Chapter 9 - Dr. Aykan Candemir

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Chapter 9 - Dr. Aykan Candemir
Chapter 9
Buying and Disposing
CONSUMER
BEHAVIOR, 10e
Michael R. Solomon
9-1
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Figure 9.1 Issues Related to Purchase
and Postpurchase Activities
• A consumer‟s choices are affected by
many personal factors…and the sale
doesn‟t end at the time of purchase
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9-2
Social and Physical Surroundings
• Affect a consumer‟s motives for product
usage and product evaluation
• Décor, odors, temperature
• Co-consumers as product attribute
• Large numbers of people = arousal
• Interpretation of arousal: density versus
crowding
• Type of patrons
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9-3
Temporal Factors: Economic Time
Timestyle
Time Poverty
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9-4
Temporal Factors: Psychological Time
Social
Temporal Orientation
Planning Orientation
Polychronic
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9-5
Five Perspectives on Time
• A study looked at how the timestyles of a group of
American women influence their consumption choices. The
researchers found four dimensions of time.
• The social dimension refers to individuals‟ categorization of
time as either “time for me” or “time with/for others.”
• The temporal orientation dimension depicts the relative
significance individuals attach to past, present, or future.
• The planning orientation dimension alludes to different time
management styles varying on a continuum from analytic
to spontaneous.
• The polychronic orientation dimension distinguishes
between people who prefer to do one thing at a time from
those who multitask.
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9-6
Five Perspectives on Time
• Time is a _____.
• Pressure cooker
• Map
• Mirror
• River
• Feast
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9-7
Five Perspectives on Time
1 „Time is a pressure cooker: Women who personify this metaphor are usually
analytic in their planning, other oriented, and monochronic in their time styles. They
treat shopping in a methodical manner and they often feel under pressure and in
conflict.
2 Time is a map: Women who exemplify this metaphor are usually analytic planners,
have a future temporal orientation and a polychronic time style. They often engage in
extensive information search and in comparison shopping.
3 Time is a mirror: Women who come under this metaphor are also analytic planners
and have a polychromic orientation. However, they have a past temporal orientation.
Due to their risk averseness in time use, these women are usually loyal to products
and services they know and trust.
4 Time is a river: Women whose time styles can be described through this metaphor
are usually spontaneous in their planning orientation and have a present focus. They
go on unplanned, short and frequent shopping trips undertaken on impulse.
5 Time is feast: These women are analytic planners who have a present temporal
orientation. They view time as something to be consumed in the pursuit of sensory
pleasure and gratification and, hence, they are motivated by hedonic and variety
seeking desires in their consumption behavior.‟
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9-8
Temporal Factors:
The Experience of Time
• Culture and the experience of time
• Linear separable time
• Procedural time
• Circular/cyclic time
• Queuing theory
• Waiting for product = good quality
• Too much waiting = negative feelings
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9-9
Temporal Factors:
The Experience of Time
• People around the world think about the passage of time very
differently. Westerners tend to think of time as linear separable time.
Events proceed in an orderly sequence and there is a time and place
for everything. We do things today that will help us in the future.
People who view time as procedural tend to ignore the clock
completely. People simply decide to do something when the time is
right. Circular or cyclic time is based on natural cycles. This view of
time is common among Hispanic cultures.
• How we experience time is an important factor in queuing theory.
Queuing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines. Our
experience waiting has an effect on our evaluations of the product and
experience at the end of the wait. When we have to wait on
something, initially we must feel that it is of higher quality. In other
words, that it is worth the wait. But after some time, we develop a
negative feeling toward having to wait. Because of the negative impact
of waiting experiences, marketers try to minimize the perception of
waiting.
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9-10
Figure 9.3 The Shopping Experience:
Dimensions of Emotional States
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9-11
Reasons for Shopping
•
•
•
•
•
Social experiences
Sharing of common interests
Interpersonal attraction
Instant status
The thrill of the hunt
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9-12
E-Commerce: Clicks versus Bricks
• Benefits: good customer
service, more options,
more convenient
• Limitations: lack of
security, fraud, actual
shopping experience,
shipping charges
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9-13
Retailing as Theater
•
•
•
•
Landscape themes
Marketscape themes
Cyberspace themes
Mindscape themes
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9-14
Retailing as Theater
● Landscape themes rely upon associations with images of nature,
earth, animals and the physical body.
● Marketscape themes build upon associations with man-made places.
An example is The Venetian hotel in Las Vegas that lavishly recreates
parts of the Italian city.
● Cyberspace themes are built around images of information and
communications technology. eBay‟s retail interface instils a sense of
community among its vendors and traders.
● Mindscape themes draw upon abstract ideas and concepts,
introspection and fantasy, and often possess spiritual overtones. At the
Seibu store in Tokyo, shoppers enter as neophytes at the first level. As
they progress through the physical levels of the store each is themed to
connote increasing levels of consciousness until they emerge at the
summit as completed shoppers.
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9-15
Store Image
• Store image: personality of the store
• Location + merchandise suitability +
knowledge/congeniality of sales staff
• Other intangible factors affecting overall
store evaluation:
• Interior design
• Types of patrons
• Return policies
• Credit availability
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9-16
Category Killer Mağazaları- Ürünlerin Tanzim
ve Teşhiri
Louis Vuitton Japonya
Louis Vuitton Japonya
APPLE STORE
New York, ABD
TASARIMCI:
BOHLIN
CYWINSKI
JACKSON,
2006
Mağaza yerleşimi
LEVI’S FLAGSHIP
STORE
Berlin, Almanya
TASARIMCI:
CHECKLAND
KINDLEYSIDES,
2008
FedEx Makeover
BEFORE
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AFTER
9-28
Mağaza yerleşimi
Mağaza yerleşimi
CASIO, Londra, İngiltere,
2005
ALL
SAINTS,
Glasgow
,
İngiltere,
2003
VERTU STORE
Londra, İngiltere
TASARIMCI:
SHED DESIGN,
2007
SONY ERICSSON, FLAGSHIP STORE, TASARIMCI:
CHECKLAND KINDLEYSIDES, 2006
SONY ERICSSON, FLAGSHIP STORE, TASARIMCI:
CHECKLAND KINDLEYSIDES, 2006
WILLIAM & SONS
FLAGSHIP STORE
Londra, İngiltere
TASARIMCI:
SHED DESIGN,
2008
SELFRIDGES
Londra, İngiltere, 2006
TOPSHOP - New York, ABD – TASARIMCI: DALZIEL AND
POW, 2009
JCPenney
18-44
18-45
18-46
18-47
18-48
18-49
Michael Evans/Life File/Getty Images
18-50
Dış cephede mekansal öğeler, mağazanın marka kimliğini
yansıtan simgeler haline gelebilmektedir. Örneğin Elizabeth
Arden’in kırmızı kapısı.
HMKM, 2008
FULLCIRCLE, Londra, İngiltere, 2008
THORNTONS, Londra, İngiltere, TASARIMCI: CAULDER
MOORE, 2008
GINA CONCEPT
STORE
Dubai, BAE
TASARIMCI:
CAULDER
MOORE, 2009
SIZE?
Bristol, İngiltere,
TASARIMCI:
CHECKLAND
KINDLEYSIDES,
2009
LEVI’S POP-UP STORE, Farklı Yerler, TASARIMCI: CHECKLAND
KINDLEYSIDES, 2008
Kavisli Plan
4 Ürün sunumu ile satış alanı ortak bir alandadır,satıcı ile müşteri
birbirinden tam ayrılmamıştır.
5 Satıcı alanı müşteri alanından kesin olarak ayrılmıştır. müşteri
duvardaki ürünleri görebilir ve dokunabilir.
6 müşteri alanından iki yönlü ayrılmış satış alanı. Ürünlere
tezgahtan ulaşılır, müşteri alanında ancak örnekler ve reklam
vardır.
Lighting
18-72
İç Mekan Logo, Grafik, İşaret Levhaları
İç Mekan Logo, Grafik, İşaret Levhaları
İç Mekan Logo, Grafik, İşaret Levhaları
• Marka kimliği veya logosunun alışverişçinin
hafızasında yer alması
• 66 North mağazası; logoyu yansıtan grafik.
• Mağaza içi atmosferi desteklemek
• The Pop Shop mağazasında pop kültürünü yansıtmak amacıyla
yüzeylerde kullanılan grafiti desenleri
MARNI STORE, Londra, İngiltere, TASARIMCI: FUTURE SYSTEMS, 1999
İşaretlerin etkin Kullanımı için Öneriler
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mağaza imajına uygun olmalıdır
İşaretlerde uygun yüzler kullanılmalı
Müşteriler bilgilendirilmelidir
Sahne malzemesi olarak kullanılmalı
Her zaman yeni ve taze olmalı
Yazılar çok ve uzun olmamalı
İşaretlerde uygun harf karakterleri
kullanılmalıdır.
18-79
İşaretlerin etkin Kullanımı için Öneriler
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mağaza imajına uygun olmalıdır
İşaretlerde uygun yüzler kullanılmalı
Müşteriler bilgilendirilmelidir
Sahne malzemesi olarak kullanılmalı
Her zaman yeni ve taze olmalı
Yazılar çok ve uzun olmamalı
İşaretlerde uygun harf karakterleri
kullanılmalıdır.
18-80
BIZA FLAGSHIP-DUTY FREE
STORE
Manchester Havalimanı,
İngiltere
TASARIM: HMKM, 2008
Ürün Yerleşimi
• İlişkili kategoriler bir arada bulunmalı
• Ürün ve raflar mantıklı sıralanmalı
• Ürün rafta mümkünse sağ tarafta olmalıdır.Rafta
ürünler göz ve el hizasında ve kolaylıkla
erişilebilecek yerde olmaıdır.
Bir Tema Doğrultusunda Ürün Sunumu
Farklılığı ile İlgi Çeken Ürün Sunumları
Çözüm Getiren Ürün Sunumları
Çözüm Getiren Ürün Sunumları
Çözüm Getiren Ürün Sunumları
THE TIMBERLAND BOOT COMPANY, Londra,
İngiltere
TASARIMCI: CHECKLAND KINDLEYSIDES,
2005
Çözüm Getiren Ürün Sunumları
Planogramlar
18-90
Postpurchase Satisfaction
• Postpurchase satisfaction or
dissatisfaction is determined by attitude
about a product after purchase
• Marketers constantly on lookout for
sources of consumer dissatisfaction
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9-91
Quality Is What We Expect It to Be
• Expectancy Disconfirmation Model
• According to the expectancy disconfirmation model, we
form beliefs about product performance based on prior
experience with the product or communications about the
product that imply a certain level of quality. When
something performs the way we thought it would, we may
not think much about it. If it fails to live up to our
expectations, this may create negative feelings. However,
if performance happens to exceed our expectations, we‟re
happy. Because expectations ultimately control how
satisfied we feel, marketers must manage expectations.
They can do this by only promising what can actually be
delivered and by reassuring customers when products do
fail.
Copyright
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
9-92
Quality Is What We Expect It to Be
• Expectancy Disconfirmation Model
• Marketers must manage
expectations
• Don‟t overpromise
• When product fails,
reassure customers
with honesty
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9-93
Acting on Dissatisfaction
• Voice response: appeal to retailer directly
• Private response: express dissatisfaction
to friends or boycott store
• Third-party response: take legal action
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9-94
Divesting of Unwanted Items
Iconic Transfer Ritual
Transition Place Ritual
Ritual Cleansing
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9-95
Chapter Summary
• Many factors beyond the qualities of a
product influence purchase decisions.
• People can be influenced by store image,
point-of-purchase stimuli, salespeople,
and more as they make product choices.
• Consumers evaluate their choice after
making it and this evaluation affects future
choices.
• Disposing of products is a challenge.
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9-96

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