in place using the CSTD (water
temperature, salinity, pH, conductivity, resistivity). With currentmeter water flow velocity-direction and
with sechi disk water color-visibility were meassured. CSTD measurements were made seasonally.
Flow measurements made in short-term, with three different levels; surface, middle and bottom.
147 surface sediment samples were taken with orange-peel and snapper types grap sampler. Type
and grain size of sediment samples were determined with wet sieve analysis. We generated a recent
sediment distribution map for the region by combining our sedimentary data with a regional
bathymetric map.
In the study area, the thickness of the surface waters is parallel with weather temperature.The bottom
o
o
water layer (after 75m depth) water temperature begins to drop from 18 C and stabilizes at 15-16 C.
Salinity difference between layers is almost negligible in winter and spring seasons.Winds from the N
and NW may force surface waters to the southeast and east creating localized longshore water
movement. From time to time, continuous and strong wind blowing from southern directions can create
an opposite direction, counter clockwise surface currents.
Sediment distribution in this region is effected by current systems, bathymetry and both submarine,
and terrestrial topographic features of the region. In the region, finer materials do not accumulate
because of high waves and current energy. Thus from shore to off-shore frain size get thinner. Either
sediments do not accumulate at all along continental slopes exceeding 10 degrees or very little
sediment accumulates there. Sediments in our study area consist of six types of basic sedimentary
material: rock, gravel, sand, silt, clay and mud. Gravelly materials are gravel, sandy gravel and muddy
sandy gravel. Sandy materials are sand, gravelly sand silty sand. Silty material is composed of silt,
and sandy silt and clayey silt. And muddy material is observed in a narrow range. Deep parts of the
area contain high ratio clay. Generally, grain size distribution in this region is transitional from coarse
to fine and trends parallel to the coastline.
Keywords: Kuşadası Gulf, water colomn, current, bathymetry, recent sediment
37
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Sedimentological properties of small shallow lakes on Central-West
Taurus Mountains, Turkey: Lakes Dipsiz, Sülüklü and Çoban
Tahsin Onur Yücel 1,5, Nizamettin Kazancı 1,5, Özgür Yedek 1,5, Zeynep Ataselim 1,5,
Koray Koç 2,5, Esra Gürbüz 3,5 and Alper Gürbüz 4,5
1
Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Geological Engineering Department, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
Akdeniz University, Faculty of Engineering, Geological Engineering Department, 07058, Antalya, Turkey
3
Aksaray University, Faculty of Engineering, Geological Engineering Department,68100, Aksaray, Turkey
4
Niğde University, Faculty of Engineering, Geological Engineering Department, 51240, Niğde, Turkey
5
Kuvaterner Araştırma Grubu (Quaternary Research Group), 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Lakes Çoban, Dipsiz and Sülüklü are small fresh water wetlands which are connected to each other
on the Erenler Dağı in the southwest of Konya, ca 1650-1750 m in elevation. Surface areas of lakes
2
are 0.12, 0.33 and 0.44 km respectively, Lake Çoban, is shallowest one (1 m), however Lake Dipsiz
is the deepest (6 m; dipsiz means ‗bottomless‘ in Turkish), while the widest one is Lake Sülüklü. One
of the most important properties of these lakes is that they were located on a high altitude, coarsegrained volcanic field, Secondly, they have been taken great quantity of sediments despite their
catchments are limited. It is known that high altitude lakes are interesting as they are very sensitive to
environmental condition, however there is no geological information about the abovementioned lakes.
In order to obtain earth sscientific data, particularly about the climatic conditions, morphology,
limnology and sediments of three lakes have been sudied. Two cores and a bottom sediment sample
were taken from Lake Dipsiz and they were analysed by routine techniques.
Keywords: Lake Dipsiz, Lake Sülüklü, Lake Çoban, Holocene, Sedimentology, Taurus Mountains
38
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Grain size parameter variations related to hinterland along the
beaches of Lake Beyşehir, SW Turkey
Koray Koç 1,5, Özgür Yedek 2,5, Nizamettin Kazancı 2,5 ,T.Onur Yücel 2,5, Zeynep
Ataselim 2,5, Esra Gürbüz 3,5 and Alper Gürbüz 4,5
1
Akdeniz Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 07058, Antalya, Turkey
Ankara Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 06100 Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
3
Aksaray Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü,68100, Aksaray, Turkey
4
Niğde Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 51240, Niğde, Turkey
5
Kuvaterner Araştırma Grubu, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected], [email protected]
Abstract
Lake Beyşehir is located in western Taurus, immediately east of Isparta Angle‘s east limb, SW Turkey.
It is surrounded on the west by Taurus Mountains, on the north and northeast by Erenler Mount. Lake
2
Beyşehir represents the biggest freshwater lake in Turkey, and it has 4200 km drainage area, also its
2
surface area is approximately 750 km . The objective of this research is to determine the physical
settings of Lake Beyşehir‘s beach sediments. For this purpose, the samples were taken from south,
west, northwest and east parts of the lake. They were examined for grain size and textural parameters
such as mean grain size, sorting, skewness and kurtosis. Finally, the relationship between these
parameters and lithology of the hinterland was established.
Results show that sediments from west, southwest and northeast of lake consist of %10-35 gravel (-1 -3 ϕ, fine gravel) and %70-90 sand (1 – 4 ϕ) sized sediments. They mostly show unimodal distribution.
On the other hand, in the east of lake, from north to south, sand sized sediments progressively
dominate over beaches. Including all samples values, mean grain size ranges between -0,61 ϕ
(granule) and 1,91 ϕ (medium sand). In addition that sorting values ranges between 0,46 ϕ (well
sorted) and 1,67 ϕ (poorly sorted). Skewness values of beach sediments show symmetrical
distribution while kurtosis values show platykurtic to very leptokurtic distribution. It is thought to these
differences derived from lithological distinction behind beaches. Also investigation about the
relationship between physical parameters of Lake Beyşehir‘s beaches and discharge regime in lake is
ongoing.
Keywords: Beyşehir, lake, beach, grain size
39
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Spatial Interpolation of Climatological Characteristics of the Lake
Beyşehir drainage basin through GIS, Turkey
Esra Gürbüz 1,7, Nizamettin Kazancı 2,7, Klaus Arpe 3, Suzanne A. Leroy 4, Zeynep
Ataselim 2,7, Koray Koç 5,7, Özgür Yedek2,7, Tahsin Onur Yücel2,7 and Alper Gürbüz6,7
1
Aksaray Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü,68100, Aksaray, Turkey
Ankara Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
3
Max-Planck-Institute für Meteorologie, 20146 Hamburg, Germany, Turkey
4
Brunel University, Institute for the Enviroment, UB83 PH, Uxbridge, London, UK
5
Akdeniz Universitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 07058, Antalya, Turkey
6
Niğde Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 51240, Niğde, Turkey
7
Kuvaterner Araştırma Grubu, 06100, Ankara, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Lake Beyşehir, which is Turkey‘s third largest lake, is an important area to observe the
effects of climatic changes on lakes due to its depth and wide spread area. The lake
is surrounded by Erenler Mount to the east, Taurus Mountains to the south and west and to
the east by the Sultan Mountains. In terms of drainage basin, this basin is separated from
its neighbors the Lake Eğirdir and Lake Akşehir basins with water line determined by the
Sultan Mountains. The Çarşamba stream which stands for the outlet of the Lake Beyşehir mixed to
Lake Suğla. Lake Beyşehir, which is the largest fresh water lake of our country, is fed by
2
precipitation, ground water and snow waters in a drainage area of 4200 km . However, when the water
level rises due to leakage through the sinkholes, obtaining the water amount that accumulated in the
rain fall area is creating difficulties. As a result of measurement made in the past years, the maximum
2
3
surface area is calculated as ~750 km and total volume of 5700 km at the maximum lake level that
ranging between 1120-1125,5 m. Meteorological data in 50 years show the average annual
0
temperature is 10-11 C, cloud cover low in summer but higher during the winter months. In order to
climatic characteristics, Lake Beyşehir is located in a region that represents a transferring feature from
Continental to Mediterranean climate. Also, the karstification in addition to tectonics as a factor of
origination make essential to investigate the hydroclimatological characteristics of Lake Beyşehir. Our
other studies that performed in the lake sediments indicate the lake is similar within hydrological
characteristics for a long time. In this study we have analyzed meteorological and climatological data
through Geographic Information System (GIS) and compared them with dendrochronological and
remote sensing data of the Lake Beyşehir drainage basin.
Keywords: Geographic Information System, climatology, meteorology, remote sensing, dendrochronology
40
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Geological Investigation of Three Shallow Lakes in Ankara
(Beypazarı, Çubuk, Kızılcahamam Karagöl Lakes), Central Turkey
Özgür Yedek 1,3, Tansin Onur Yücel 1,3, Yaşar Suludere 2 and Nizamettin Kazancı 1,3
1
Ankara University, Department of Geological Engineering, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
The Association for Conversation of Geological Heritage, P.K. 10, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
3
Quaternary Research Group (KAG) , 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
There are three shallow lakes in Ankara which all are called as ―karagöl (blacklake)‖. However they
are not known by the society except for only relevant and local people who live their close vicinities.
2
The lakes have fresh water with surface areas of less than 2 km . Their names were originated from
intensive plant cover and thus dark shadow on the lakes‘ water. Here we will call them with names of
the relevant towns as Beypazarı Karagöl, Çubuk Karagöl and Kızılcahamam Karagöl to avoid
confusion. The Karagöl lakes are important recreation areas for the region, hence they attract visitors.
On the other hand there is not any geoscientific information about them. The aim of this work is to
provide some basic knowledge about the lakes hoping that new and correct information may help to
natural conservation.
The Beypazarı Karagöl is at northwest of the city Ankara, ca 120 km away. It is an oval shaped
freshwater with a depth of 5.5 m. Çubuk Karagöl is at the northeast of Ankara, ca. 60 km away from
the city center. It has a depth of ~6.5 m. The Kızılcaham Karagöl is placed to the north of Ankara, ca
100 km away to the city. It is located on the northeastern flank of the Mount Işık (2034 m) and is the
smallest and shallow lake (with a 4.5 m deep) among others.
All of these three lakes have some similar features, such; they were formed as natural dam lakes by
due to landslides on large valleys. Lake levels are controlled by annual precipitation. Their basements
consist of andesitic volcanic rocks, and their hyrochemical characteristics reflect this basement
lithology. The organic matter content of the lakes are around 1-2%.
Acknowledgements: It is acknowledged with pleasure that Ankara University BAP and TUBITAK
BIDEB supported the study as an undergraduate student project.
Keywords: Ankara, Beypazarı, Çubuk, Kızılcahamam, Karagöl, ooze, organic substance
41
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Lake Beyşehir
basin, central-west Turkey
Alper Gürbüz 1, Nizamettin Kazancı 2, Yaşar Suludere 3, Yavuz Hakyemez 4, Zeynep
Ataselim 2, Esra Gürbüz 5, Koray Koç 6, Özgür Yedek 2 and Tahsin Onur Yücel 2
1
Niğde Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 51240, Niğde, Turkey
Ankara Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
Jeolojik Mirası Koruma Derneği, P.K. 10, 16100, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
4
MTA Genel Müdürlüğü, Maden Etüt ve Arama Dairesi, 06520, Ankara, Turkey
5
Aksaray Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 68100, Aksaray, Turkey
6
Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 07058, Antalya, Turkey
2
3
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Lake Beyşehir is located in a NW-SE trending tectonic depression that reaches to the southern end of
2
Lake Suğla basin. The drainage basin of the lake represented by an area of 4200 km in central-west
Anatolia region. This region is considered geographically as the western Taurus Mountains. On the
other hand, the region was correspond to an area where tectonic nap emplacements occurred within
the Taurid orogenic belt in the paleotectonic period. In the neotectonic period, this region is
representing the Isparta Angle, which is still a seismically active region consist of a serie of grabens
like the Lake Beyşehir and horsts between those grabens. The eastern portion of the basin is
generally bounded by the Sultan Mountains and Erenler Volcanoe, while the western portion is
delimited by the Anamas Mountains. In addition, these portions are represented by Paleozoic,
Neogene and Mesozoic aged rock units, respectively. In order to shed light on the development of the
lake basin, our studies, which conducted in the Neogene and Quaternary units of the region, indicate
that the region controlled by a different tectonic regime before Quaternary. Also, the current lake
depression has mainly embodied by the structures which are the products of those tectonic phases.
The karstic features which are especially prevail in the western half are relatively low effective during
the Quaternary development process. Due to bounding in most sectors by the normal faulted steep
slopes, the NW-SE-trending lake could reach its maximum surface area in Quaternary by coastal
progressions in the north and south which are determined by the water amount that reached to lake.
Keywords: Lake Beyşehir, Neogene, Quaternary, tectonics, stratigraphy, geomorphology, graben
42
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
HoDriP: Holocene Drilling Project for Evidences of Natural,
Archaeological and Historical Events in Anatolia
Nizamettin Kazancı 1,2, Alper Gürbüz 1,3, Zeynep Ataselim 1,2, Özgür Yedek 1,2 and
Tahsin Onur Yücel 1,2, Esra Gürbüz 1,4 and Koray Koç 1,5
1
Quaternary Research Group (Kuvaterner Araştırma Grubu – KAG), 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
Ankara Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey
3
Niğde Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 51240, Niğde, Turkey
4
Aksaray Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 68100, Aksaray, Turkey
4
Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Muhendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, 07058, Antalya, Turkey
2
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
Scientific documents indicate that Anatolia, together with the Middle East had been original lands of
ancient civilisations since early Holocene. Particularly east, central and southern Anatolia were densly
populated for the last five millenia creating many new empires, states, and also new life styles. It is
also clear that during that time geography and landscape changed, especially some lakes and
wetlands were dried and turned into ovas and modern farmlands. On the other hand, present technical
development and increased population in Anatolia give rise to lost of some evidences about ancient
civilisations and historical events, i.e tumuluses, rock-arts, historical landscapes, places of big wars.
Moreover, new generations would like to know paleogeographic evolution of their own lands. Growing
animal or playing football on a very large ancient lake or picking apples on a warplace are sometime
exciting for people. In order to collect data for geological evolution of Anatolia in Holocene, HoDriP has
started. The main tool is a portable drilling equipment. HoDriP aimed to obtained 40 core logs in
central Anatolia by end of 2015.
Keywords: Holocene, paleoenvironment, climatic change, historical geography, Anatolia, Turkey
43
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Mineralogical and geochemical properties of Lake Işıklı sediments:
Paleoclimatological approaches in Late Quaternary
M. Tarık Özcan 1 and Sonay Boyraz-Aslan 2
1
2
Geological Heritage Protection Association, P.K. 10, 06100, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
Aksaray University, Dept. of Geol. Eng., 68100, Aksaray, Turkey
Contact: [email protected]
Abstract
The mineralogical composition and geochemical characteristics of Late Quaternary sediments has
been investigated in Livingstone corer in the Işıklı Lake; on the Baklan-Çivril graben. The longest core
was just 5 metres and because of that all analysis was performed on that core. The particle size
distribution of the sediments are changing between 11 µ-189 µ using the mastersizer 2000. These are
alternating terrigeneous fine sand mostly clayey silt, showing to intense erosion. The mineralogical
distribution along the core was examined by X-ray diffraction. Calcite and quartz are the abundant
non-clay mineral with feldispar, opal-CT and dolomite. These minerals are also accompanied by clay
minerals such as illite, smectite, chlorite and trace amount of kaolinite. The calcite, quartz, feldispar
and dolomite could be deposited as allogenic material carried by rivers and intense erosion. The origin
of clay minerals are both detrial and alteration of particles. The magnetic measurements of these
sediments showed that low or negative susceptibility values for organic levels and modarate
susceptibility values for clastic materials deriving from outside. The geochemical analysis were done to
the sediments for element composition and molecular weathering ratio. According to this, the
variations of element distribution and some proxies such as allogenic elements (Na, K, Mg, Al, Si…) in
sediments observed directly to the climate oscillations.
Keywords: Lake Işıklı, mineralogy, geochemistry, paleoclimate
44
QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Notes
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QuickLakeH 2014 – An International Workshop on Lakes and Human Interactions, 15 -19 September, Turkey
Notes
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