UML Diyagramları Kullanımının Yazılım Gerekleri - CEUR

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UML Diyagramları Kullanımının Yazılım Gerekleri - CEUR
UML Di\DJUDPODUÕ.XOODQÕPÕQÕQ <D]ÕOÕP*HUHNOHUL
*|]GHQ*HoLUPH3HUIRUPDQVÕQD(WNLOHUL%LU
Replikasyon dDOÕúPDVÕ
Özlem Albayrak
%LOJLVD\DU7HNQRORMLVLYH%LOLúLP6LVWHPOHUL
øKVDQ'R÷UDPDFÕBilkent Üniversitesi
Ankara, Türkiye
[email protected]
Özet. %X oDOÕúPDda \D]ÕOÕP JHUHNOHUL VSHVLILNDV\RQXGRNPDQÕQD GDKLO HGLOHQ
80/GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ\D]ÕOÕPJHUHNOHULJ|]GHQJHoLUPHVUHFLQGHUDSRUODQDQ,
YH GR÷UX RODUDN EHOLUOHQHQ KDWD VD\ÕODUÕQD HWNLOHULQL LQFHleyen kontrollü deney
VRQXoODUÕ sunulPDNWDGÕU Bir replikasyon çaOÕúPDVÕ RODQ EX oDOÕúPDQÕQ DPDFÕ
NRQX\OD LOJLOL GDKD |QFH \DSÕOPÕú özgün oDOÕúPD VRQXoODUÕQÕQ JHoHUOLOL÷LQL
DUWÕUPDNWÕU. 5HSOLNDV\RQGD|]JQoDOÕúPDGDNXOODQÕODQODUGDQIDUNOÕPDWHU\DOOHU
kulODQÕOPÕúWÕUdDOÕúPD\DNDWÕODQ66 VRQVÕQÕI OLVDQV|÷UHQFLVLQLQWDPDPÕ uyguODPDOÕ \D]ÕOÕP PKHQGLVOL÷L GHUVL YH EX GHUVLQ |QNRúXOX RODQ \D]ÕOÕP
PKHQGLVOL÷LGHUVOHULQL]RUXQOXRODUDNDOPÕúWÕU
dDOÕúPD EXOJXODUÕna göre \D]ÕOÕP JHUHNOHUL belirtim GRNPDQÕQGa UML
NXOODQÕP GXUXPODUÕ YH 80/ VÕQÕI GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ EXOXQPDVÕ NDWÕOÕPFÕODUÕQ
\D]ÕOÕPJHUHNOHULJ|]GHQJHoLUPHVUHFLQGHUDSRUODGÕNODUÕKDWDVD\ÕVÕQÕDQODPOÕ
olarak etkilemektedir. <D]ÕOÕP JHUHNOHULQL J|]GHQ JHoLUHQOHU 80/ GL\DJUDP
ODUÕQ GDKLO HGLOPHVL GXUXPXQGD GDKD ID]OD VD\ÕGD GR÷UX KDWD EHOLUOHPHNWHGLU
80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ dahil edilmesiyle elde edilen olumlu etki, akademik
EDúDUÕQRWODUÕGúNRODQ|÷UHQFLOHUGHGDKDID]ODRODUDNJ|]OHPOHQPLúWLU'HQ
H\GHNXOODQÕODQJHUHNVLQLPGRNPDQODUÕQÕQKDQJLVÕUDLOHNXOODQÕOGÕ÷ÕQÕQUDSRU
ODQDQKDWDVD\ÕVՁVWQGHDQODPOÕELU HWNLVLYDUGÕU80/GL\DPODUÕQNXOODQÕOPDVÕ
LOH KDWD EXOPDN LoLQ KDUFDQDQ ]DPDQ DUDVÕQGD da DQODPOÕ ELU LOLúNL
gözlemlenPLúWLU +HP |]JQ KHP GH UHSOLNDV\RQ oDOÕúPDVÕ 80/ GL\DJUDP
ODUÕQÕQ dahil eGLOPHVL GXUXPXQGD GDKD ID]OD VD\ÕGD KDWD UDSRUODQGÕ÷ÕQÕ
göstermektedir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: \D]ÕOÕPJ|]GHQJHoLUPH; UML; gereksinim gözden
geçirme
431
1
*LULú
IEEE Standard for Reviews and Audits 1028:2008’e göre gözden geçirme “bir
\D]ÕOÕPUQQQKDWDEXOPDYH \D]ÕOÕPODLOJLOLVWDQGDUWYHVSHVLILNDV\RQODUGDQVDS
PD GD GDKLO ROPDN ]HUH DQRUPDOOLNOHUL EHOLUOHPH DPDFÕ\OD J|UVHO RODUDN LQFHOHQ
mesidir [1]. <D]ÕOÕP JHUHNOHUL ile ilgili hataODUÕQ belirlenmesi \D]ÕOÕP PKHQGLV
OL÷LQGH\D]ÕOÕPNDOLWHJYHQFHVLWHNQLNOHUi içinde en etkin yöntemlerdendir [2, 3].
8QLILHG 0RGHOLQJ /DQJXDJH 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕ \D]ÕOÕP JHOLúWLUPHGH VÕNOÕNOD
NXOODQÕOÕU [5, [email protected]|UVHOOLNYHPRGHOOHPHGHVWH÷LYHULU>@1HVQHPRGHOOHULDQDOLVWOHU
YH NXOODQÕFÕODU DUDVÕQGDNL LOHWLúLP SUREOHPOHULQi en aza indirger [5]. Pratikte, ELOLúLP
sistemleri JHUHNVLQLPGRNPDQODUÕQGD80/GL\DJUDPODUÕQDUDVWODPDN\D\JÕQGÕU[7].
*HUHNVLQLPOHUGHNL KDWDODU LOHUOH\HQ DúDPDODUÕ GD ROXPVX] HWNLOH\HFH÷LQGen mali\HWL \NVHN KDWDODUGÕU > @ Bu hatalar ]DPDQÕQGD belirlenmezse, ileride çok daha
\NVHN PDOL\HWOHUH QHGHQ RODFDNODUGÕU <D]ÕOÕP J|]GHQ JHoLUPH DODQÕQGD \DSÕODQ
ELOLPVHOoDOÕúPDODUÕQ ELULQFLODPDFÕ süreçlerin HWNHQOLNYHHWNLQOLNOHULQLQDUWÕUÕOPDVÕGÕU
[9]. UML ve gözden geçirme ile ilgili olarak daha önce yapÕODQ DUDúWÕUPDODU 80/
GL\DJUDPODUÕ EXOXQDQ GRNPDQODUÕQ J|]GHQ JHoLULOPHVL VUHFLQLQ HWNLQOHúWLULOPHVLQH
G|QN \ROODUÕQ EXOXQPDVÕQGD RGDNODQPÕúWÕU /LWHUDWUGH J|]GHQ JHoLUPH VUHFLQGH
IDUNOÕ RNXPD WHNQLNOHULQLQ KDQJLOHULQLQ GDKD HWNLQ ROGX÷XQX LQFHOH\HQ oRN VD\ÕGD
DUDúWÕUPD\DSÕOPÕúWÕU>@ $\QÕRNXPDWHNQL÷LNXOODQÕOGÕ÷ÕQGDELOHELUH\
VHOHWNLQOLNOHUDUDVÕQGDIDUNOÕOÕNODUJ|]OHPOHQPLúWLU>@
%X oDOÕúPDQÕQ DVÕO RGD÷Õ J|]GHQ JHoLUPH VUHFLQGH NXOODQÕODQ GRNPDQODUGÕU
dDOÕúPDGDRNXPDWHNQL÷L YHJ|]GHQJHoLUHQOHULVDELWWXWXOPXú80/NXOODQÕPGXUX
PX YHQHVQHGL\DJUDPODUÕLoHUHQYH\DLoHUPH\HQEHQ]HUbüyüklük ve NDUPDúÕNOÕNWD
GRNPDQODU NXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQ DQDOLVW YH NXOODQÕFÕODU DUDVÕQGDNL
iletLúLP SUREOHPOHULQL D]DOWPDVÕQD benzer úHNLOGH >@, analist ve gözden geçirenler
DUDVÕQGDNLLOHWLúLP SUREOHPOHULQLGHD]DOWDFD÷ÕQÕGúQ\RUX].
ÇDOÕúPDGD JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQD HNOHQHQ 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ gereksinim
J|]GHQJHoLUPHVUHFLQHRNX\XFXRODUDNNDWÕODQELUH\OHULQHWNHQOLN YHHWNLQOLklerine
RODQ HWNLVLQL LQFHOH\HQ NRQWUROO GHQH\OHU \DSÕOPÕúWÕU 5HSOLNDV\RQODU ELUH\VHO GHQ
H\OHULQEXOJXODUÕQÕQJHQHOOHúWLULOPHVLQGHNXOODQÕODQ \DUDUOÕoDOÕúPDODUGÕU>@
YD]ÕOÕP PKHQGLVOL÷L DODQÕQÕQ ROJXQODúPDVÕ LoLQ GDKD ID]OD \DNÕQ UHSOLNDV\RQ
oDOÕúPDVÕQÕQ \DSÕOPDVÕQÕ gerekir [17, 18]. dDOÕúPD |]JQ oDOÕúPD\D EHQ]HU
\DNÕQOÕNWDGÕU Özgün oDOÕúPDGD ELOGLULOHQ ED]Õ geçerlilik tehditlerini D]DOWPD\Õ
DPDoODPDNWDGÕU > @ <DSÕVDO ve içsel geçerlilik problemlerini azaltmak için
NDUPDúÕNOÕN ve büyüklük DoÕVÕQGDQ ELUELULQH EHQ]HU |]JQ oDOÕúPDGD NXOODQÕODQGDQ
IDUNOÕLNL\HQLGRNPDQKD]ÕUODQPÕúWÕU>@*|]GHQJHoLUPHVUHFLQGHRNX\XFXURO
QH VDKLS NLúLOHULQ ELUH\VHO SHUIRUPDQVODUÕQÕ EHOLUOHPHGH NXOODQÕODQ GLO VHYL\HOHUL GH
önemlidir [23]. Bu nedenlHUHSOLNDV\RQoDOÕúPDVÕQGD\HQLGRNPDQODUNDWÕOÕPFÕODUÕQ
DQDGLOLRODQ7UNoH¶GHKD]ÕUODQPÕúWÕU
dDOÕúPD sunumunda deneysel replikasyon rehberi L]OHQPLúWLU >@ 2. bölümde
JHoPLúWHNRQXLOHLOJLOL\DSÕODQ EHQ]HUoDOÕúPDODU|]HWOHQPLú 3. bölümde replikasyon
WDVDUÕPÕQÕQ D\UÕQWÕODUÕ VXQXOPXúWXU. Veri analizi E|OPQQ DUGÕQGDQ . bölüm
geçerlilik teditlerini, ve 6. bölüm de sonuçlar ve geleFHNoDOÕúPDODUÕQÕ DQODWPDNWDGÕU.
432
2
øOJLOLdDOÕúPDODU
80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ gözden geçirme sürecine etkilerini DUDúWÕUDQ oDOÕúPD VD\ÕVÕ
\HWHUOLGH÷LOGLU. Güncel ELUOLWHUDWUWDUDPDVÕQGDELOHEHQ]HUoDOÕúPDyoktur [24].
%LUH\VHO J|]GHQ JHoLUPH VUHFLQLQ NDOLWHVLQL DUWÕUPDN LoLQ DUDúWÕUPDFÕODU oRNOXNOD
RNXPDWHNQLNOHULVWQGHRGDNODQPÕúODUGÕU>@+DQJLRNXPDWHNQL÷LQLQ
GDKD L\L ROGX÷X LOH LOJLOL NHVLQ ELU RUWDN VRQXo HOGH HGLOPHPLú ROPDVÕQD NDUúÕQ
NXOODQÕPGXUXPODUÕLoHUHQGRNPDQODUÕQHWNLQOL÷LQLDUWÕUPDNDPDFÕ\OD\HQLELURNXPD
WHNQL÷LRODUDN.XOODQÕP7DEDQOÕ2NXPD8VDJH%DVHG5HDGing-8%5JHOLúWLULOPLúWLU
[8]. UBR önceliklendLULOPLú NXOODQÕP GXUXPODUÕQÕ HVDV DOÕU %X oDOÕúPDGD NXOODQÕP
GXUXPODUÕ GL\DJUDPODUÕ DoÕNODPD LoHUPHGL÷LQGHQ 8%5 L]OHQPHPLúWLU <D]ÕOÕP
J|]GHQJHoLUPHLOJLOL\DSÕODQoDOÕúPDODUÕQ|QHPOLELUNÕVPÕJ|]GHQJHoLUPHVUHFLLOH
ilgilidir. UM/GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ J|]GHQJHoLUPHLOHLOJLOLELUGH÷LúNHQRODUDNLQFHOHQ
PHVL NRQXVX OLWHUDWUGH HOH DOÕQPDPÕúWÕU > @ Bununla birlikte,
\D]ÕOÕPEDNÕPDúDPDVÕLOHLOJLOL\DSÕODQoDOÕúPDODUGHQH\VHORODUDNJUDILNHOHPDQODUÕQ
ID\GDODUÕQÕDUDúWÕUPÕúODUGÕU>@dDOÕúPDODUÕQ VRQXoODUÕQDJ|UHJUDILNHOHPDQODUÕQ
YDUOÕ÷Õ PLPDULQLQGDKDL\LDQODúÕOPDVÕQÕYH EDNÕPoDOÕúPDODUÕQÕolumlu etkiler [28].
80/GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ \DUDUODUÕLOHLOJLOLELOJLOHUHXODúÕODELOLU>-30, 36].
80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQODUÕQGD \HUDOPDVÕQÕQ UDSRUODQDQ KDWD
VD\ÕVÕQÕ DQODPOÕ HWNLOHGL÷L ELOGLULOPLúWLU >@ .DWÕOÕPFÕODU 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ
YDUOÕ÷ÕQGDGDKDID]ODVD\ÕGDKDWDUDSRUODPÕúODUGÕU80/GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ GR÷UXRODUDN
EHOLUOHQHQKDWDVD\ÕVÕQDDQODPOÕELUHWNLVLEXOXQPDPÕúWÕU>@
Özgün Deney
g]JQoDOÕúPDGDDNDGHPLNRUWDPGDG|UGQFVÕQÕIlisans |÷UHQFLVLQLQNDWÕOGÕ÷Õ
deney \DSÕOPÕúWÕU [21]+HU|÷UHQFLLNLJHUHNVLQLPGRNPDQÕQÕLQFHOHPLúYHEXOGXNODUÕ
KDWDODUÕ UDSRUODPÕúGÕU dDOÕúPDGD “bireysel gereksinim gözden geçirme sürecinde
80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQGD \HU DOPDVÕ”: H1:“raporlanan hata
VD\ÕVÕQÕ´ +³EXOXQDQ KDWD VD\ÕVÕQÕ´ +³\DQOÕú SR]LWLI KDWD VD\ÕVÕQÕ´ YH +³KDWD
EXOPDNLoLQJHUHNHQ]DPDQÕ´HWNLOHUKLSRWH]OHULLQFHOHQPLúWir.
%D÷ÕPVÕ] GH÷LúNHQ: Gereksinim GRNPDQÕQÕQ 80/ GL\DJram içerip içermemesi,
bD÷ÕPOÕGH÷LúNHQOHU: UDSRUODQDQKDWDVD\ÕVÕ, YHGR÷UXRODUDNbelLUOHQHQKDWDVD\ÕVÕGÕU.
3
5HSOLNDV\RQ7DVDUÕPÕ
$UDúWÕUPD6RUXODUÕ
S1) %LUH\VHO KDWD UDSRUODPD RUDQÕ, gereksinim doküPDQÕQGD 80/ GL\DJUDP
NXOODQÕOPDVÕQGDQHWNLOHQLUPL"
S2) %LUH\VHO KDWD EHOLUOHPH RUDQÕ, JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQGD 80/ GL\DJUDP
NXOODQÕOPDVÕQGDQHWNLOHQLUPL"
S3) %LUH\VHORODUDNGR÷UXúHNLOGHEHOLUOHQHQ|QHPVHYL\HVL\NVHNKDWDVD\ÕVÕ, gerHNVLQLPGRNPDQÕQGD 80/GL\DJUDPNXOODQÕOPDVÕQGDQLOHHWNLOHQLUPL"
433
S4) Bireysel olarak kaydedilen \DQOÕúSR]LWLIVD\ÕVÕ, JHUHNVLQLPGRNPDQÕQGD80/
GL\DJUDPNXOODQÕOPDVÕQGDQHWNLOHQLUPL"
S5) *HUHNVLQLP KDWDVÕQÕQ EXOXQPD ]DPDQÕ JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQGD 80/ GL
\DJUDPNXOODQÕOPDVÕQGDQHWNLOHQLUPL"
'H÷LúNHQOHU
%D÷ÕPVÕ] GH÷LúNHQ, HasUML, JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQÕQ 80/ GL\DJUDP LoHUGL÷L
GXUXPGDLoHUPHGL÷LGXUXPGDGH÷HULQLDOÕU %D÷ÕPOÕGH÷LúNHQWDQÕPODUÕ:
5DSRUODQDQKDWDVD\ÕVÕ (RD): +HUELUNDWÕOÕPFÕWDUDIÕQGDQUDSRUODQDQWRSODP hata
VD\ÕVÕ
'R÷UX RODUDN EHOLUOHQHQ KDWD VD\ÕVÕ (CDD): %LUH\VHO J|]GHQ JHoLUHQ WDUDIÕQGDQ
GR÷UXRODUDNEXOXQDQWRSODPKDWDVD\ÕVÕHWNHQOLN|OoV
gQHPOL KDWD VD\ÕVÕ (HSD): %LUH\VHO J|]GHQ JHoLUHQ WDUDIÕQGDQ GR÷UX RODUDN
EXOXQDQGL÷HUKDWDWUROPD\DQWRSODPKDWDVD\ÕVÕHWNHQOLN|OoV
<DQOÕú SR]LWLI VD\ÕVÕ (FP): %LUH\VHO J|]GHQ JHoLUHQ WDUDIÕQGDQ ND\GHGLOHQ KDWDOÕ
\DQÕWODU%XGH÷LúNHQLQ\NVHNGH÷HUDOPDVÕ istenmez.
+DWD EHOLUOHPH ]DPDQÕ (AT): 'RNPDQ EDúÕQD J|]GHQ JHoLUPH LoLQ KDUFDQDQ ]D
man. Bu çalÕúPDGD]DPDQGH÷LúNHQLJ|]|QQHDOÕQPÕúWÕU [27].
Hipotezler
Yerden kazanmak için VÕIÕU KLSRWH]OHULDúD÷ÕGDki hipotezler listesine eklenmedi:
H1: *HUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQGD bulunan 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ YDUOÕ÷Õ UDSRUODQDQ
KDWDVD\ÕVÕQÕ (RD) etkiler.
H2: Gereksinim dokümDQÕQGD EXOXQDQ 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ YDUOÕ÷Õ GR÷UX
EXOXQDQKDWDVD\ÕVÕQÕ (CDD) etkiler.
+ *HUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQGD EXOXQDQ 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ YDUOÕ÷Õ bulunan
|QHPOLKDWDVD\ÕVÕQÕ (HSD) etkiler.
H4: *HUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQGD EXOXQDQ 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQ YDUOÕ÷Õ \DQOÕú SR]LWLI
VD\ÕVÕQÕ (FP) etkiler.
H5: *HUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQGD EXOXQDQ 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQ YDUOÕ÷Õ doküman
gözden geçirme süresini (AT) etkiler.
.DWÕOÕPFÕODU
.DWÕOÕPFÕODU|]HOELUQLYHUVLWHQLQOLVDQVSURJUDPÕQGD]RUXQOXELUGHUVRODQ8\JX
ODPDOÕ<D]ÕOÕP0KHQGLVOL÷LGHUVLQHND\ÕWOÕ 66 DGHWG|UGQFVÕQÕI|÷UHQFLVLdir. Tümü
J|QOO RODUDN NDWÕOPÕúWÕU .DWÕOÕPFÕODUÕQ Lú deneyimi ortalama D\GÕU *özden
geçirme verilen H÷LWLPOH VD÷ODQPÕúWÕU g÷UHQFLOHU 80/ GL\DJUDPÕ oL]PH YH \D]ÕOÕP
JHUHNVLQLPGRNPDQÕ KD]ÕUODPDNRQXVXQGDEDúODQJÕç seviyesinde bilgi sahibidir.
'HQH\+D]ÕUOÕ÷ÕYH8\JXODPDVÕ
Deney öncesinde |÷UHQFL\e JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕ J|]GHQ geçirme süreci ile
ilgili olarak GDNLNDVUHQELUH÷LWLPYHULOPLúWLU(÷LWLPGHRNXPDWHNQLNOHULKDNNÕQGD
biOJL YHULOPLú YH GHQH\OH LOJLOL DoÕNODPDODU \DSÕOPÕúWÕU 'HQH\H NDWÕODFDN JUXSODUÕQ
434
ROXúWXUXOPDVÕQGD NDWÕOÕPFÕODUÕQ 80/ LOH LOJLOL |Q WHVWWH ve akademik performans
GH÷HUOHULYHGHQH\LPOHULJ|]|QQHDOÕQPÕúWÕU. 'HQH\H|÷UHQFLNDWÕOPÕúWÕU
'HQH\ LNL DúDPDGD JHUoHNOHúWLULOPLúWLU +HU ELU DúDPD GDNLND LOH VÕQÕU
ODQGÕUÕOPÕúWÕU. dDOÕúPDQÕQ WRSODP süresi, H÷LWLPL GH LoHUHFHN úHNLOGH, 110 dakika
ROPXúWXU 'HQH\LQ WDVDUÕPÕ 7DEOR ’de gösterilmektedir. +HU DúDPD VRQUDVÕQGD PD
WHU\DOOHUWRSODQPÕú\HQLOHULGD÷ÕWÕOPÕúWÕU
Tablo 1. 'HQH\$úDPDODUÕ
(÷LWLPYHgQWHVWGDNLND
$úDPD,GDNLND
Sistem
UML
A3$56ø0
B: QFD
$úDPD,,GDNLND
Sistem
Diyagram Tipi
Grup 1
Grup 4
No-UML
Grup 2
Grup 3
Diyagram Tipi
UML
A3$56ø0
B: QFD
Grup 3
Grup 2
No-UML
Grup 4
Grup 1
.XOODQÕODQ0DWHU\DO
dDOÕúPDQÕQ|QWHVWNÕVPÕQGD-25*,6YHH÷LWLPNÕVPÕQGD&DXVH(IIHFW*UDphing
7RRO &(*7 LVLPOL IDUNOÕ gereksinim dokümanlarÕ NXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU 'HQH\ LoLQ JQFHO
OHQPLú B: Quality Function Deployment (QFD) ve A: Particle Simulator Software
(ParSIM) dokümanlaUÕNXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU.DWÕOÕPFÕODUGRNPDQODUÕQLOJLOLROGX÷X konulara
WDQÕGÕN GH÷LOOHUGL+HUELUVLVWHPLoLQ80/GL\DJUDPODUÕLoHUHQYHLoHUPH\HQVUPOHUL
ROPDN ]HUH LNLúHU JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕ ROXúWXUXOPXú, 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕn hiçbiri
LoLQ D\UÕQWÕOÕ DoÕNODPD YHULOPHPLú \DOQÕ]FD GL\DJUDPODU HNOHQPLúWLU .XOODQÕODQ VLV
WHPOHUNDUPDúÕNOÕNYHER\XWDoÕVÕQGDQEHQ]HUGLU ve ilgili standarda [35] uyumludur.
Deneyde kullanÕODQPDWHU\DOOHUsiVWHP\D]ÕOÕPJHUHNVLniPGRNPDQÕ, dokümanda
EXOXQDQKDWDODUÕQEHOLUOHQPHVLQGHNXOODQÕODFDNNRQWUROOLVWHVLYHKDWDODUÕQND\GHGLOPH
VLQGH NXOODQÕODFDN KDWa ND\ÕW IRUPXQGDQROXúPDNWDGÕU .DWÕOÕPFÕODUÕQGHQH\ VRQUDVÕQ
GDNL J|]OHP YH \RUXPODUÕQÕ DOPDN LoLQ GHQH\ VRQUDVÕQGD ELU anket \DSÕOPÕúWÕU
DokümDQODUD VHUSLúWLULOHQ KDWD WUOHUL HNVLNOLN EHOLUVL]OLN WXWDUVÕ] ELOJL KDWDOÕ ELOJL
JHUHNVL]ELOJLYHGL÷HUROPDN]HUHDOWÕVÕQÕIWDQROXúPDNWDGÕU>@
7DVDUÕP
'HQH\JHUoHNOHúWLULOPHGHQ|QFHNDWÕOÕPFÕODUD80/ELOJLOHULQL|OoHQELU|Q-test uyJXODQPÕúYHJ|]GHQJHoLUPHVUHFLLOHLOJLOLRODUDNGDNLNDH÷LWLPYHULOPLúWLU+HUELU
NDWÕOÕPFÕQÕQ LNL D\UÕ Vistem gHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQÕ J|]GHQ JHoLUPHVLQL PPNQ
NÕOPDN DPDFÕ\OD D\UÕ JUXS ROXúWXUXOPXúWXU Sistemlerin UML içeren ve içermeyen
YHUVL\RQODUÕ LOH Woplam 4 DGHW JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕ 7DEOR ’deki gibi DWDQPÕúWÕU
%|\OHFH KHU ELU NDWÕOÕPFÕ hem UML içeren ve LoHUPH\HQ LNL D\UÕ GRNPDQÕ J|]GHQ
JHoLUHELOPLúWLU. 7DVDUÕP ROXúDELOHFHN|÷UHQPHHWNLVLni GHD]DOWPÕúWÕU
435
4
Veri Analizi ve Sonuçlar
'HQH\ JUXSODUÕQGD \HUDODQ |÷UHQFLOHULQ GD÷ÕOÕPÕ QRW RUWDODPDODUÕ YH |Q WHVWWHQ
DOGÕNODUÕVRQXoODUDJ|UHEDúODQJÕoWDKRPRMHQRODUDNGD÷ÕWÕOPÕúODUGÕ1RWRUWDODPDODUÕQÕ
(CGPA) JHQHODNDGHPLNEDúDUÕVÕYH|QWHVWVRQXoODUÕQÕ80/ELOJLOHULQL|OoPHDPDFÕ\
ODNXOODQGÕN%XGH÷HUOHULNXOODQDUDNJUXSROXúWXUXOGX$QFDNH÷LWLPHNDWÕODQGRNX]
|÷UHQFLQLQGHQH\HNDWÕOPDPDVÕQHGHQL\OHJUXSODUDUDVÕQGDSODQODQDQGHQJHGHQVDSPD
ROXúWX Tablo 2 5'GH÷LúNHQLiçin betimsel istatistik GH÷HUOHULQLJ|VWHUPHNWHGLUDenH\HNDWÕODQNDWÕOÕPFÕ$129$YDUVD\ÕPODUÕQÕVD÷ODGÕ>@.
Tablo 25'gUQHNOHP7DQÕPÕ1 RD
CDD
Min
Max
2,00
0
27
17
Averaj
10,03
6,74
Sapma
4,894
3,778
Min
Max
0
0
10
20
HSDFP-
Averaj
2,69
3,29
Sapma
2,281
3,529
.XOODQÕODQ GRNPDQ 80/ GL\DJUDP LoHUGL÷LQGH haFPL DUWPDVÕQD NDUúÕQ
NDWÕOÕPFÕODU GRNPDQÕQ 80/ LoHUPHGL÷L GXUXPD RUDQOD GDKD ID]OD KDWD raporODPÕúODUGÕU ùHNLO 6DGHFH 5' GH÷LO D\QÕ ]DPDQGD &'' GH÷LúNHQL LoLQ GH 80/
GL\DJUDPÕ LoHUHQ GRNPDQODU LQFHOHQGL÷LQGH GDKD ID]OD VD\ÕGD GR÷UX KDWD WHVSLW
ediOPLúWLU ùHNLO 2). 7HVSLW HGLOHQ WP KDWDODUÕQ |QHP GHUHFHVL D\QÕ GH÷LOGLU >@
dDOÕúPDGD ³dL÷HU” hata tipi DOWÕQGD, genellikle \D]ÕP LOH LOJLOL KDWDODUÕn, öteki hata
tiplerine nazaran “daha az önemli” ROGXNODUÕ YDUVD\ÕOGÕ. Bu nedenle HSD GH÷HUL
KHVDSODQÕrken, “GL÷HU” türüne giren hatalar NDSVDPGÕúÕQGDWXWulPXúWXU
Not ortalaPDODUÕ ED]OÕ ROXúWXUXODQ KHU ELU JUXS LoLQGH 80/ GL\DJUDP EXOXQDQ
GRNPDQGD GDKD ID]OD KDWD ROGX÷XQX UDSRUODPÕúWÕU ùHNLO 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ
UDSRUODQDQ KDWD VD\ÕVÕQD RODQ NDWNÕVÕ \NVHN DNDGHPLN RUWDODPD GH÷HULQH VDKLS olan
|÷UHQFLOHU DUDVÕQGD HQ D]GÕU. øNLQFL J|]GHQ JHoLUPHGH GDKD D] VD\ÕGD hata raporODQPÕúWÕUùHNLO.
dDOÕúPDGD \HUDODn tüm istatistik testlerde alfa düzeyi NXOODQÕOGÕ .DWÕOÕPFÕODU
DUDVÕQGDNL WHVWOHU GRNPDQODUÕQ LQFHOHQPH VÕUDVÕ YH DNDGHPLN RUWDODPD JUXEX
GH÷LúNHQOHULQLQ 5' GH÷LúNHQL ]HULQGH DQODPOÕ HWNLVL ROGX÷XQX J|VWHUGL 7DEOR YH
Tablo 4$129$WHVWVRQXoODUÕQÕDQODWDQWDEORODUGDúXNÕVDOWPDODU NXOODQÕOPÕúWÕUKT:
.DUHOHU7RSODPÕP Ortalama, SDQODPOÕOÕNGHUHFHVL, *$*UXSODU$UDVÕ*ø*UXSøoL
T: Toplam
P
Q
A
25
RD
20
A
15
A
10
A
A
A
5
0,00
0,25
0,50
0,75
1,00
0,00
0,25
0,50
0,75
HasUM L
HasUM L
ùHNLO 1.HasUML YHøQFHOHQHQ'RNPDQ%D]ÕQGD5'
436
1,00
A
10,0
A
A
A
A
20,00
A
HSD
CDD
7,5
5,0
10,00
A
2,5
0,00
A
A
0,0
0,00
0,25
0,50
0,75
1,00
0,00
0,25
HasUML
0,50
0,75
1,00
HasUML
ùHNLO 2+DV80/%D]ÕQGD&DD ve HSD
$129$ WHVW VRQXoODUÕ GRNPDQ LQFHOHPH VÕUDVÕ )129,1=31,233, p=0,000) ve
DNDGHPLN QRW RUWDODPDVÕ JUXEX )118,3 S GH÷LúNHQOHULQLQ 5' LOH DQ
ODPOÕLOLúNLVLROGX÷XQXJ|VWHUPLúWLUDRNPDQLQFHOHPHVÕUDVÕYH akademik performans
GH÷LúNHQOHULLOLúNLOLGH÷LOGLU
5'5DSRUODQDQ KDWD VD\ÕVÕ A129$ WHVWLQLQ VRQXoODUÕ +DV80/ GH÷LúNHQLQLQ
UDSRUODQDQ KDWD VD\ÕVÕ GH÷LúNHQL VWQGH DQODPOÕ ELU HWNLVL ROGX÷XQX J|VWHUPLúWLU
) S .DWÕOÕPFÕODUJ|]GHQJHoLULOHQGRNPDQ80/GL\DJUDPODU
LoHUGL÷LQGHGDKDID]ODVD\ÕGDKDWDUDSRUODPÕúODUGÕr (Tablo 5).
&'''R÷UXEHOLUOHQHQKDWDVD\ÕVÕ): $129$WHVWLQLQVRQXoODU+DV80/GH÷LúNHni
LOH &'' GH÷LúNHQL DUDVÕQGD DQODPOÕ ELU LOLúNL ROGX÷XQX ELOGLUPHNWeGLU .DWÕOÕPFÕODU
LQFHOHQHQGRNPDQODUÕQ80/GL\DJUDPLoHUPHVLGXUXPXQGDGDKDID]ODVD\ÕGDGR÷UX
hatD\ÕEHOLUOHPLúOHUGLU(F129,1=7,253, p=0,008) (Tablo 7).
+6'%XOXQDQ|QHPOLKDWDVD\ÕVÕ $129$WHVWLQLQVRQXoODUÕ+DV80/GH÷LúNHQ
LQLQ +6' GH÷LúNHQL VWQGH DQODPOÕ ELU LOLúkisi olmadÕ÷ÕQÕ J|VWHUPHNWHGLU 7DEOR ).
$QODPOÕ ROPa\DQ EX LOLúNLQLQ QHGHQL EHOLUOHQHQ D] |QHP GHUHFHVLQH VDKLS KDWDODUÕQ
ND\GHGLOPHVLQHGHQL\OHGL÷HUKDWDODUÕQWHVSLWHGLOPHVLLoLQNDODQ]DPDQÕQVÕQÕUOÕROPDVÕ
olabilir. .DWÕOÕPFÕODU 80/ GL\DJUDP LoHUHQ GRNPDQODU LQFHOHGLNOHULQGH 80/
LoHUPH\HQGRNPDQDQD]DUDQGDKDID]ODVD\ÕGD|QHPOLKDWDEHOLUOHPLúOHUGLU ùHNLO
)3<DQOÕú3R]LWLI): $129$WHVWVRQXoODUÕ+DV80/GH÷LúNHQLQLQ)3]HULQGHDQ
ODPOÕ ELU HWNLVL ROPDGÕ÷ÕQÕ |QHUPLúWLU )3 )129,1=2,250, p=0,136). (Tablo 9).
.DWÕOÕPFÕODU80/GL\DJUDPODUGDKLOHGLOGL÷LQGHGDKDID]ODVD\ÕGD)3rDSRUODPÕúODUGÕU
ùHNLO
AT(Harcanan Zaman): *|]GHQ JHoLUPH VUHFLQGH KDUFDQPDVÕ LoLQ EHOLUOHQHQ ]D
PDQÕQ VW OLPLWL ROPDVÕQD NDUúÕQ $129$ WHVW VRQXoODUÕ 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQ GDKLO
edilmesinin gözden geçirme sürecinde harcanan zaman üstünde pozitif ve anlamOÕELU
HWNLVLROGX÷XQX|QHUPLúWLU(F126,1=25,564, 0,000) (Tablo 10). (ùHNLO
Tablo 3. RD ve CGPA-Group ANOVA
KT
GA
190,125
df
m
F
Tablo 4. RD ve CEGT-Total ANOVA
p
3 63,375 2,776 ,044
KT
GA
df
95,696
m
5 19,139
*ø
2625,152 115 22,827
*ø
3018,182 125 24,145
T
2815,277 118
T
3113,878 130
437
F
p
,793 ,557
Tablo 5. RD ve HasUML ANOVA
KT
GA
df
m
231,209
F
Tablo 65'YH6ÕUD$129$
p
KT
1 231,209 10,347 ,002
GA
df
608,957
m
*ø
2882,669 129 22,346
*ø
2506,921 129 19,433
T
3113,878 130
T
3113,878 130
1,00
F
p
1 806,957 31,233 ,000
2,00
A
25
RD
20
15
A
A
A
10
A
5
3,00
4,00
25
RD
20
S
15
A
A
A
A
A
10
5
S
0,00
0,25
0,50
0,75
1,00
0,00
0,25
0,50
0,75
1,00
HasUM L
HasUM L
ùHNLO 3$NDGHPLN3HUIRUPDQV*UXSODUÕYH+DV80/'H÷LúNHQOHUL%D]ÕQGD5'
0
1
A
25
RD
20
15
A
10
A
A
A
5
1
2
1
Order
2
Order
ùHNLO 46ÕUD(Order) YH+DV80/%D]ÕQGD5'
438
'HQH\VRQUDVÕ\DSÕODQDQNHWHJ|UHNXOODQÕODQPDWHU\DOQH]RUQHGHNROD\GÕU, süre
X\JXQGXU .DWÕOÕPFÕODU 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQ J|]GHQ JHoLUPH VUHFLQGH ID\GDOÕ
ROGXNODUÕQÕEHOLUWPHOHULQHNDUúÕQGL\DJUDPODUÕD\UÕQWÕOÕRODUDNLQFHOHPHPLúOHrdir.
df
98,761
m
F
A
p
7,5
1 98,761 7,253 ,008
*ø
1756,415 129 13,616
T
1855,176 130
HSD
KT
GA
KT
df
3,267
m
1
*ø
672,901 129
T
676,168 130
F
3,267
p
df
27,749
GA
A
A
0,0
,626 ,430
0,00
0,25
0,50
0,75
1,00
HasUML
5,216
ùHNLO+DV80/%D]ÕQGD+6'
Tablo 9. FP ANOVA
KT
5,0
2,5
Tablo 8. HSD ANOVA
GA
A
10,0
Tablo 7. CDD ANOVA
m
F
p
15,00
1 27,749 2,250 ,136
1591,228 129 12,335
T
1618,977 130
A
FP
*ø
A
20,00
10,00
5,00
A
A
0,00
1600
0,00
0,25
0,50
A
0,75
1,00
HasUML
Time
1200
ùHNLO+DV80/%D]ÕQGD)3
A
800
TABLO 10. AT ANOVA
400
KT
0
1
HasUML
ùHNLO. +DV80/%D]ÕQGD$7
GA
4573363
df
m
*ø
22540886 126 178895,924
T
27114250 127
439
F
p
1 4573363,200 25,564 ,000
dDOÕúPD6RQXoODUÕQÕQ.DUúÕODúWÕUÕOPDVÕ
g]JQ oDOÕúPDGD ROGX÷X JLbi 80/ GL\DJUDPODUÕQÕQ JHUHNVLQLP GRNPDQÕQD
HNOHQPHVLQLQUDSRUODQDQKDWDVD\ÕVՁVWQGHDQODPOÕ ve pozitif etkisi gözlemlenmiúWLU.
g]JQ oDOÕúPDGD +DV80/¶LQ &'' GH÷LúNHQL VWQGH DQODPOÕ ELU HWNLVL EXOXQ
PDPÕúWÕUreplikasyonda ise +DV80/LOH&''DUDVÕQGDDQODPOÕLOLúNLJ|]OHPOHQPLúWLU
5HSOLNDV\RQ oDOÕúPDVÕQGD WDQÕPODQDQ +6' YH )3 GH÷LúNHQOHUL VWQGH +DV80/
GH÷LúNHQLQLQDQODPOÕHWNLVLJ|]OHPOHQPHPLúWLUgWH\DQGDQ+DV80/GH÷LúNHQLQLQ$7
GH÷LúNHQLVWQGH pozitif ve DQODPOÕHWNLVLYDUGÕU
Akademik not orWDODPDVÕED]ÕQGDWPJUXSODU80/GL\DJUDPÕLoHUHQGRNPDQODUÕ
NXOODQGÕNODUÕQGD GDKD ID]OD VD\ÕGD KDWD UDSRUODPÕúODUGÕU 5DSRUODQDQ KDWD VD\ÕODUÕ
DUDVÕQGDNL IDUN DNDGHPLN SHUIRUPDQVÕ HQ GúN RODQ JUXSWD HQ \NVHNWLU $NDGHPLN
SHUIRUPDQVÕHQ\NVHNRODQJUXpta ise bu fark minimumdur.
5
Geçerlilik Tehditleri
øo JHoHUOLOLN ELU oDOÕúPDQÕQ VRQXoODUÕQÕQ WDVDUÕPÕQGDNL KDWDODUD GH÷LO GH PDQLSOH
HGLOHQ ED÷ÕPVÕ] GH÷LúNHQOHUH ED÷ODQDELOPH GHUHFHVL GÕú JHoHUOLOLN JHQHOOHúWirme ile
ilgilidir [34]. <D]ÕOÕPPKHQGLVOL÷LLOHLOJLOLoDOÕúPDODUGD|÷UHQFLOHULQNDWÕOÕPFÕROPD
ODUÕ\D\JÕQGÕU>@ g÷UHQFLOHULQNDWÕOPDVÕQÕQFLGGLELUWHKGLWROPDGÕ÷ÕQÕGúQ\RUX]
.DWÕOÕPFÕODU DODQ ELOJLVL \HULQH 80/ PRGHOOHPH ELOJLVLQH WDQÕGÕN ELUH\OHUGLU g]JQ
GHQH\OH UHSOLNDV\RQ oDOÕúPDVÕ DUDVÕQGDNL HQ |QHPOL IDUNÕQ L\LOHúWLUPHQLQ NXOODQÕODQ
PDWHU\DOOHU E\NON YH NDUPDúÕNOÕN NDWÕOÕPFÕODUÕQ DODQ ELOJLVLQH RODQ \DNÕQOÕNODUÕ
YHGHQH\|QFHVLQGHYHULOHQH÷LWLPLOHGHQH\VRQUDVÕYH|QFHVL\DSÕODQWHVWOHUROGX÷XQX
bildirmeliyiz. Replikasyon çDOÕúPDVÕQGDNL PDWHU\DOOHU |]JQ oDOÕúPDGDNLQGHQ
IDUNOÕGÕU )DUNOÕPDWHU\DOOHULQNXOODQÕOPDVÕGÕúJHoHUOLOL÷LQLQDUWÕUÕOPDVÕQGD\DUGÕPFÕGÕU.
2NXPDWHNQL÷LJ|]GHQJHoLUPHVUHFLQLQHWNLQOL÷LQGH|QHPOLELUGH÷LúNHQGLU>
8, 10]. )DUNOÕELU RNXPDWHNQL÷LQLQNXOODQÕOPDVÕJHoHUOilLNWHKGLWOHULQLD]DOWDFDNWÕU
dDOÕúPDX\JXODPDVÕQGDGHQH\LWDVDUOD\DQYHVRQXoODUÕQÕGH÷HUOHQGLUHQ\D]DUGÕúÕQ
GD oDOÕúPD\OD GR÷UXGDQ LOJLVL ROPD\DQ J|QOO LNL IDUNOÕ |÷UHWLP HOHPDQÕQÕQ görev
DOPDVÕ deneyi yaSDQ NLúL |Q\DUJÕVÕQÕ D]DOWPÕúWÕU. Ö÷UHWLP HOHPDQODUÕ ve NDWÕOÕPFÕlar
|÷UHQFLOHUoDOÕúPDQÕQKLSRWH]OHULYHDUDúWÕUPDVRUXODUÕKDNNÕQGDELOJLVDKLELGH÷LOGLUOHU
<DSÕVDOJHoHUOLNLOHLOJLOLRODUDNLNLQFLDúDPDGD|÷UHQFLOHULQELUNÕVPÕQÕQGHQH\L erken
WDPDPODPDH÷LOLPGHROPDVÕJ|]OHPOHQPLúWLU
6
6RQXoYH*HOHFHNdDOÕúPDODU
dDOÕúPDVRQXoODUÕ|]JQoDOÕúPDGDUDSRUODQDQKDWDVD\ÕVÕ GH÷LúNHQLLOHLlgili bulguODUÕGHVWHNOHUNHQGR÷UXEHOLUOHQHQKDWDVD\ÕVÕ GH÷LúNHQLLOHLOJLOLEXOJXODUODoHOLúPHNWH
dir. 'RNPDQ KDFPLQGH GL\DJUDPODUÕQ GDKLO HGLOPHVL\OH DUWÕúD NDUúÕQ D\QÕ ]DPDQGD
EXOXQDQGR÷UXKDWDVD\ÕVÕGL\DJUDPODUÕQGDKLOHGLOGL÷LGXUXPODUGDGDKDID]ODGÕURepOLNDV\RQGD \HQL GH÷LúNHQOHU KDWD WLSOHUL |QHP GHUHFHOHUL \DQOÕú KDWD VD\ÕVÕ YH
NXOODQÕODQ ]DPDQ GD LQFHOHQPLúWLU dDOÕúPDGD J|]GHQ geçirenlerin etkinlikleri inceleQHQ GRNPDQ 80/ LoHUGL÷LQGH DQODPOÕ RODUDN DUWDUNHQ YHULPOLOLNOHUL DQODPOÕ RODUDN
D]DOPÕúWÕU.DWÕOÕPFÕODU80/LoHUHQGRNPDQLQFHOHPHOHULQGHGDKDID]OD]DPDQKDU
FDPÕúYHGDKDID]ODVD\ÕGDKDWDUDSRUODPÕúODUGÕU(WNLQOLNDUWÕPÕ80/¶OHULQJHUHNOHULQ
DQODúÕOPDODUÕQD RODQ NDWNÕODUÕ LOH LOLúNLOHQGLULOHELOLUNHQ YHULPOLOLNWHNL D]DOPD GD GL
440
\DJUDPODUÕQ RNXQPDVÕ LoLQ KDUFDQDQ HN ]DPDQ NXOODQÕPÕ LOH DoÕNODQDELOLU Kesin ve
JHQHOOHúWLUHELOLUsonuçlar elde edilmesi için daha fazla sayÕGDYHIDUNOÕortamlarda repOLNDV\RQ oDOÕúPDODUÕQÕQ \DSÕOPDVÕ JHUHNPHNWHGLU dDOÕúPDGD NXOODQÕODQ PDWHU\DOOHULQ
TürNoHYHøQJLOL]FHYHUVL\RQODUÕLoLQ\D]DULOHED÷ODQWÕ\DJHoLOPHVLQL|QHUL\RUX]
7
7HúHNNU
Marcela Genero Bocco(UKDQ<FHHUYH7XQD.ÕOÕo¶D \RUXPODUÕ, Duygu Albayrak,
Syed A. Ali YHNDWÕOÕPFÕODUDoDOÕúPDQÕQJHUoHNOHúPHVLQGHNLNDWNÕODUÕLoLQWHúHNNUOHU.
8
[1]
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[4]
[5]
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[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
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