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Full - SEAHI PUBLICATIONS AND ACADEMIC JOURNALS
International Journal of Innovative Environmental Studies Research 3(1):1-13, Jan-Mar. 2015
© SEAHI PUBLICATIONS, 2015
www.seahipaj.org
ISSN: 2354-2918
EXAMINATION OF GÖNEN AND KOCASU RIVER DELTAS IN
TERMS OF LAND USE AND CHANGES IN SHORELINE
(NW TURKEY)
*EMRE Özşahin
University of Namık Kemal,
Değirmenaltı Campus
Faculty of Art and Science,
Department of Geography,
59030 Tekirdağ – TURKEY
Tel.: +90 282 250 26 96 – 2696
Fax: +90 282 250 99 25
*E-mail address corresponding author: [email protected]
Alternative E-mail address: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Deltas are among the most important geomorphologic elements in Turkey, the museum of coastal
morphology, whose sea coasts total to 9000 km even without the lake coasts added in. These
geomorphologic units are substantially different from other areas in terms of their geographical
features. This study aims to examine Gönen and Kocasu river deltas in terms of land use and
changes in shorelines and to introduce these deltas internationally. Also, an attempt has been
made to answer the following questions in the study: “What other large deltas in the world are
similar to these deltas?; “What characteristic features of these deltas can be associated with the
large deltas of the world?”; “What sort of changes have been observed in time in these deltas in
terms of land use and shoreline?”; and “What are the reasons for and the results of these
changes?”. 1/25.000 scale topography and soil and 1/100.000 scale geology maps were used in
the study as basic and base maps. In addition, satellite images with various dating and detecting
features were used. These materials were processed through such techniques as Geographical
Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). All the work was checked by means of insitu field work. It has been concluded that Gönen ve Kocasu river deltas in the coast of the Sea of
Marmara can be associated with the world famous Nile (Egypt) and Tiber (Italy) river deltas in
terms of delta formation periods and geometrical shapes. It has also been found that these two
deltas have characteristic features that can be included in the world literature. Changes involving
an increase in agriculture, settlement, and underbrush and a decrease in forest and open fields
have been identified in the delta areas. Shorelines in both deltas have regressed, though slightly.
Key words: Coastal morphology, Delta, Sea of Marmara, Gönen Brook Delta, Kocasu River
Delta
INTRODUCTION
Deltas are coastal prairies formed by sediments collected by erosion and corrosion caused by
rivers and later shaped by secondary forces such as waves, currents, and tides (İnandık, 1971;
Coleman & Wright, 1975; Gollaway, 1975; Elliott, 1986; Wright, 1985; Coleman et al., 1986;
Coleman & Roberts, 1988; Whateley & Pickering, 1989; Oti & Postma, 1995; Bloom, 1991;
Monroe & Wicander, 2005; Schwartz, 2005; Hoşgören, 2010; 2011). In addition, these units are
sediment masses which have a wide variety of morphology and storage types (Orton & Reading,
1993; Hill et al., 2001; Bird, 2008). Hence, in recent years they have been described and
identified as sediment masses in outfalls that accompany coastal progression (positively or
negatively) (Özşahin, 2009).
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In order for a delta to form, sediments collected by the rivers should not be carried away by
marine processes (waves, currents, and tides), and the sediments should be larger in quantity than
the materials that are carried in this manner (Coleman, 1981; Hori et al., 2002).
These areas have a sensitive structure in which both land and marine ecosystems are integrated
(Whateley & Pickering, 1989; Wright, 1985). However, intense and unconscious increase in land
use change in these morphological units that are extremely rich in both terrestrial and
subterranean resources (Morgan & Shaver, 1970; Lou Broussard, 1975; Giosan & Bhattacharya,
2005) has led to deterioration in the sensitive balance in these areas. As a result of increased
human impact on these areas, such practices as agriculture, animal husbandry, settlements,
tourism, industry, and transportation have endangered the sophisticated balance in the dynamic
systems in the deltas.
Since some of the delta formation impacts are observable and traceable, they present both recent
geological (Whateley & Pickering, 1989; Oti & Postma, 1995; Kazancı et al., 1999) and recent
geomorphologic situations (Erinç, 1995; Öner et al., 2002; Erol, 2003; Öner, 2008) and hence
support the accurate interpretation of paleogeography.
Deltas are among the most important geomorphologic elements in Turkey, the museum of coastal
morphology, whose sea coasts total to 9000 km even without the lake coasts added in (Ekinci &
Özşahin, 2012). These geomorphologic units are substantially different from other areas in terms
of their geographical features.
This study aims to examine Gönen and Kocasu river deltas in the Sea of Marmara (Güneysu,
1998), which are the modern representations of deltas which have been developing since the Late
Quaternary (Kazancı et al., 1999; Emre et al., 1998; Alçiçek et al., 2003), in terms of land use and
changes in shorelines and to introduce these deltas internationally (Figure 1). In addition,
similarities between the characteristic features of some of the important deltas of the world and
those of these deltas that are different in terms of facies distribution and geometries are provided.
Figure 1. Location of Gönen and Kocasu river deltas
The present study makes an attempt to answer the following questions: “What other large deltas
in the world are similar to these deltas?”; “What characteristic features of these deltas can be
associated with the large deltas of the world?”; “What sort of changes have been observed in time
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in these deltas in terms of land use and shoreline?”; “What are the reasons for and the results of
these changes?”.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Change occurring in the course of time can be determined by comparing and contrasting past and
present data (Chen et al., 1998; Skalet et al., 1992; Sesli et al., 2010; İrtem & Sacin, 2012). In
today’s studies in these fields, such techniques as Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and
Remote Sensing (RS) are used for data collection, analysis, and mapping (Anonymous, 1995;
Johnston et al., 2000; Verburg et al., 2009; Somuncu et al., 2010).
The present study has also employed this method in order to identify the changes in land use and
shorelines in the delta areas. Satellite images with different dating and detection features have
been used for this aim (Table 1). Land use map has been created by using satellite images of the
year 1987 and the year 2009 since both deltas have had similarities in this regard. Land use map
of the year 2010 has been created by the help of field work and satellite images of the year 2009.
Shoreline changes in delta coasts have been obtained through the oldest and most recent satellite
images and maps.
Table 1. Satellite images used
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
Path/Row
195/032
180/032
180/032
194/032
181/032
181/032
Location
Gönen river delta
Gönen river delta
Gönen river delta
Kocasu river delta
Kocasu river delta
Kocasu river delta
Sensor
Landsat MSS
Landsat TM
Landsat TM
Landsat MSS
Landsat TM
Landsat TM
Acquisition data
01.06.1975
11.05.1987
26.08.2009
15.11.1972
05.06.1987
26.08.2009
In addition to these materials and the related literature, 1/25.000 scale raster topography sheets
prepared by the General Command of Mapping have been used as basic and base maps. These
topography maps have been digitized and transferred to digital environment in vector format.
These maps have been processed through related methods and techniques.
The geological features in the coastal area where rivers flow to the sea have been compiled from
1/100.000 and 1/500.000 scale geology sheets prepared by the General Directorate of Mineral
Research and Exploration. In addition, information regarding the sediments carried to the deltas
has been obtained from the observation catalogues dated 1996 prepared by Electrical Power
Resources Survey and Development Administration. Climate data have been obtained from the
Republic of Turkey General Directorate of Meteorology Gönen and Bursa Meteorology Stations
by going through climate data of many years. Data regarding soil characteristics have been
obtained from 1/25,000 scale digital soil maps presented by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of
Food, Agriculture, and Livestock and the analysis of soil samples collected during field work.
All data obtained through the mentioned methods have been combined within the framework of
the study and used to seek answers to the research questions from a geographical standpoint.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Changes in land use and shoreline in Gönen river delta
Gönen river delta is located in northwest Turkey between the east meridians 54° 41' 00'' and 56°
07' 08'' and between the north parallels 44° 56' 49'' and 44° 66' 44'' (UTM Zone 37N – WGS84).
The delta area of 33.4 km² is formed by Gönen river with a drainage area of 2174 km² and a main
branch length of 134 km. The coastal length of the delta is 13 km; its slope is 1.6‰, and its
progression amount is 5.5 km. Its total area that does not contain water is 28 km² (Kazancı et al.,
1999).
Delta area is wave-dominant in terms of its processes, sandy in terms of its lithologic structure,
and bears crescent shaped delta characteristics geometrically (Özşahin, 2009). Gönen river delta is
similar to Nile river delta in Egypt in terms of these features (Ekinci & Özşahin, 2012) because
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both Nile river delta and Gönen river delta are wave dominant deltas with distributing channels
(Figure 2).
Figure 2. Map of Nil river delta and Gönen river delta
In the delta area formed by Quaternary period alluvial sediments, alluvium density has been
identified to be 64 m as a result of the drilling provided by the Republic of Turkey State
Hydraulic Works. Sandy levels are located at the top part of the density (14 m). Below the sandy
level, graveled (7.5 m), sandy-graveled (8.5 m), clayed-graveled (16 m), and silty-graveled (18 m)
levels are aligned. Further below, main rock is situated (Kazancı et al., 1997).
Delta area has a geological characteristic bordered by Neocene formations that surround it. These
geological characteristics have also caused tectonics to have impact on the delta. The KepekliÇifteçeşmeler and Edincik-Bandırma faults that border the delta area in the south play an
important role in this regard. That has caused the delta to progress towards the active fault
rigidities and directly resulted not only in residual provisions but in the changes in sea levels as
well (Kazancı et al., 1999).
The formation of delta geomorphology can be attributed to erosion and deposition caused by
tectonic movements as well as river and wave processes (Yalçınlar, 1946; Hüsam, 1987; Efe,
1993a; Efe, 1993b; Cürebal, 1999; Soykan & Cürebal, 1999; Okumuş, 2006). Old river courses,
marshlands, free meander shapes, sand shapes, accumulation ranges, terrace levels, lakes, and
lagoons can be seen on the delta area (Cürebal, 1999; Efe, 1995; Figure 3).
Figure 3. Geomorphology and shoreline changes map of Gönen river delta
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Gönen River arises from a strait with anchored embedded meanders, keeps creating meanders,
and lies towards north by creating two meander bends. Both of these two meanders develop
towards east. The one in the south is larger compared to the one in the north. Also natural sets
seen on the sides of these meander bends from place to place have created a certain level of
elevation on the delta plain (Cürebal, 1999).
The delta area is under the influence of Mediterranean climate as a macroclimate type (Efe,
1997). According to Tahirova meteorology station data, annual average temperature is 14.5 °C.
The coldest month is January with 5.4 °C, and the hottest month is July with 23.8 °C. Annual
rainfall in the delta area is 580.5 mm. 39.17% of the annual rainfall is observed in winter; 28.82%
is observed in spring; and 27.36 % is observed in autumn. Total rainfall in summer is 9.56%.
Gönen River, which has an irregular flow regime, has an average flow of 14.2 m³/s, with
maximum and minimum transient flows being 911 m³/s and 0.024 m³/s respectively (EİE, 1996).
The drainage area of Gönen river delta is under the impact of active tectonics (Şaroğlu et al.,
1987; Emre et al., 1997a; 1997b; 1998; Kazancı et al., 1999; Alçiçek, 2003). That causes a rather
high denudation and loss of soil compared to other rivers on the same climate zone (Kazancı et
al., 1997; 1999). The denudation rate of the brook varies between 0.141 and 0.003 ton/km³/year,
and the total soil loss varies between 306.9 and 6.3 ton/year.
According to the results of 3 soil analyses on different parts of Gönen river delta, there is only
Entisol (taxonomy classification) type soil groups in the vicinity. This soil type has a clayey and
clayed clayey characteristic. Lime ratio is between 1.5% and 2.5%. pH ratio and degree are
between light acid with a value of 6.39 and light alkali with a value of 8.65. It has already been
determined that soils in deltas receive an acidic characteristic as they get closer to shoreline from
the delta area. That is caused by the lagoon environments in the shores where fresh and salty
waters mingle densely.
Gönen river delta also called Tahirova (Efe, 1993a; Efe, 1993b; Cürebal, 1999; Soykan &
Cürebal, 1999; Okumuş, 2006) is an area where agricultural activities are common. This area is
used for rice, wheat, and corn cultivation. Agricultural use with no scruples and with a high level
of competition has brought about substantial changes in land use. Hence, major changes have
occurred in shoreline between the years 1975 and 2010, and changes in land use have taken place
between the years 1987 and 2010 (Tables 2; 3; Figures 4; 5).
Table 2. Changes in land use in Gönen river delta
1987
Landuse
Settements
Agricultural Areas
Forest Areas
Scrub Areas
Bare Areas
Total
2010
ha
%
ha
%
70.6
3401.1
1311.6
1077.1
2771.4
0.8
39.4
15.2
12.5
32.1
192.5
5139.9
334.6
1267.6
1556.8
2.3
60.5
3.9
14.9
18.3
8631.8
100.0 8491.5 100.0
Table 3. Shoreline changes in Gönen river delta
Shoreline
1975
2010
Total Changes
Length (m)
14.6
14.8
0.2
5
Total
Change
(%)
1.4
21.1
-11.3
2.4
-13.8
Emre …. Int. J. Innovative Environ. Studies Res. 3(1):1-13, 2015
Figure 4. Land use changes map of Gönen river delta
Figure 5. Land use changes -Quantity Rate (%) in Gönen river delta
The biggest change in land use in Gönen river delta has been observed in agriculture in the abovementioned years. In the area, the agricultural land which was 3401.1 ha and had a ratio of 39.4%
in 1987 expanded to 5139.9 ha and had a ratio of 60.5% in 2010 (Table 2, Figures 4-5). This
change by 21.1% in 23 years occurring in agricultural land shows itself as an increase. Such
increase is the result of pressure on the agricultural lands due to intense rice production in the
delta in the recent years (Özşahin, 2008).
The second biggest change in the delta area is related to underbrush areas. These areas which
were 1077.1 ha and had a ratio of 12.5% in 1987 increased to 1267.6 ha and had a ratio of 14.9%
in 2010. However, this total increase by 2.4% caused a decrease in the forest areas. Hence, the
forest areas showed a decrease of 11.3% between 1987 (1311.6 ha-15.2%) and 2010 (334.6 ha3.9%) (Table 2; Figures 4-5). This decrease is parallel to the expansion of agricultural areas.
When maps in Figure 4 are compared, it can be seen that agricultural areas have occupied the
underbrush areas, and underbrush areas have occupied the forest areas.
The least change in the related years has been observed in settlements by 1.4%. The settlement
areas which were 70.6 ha and had a ratio of 0.8% in 1987 expanded to 192.5 ha and had a ratio of
2.3% in 2010. This expansion is parallel with the increase in population.
Open fields, the last level of land use, showed changes in the negative direction between 1987
(2771.4 ha-32.1%) and 2010 (1556.8 ha-18.3%) (Table 2; Figures 4-5). This change was due to
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predominant use of these areas as a result of intense agricultural pressure on the delta as a result
of expansion in the agricultural fields.
In addition to changes in land use in the delta area, shoreline changes also took place (Table 3).
These changes occurred in the form of positive progression of the shores. However, the
progression has not reached very high levels, and it has been calculated to be 0.16 m in the area
where Gönen River flows into the sea. Progression in Gönen river delta is decreasing day by day.
Especially the anthropogenic activities such as dams and irrigation in the basin area hamper the
carriage of sediments by the rivers. Hence, no geomorphologic expansion occurs in the delta.
Changes in land use and shoreline in Kocasu river delta
Kocasu river delta is situated in the northwest of Turkey and to the northwest of Gönen river
delta. It is located between the east meridians 28° 22' 36'' and 28° 37' 19'' and the north parallels
40° 17' 24'' and 40° 23' 52' (UTM Zone 37N – WGS84). The delta field formed by Kocasu River
whose drainage area is 27.600 km² and main branch length is 321 km has an area of 50.7 km².
The shore length of the delta is 20.8 km; its slope is 1.1‰, and progression amount is 3.5 km. Its
total area that does not contain water is 48 km² (Kazancı et al., 1997; 1999).
Kocasu river delta is wave-dominant in terms of its processes (Emre, 1997a; 1997b; Sayılı et al.,
1997; Yıldırım, 2002), sandy in terms of its lithologic structure, and carries crescent shaped delta
characteristics geometrically (Özşahin, 2009). With these features, it is similar to Gönen river
delta. In appearance, it is similar to Tiber river delta in Italy, one of the mega deltas in the world
(Figure 6).
Figure 6. Map of Tiber river delta and Kocasu river delta
Delta area is bordered by Paleozoic formations. Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological stacks are also
seen. The stack density in the delta area formed by quaternary period alluvial sediments is 45-55
m (Kazancı et al., 1997; 1999). These geological features were significantly influential on the
increase of tectonic movements. Thus, the delta area is bordered by Karacabey and Zeytinbağ
faults form the south (Emre et al., 1997a; 1997b). That has caused tectonics to play decisive roles
in the development of the delta in the quaternary period (Ergin et al., 1996; Görür et al., 1997a;
1997b; Kazancı et al., 1997; 1999).
It can be said that erosion and deposition activities resulting from river and wave processes
besides tectonic movements were influential on the formation of the geomorphology of Kocasu
river delta, as it was the case in Gönen river delta. Old river courses, marshlands, free meander
shapes, sand shapes, accumulation ranges, terrace levels, lakes, and lagoons can be seen on the
delta area (Kazancı et al., 1997; 1999; Özşahin, 2008; İrtem & Sarı, 2013).
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Figure 7. Geomorphology and shoreline changes map of Kocasu river delta
According to Bursa meteorology station data for the delta area which is in the same climate zone
with Gönen River, annual average temperature is 18.8 °C. This value is higher than that of Gönen
river delta by 4.3 °C. The coldest month is January with 5.2°C, and the hottest month is July with
24.0 °C. Annual rainfall in Kocasu river delta (667.9 mm) is higher than that of Gönen river delta.
39.45 % of the total annual rainfall occurs in winter; 25.63% occurs in spring; and 25.48% occurs
in autumn. Summer season is the period in which the least total rainfall occurs (9.43%).
The drainage area of Kocasu river has a tectonic based distinctive discordance shaped by faults
lying in the east-west direction (Emre et al., 1997a; 1997b). Therefore, the tectonic structure
became influential on the formation and development of drainage net (Kazancı et al., 1997). The
existence of two large natural lakes and other irrigation facilities in the drainage area of the river
hampers the carriage of sediments. That may explain the situation why Gönen river with a smaller
basin has more sediment transportation compared to Kocasu river (Kazancı et al., 1999). The
denudation rate of Kocasu River varies between 0.0723 and 0.0056 ton/km³/year, and total soil
loss varies between 1995.4 and 154.4 ton/year. However, the average flow of Kocasu River is
158.5 m³/sec, maximum flow being 1322 m³/sec, and minimum flow being 7.07 m³/sec (EİE,
1996).
According to the results of 4 soil analyses on different parts of Kocasu river delta, there is only
Entisol (taxonomy classification) type soil groups in the vicinity. This soil type has a dense clayey
characteristic. Lime ratio is between 2.77% and 5.55%. pH ratio and degree are between light
alkali with a value of 7.96 and strong alkali with a value of 8.95. Soils in deltas receive an alkali
characteristic as they get closer to shorelines. That is caused by the lagoon environments in the
shores where fresh and salty waters mingle intenselt as seen in the case of Gönen river delta.
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Kocasu river delta, which has been declared to be wetland conservation field, is an area where
agriculture and fishing activities are undertaken. However, the fact that it is a conservation area
and the existence of two large wetlands in the delta limit these activities to a certain level. The
anthropogenic activities which have increased lately have caused some changes in the land use in
the delta. Some very clear changes have been observed in the shore line between the years 1972
and 2010 and in land use between the years 1987 and 2010 (Table 4; 5; Figures 7; 8; 9).
Table 4. Changes in land use in Kocasu river delta
Landuse
1987
ha
Settements
Agricultural Areas
Forest Areas
Scrub Areas
Bare Areas
Total
2010
%
522.2
2.4
6547.5 30.6
5190.1 24.2
1810.6
8.5
7350.1 34.3
21420.4 100.0
ha
%
1354.6
8853.6
3748.4
4715.7
2991.2
21663.5
6.3
40.9
17.3
21.8
13.8
100.0
Total
Change
(%)
3.8
10.3
-6.9
13.3
-20.5
Table 5. Shoreline changes in the Kocasu river delta
Shoreline
1972
2010
Total Changes
Length (m)
21.9
21.6
0.3
Figure 8. Land use changes map of Kocasu river delta
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Figure 9. Land use changes Quantity Rate (%) in Kocasu river delta
The biggest areal change in Kocasu river delta occurred in underbrush areas. These areas which
were 1810.6 ha and had a ratio of 8.5% in 1987 expanded to 4715.7 ha and had a ratio of 21.8%
in 2010 (Table 4; Figures 8-9). The total change in the underbrush in the 23 years is 13.3%. This
is mostly related to olive growing and the destruction of forest areas in the vicinity of the delta,
and the evidence can be clearly seen form the land use maps created through analysis based on
satellite maps (Figure 8). This idea is also confirmed by the changes in the forest areas in the
related years. The forest areas which were 5190.1 ha and had a ratio of 24.2% in 1987 decreased
to 3748.4 ha and had a ratio of 17.3% in 2010 (Table 4; Figures 8-9).
The second biggest change in the delta area is related to agricultural fields. These fields were
6547.5 ha and had a ratio of 30.6% in 1987, but they increased to 8853.6 ha and had a ratio of
40.9% in 2010. The total ratio of the changes occurring in agricultural areas is 10.3% (Table 4;
Figures 8-9).
The increase in the agricultural areas is followed by the increase in settlement areas. The
settlement areas which were 522.2 ha and had a ratio of 2.4% in 1987 expanded to 1354.6 ha and
had a ratio of 6.3% in 2010. General total change is 3.8% (Table 4; Figures 8; 9).
Open fields, which are the last level of land use, showed changes in the negative direction as was
the case in Gönen river delta. The open fields which were 7350.1 ha and had a ratio of 34.3% in
1987 regressed to 2991.2 ha and had a ratio of 13.8% in 2010. Total change is -20.5% in terms of
decrease (Table 4; Figures 8-9).
Shorelines in Kocasu river delta experienced some changes, too. The 21.9 m length of shores in
1972 regressed to 21.6 m in 2010 (Table 5). In this 38-year period, a negative change of 0.3 m
was observed in shore line in the delta area. This regression can be seen more clearly in the west
side of the delta (Figure 8).
CONCLUSION
In terms of formation processes and geometric shapes, Gönen and Kocasu river deltas of the Sea
of Marmara resemble two of the most important deltas of the world respectively; the Nile (Egypt)
and Tiber (Italy) river deltas. Both deltas have specific geographical conditions and characteristics
that make them candidates to get into the world literature.
It has been concluded that agriculture, settlement, and underbrush areas in the deltas showed an
increase in time, whereas forest and open fields showed a decrease. Shorelines regressed in both
deltas, though slightly.
The major cause of the change in land use is human being. These changes have taken place as a
result of human activities both in deltas and in river basins. However, this change has become
negative with each passing day. That will cause sea level changes, higher level of regression in
shore lines, and collapse of the ecosystem in the delta. The fact that Kocasu river delta has been
declared as an area of conservation shows that it is in a better condition than Gönen river delta,
which is confirmed by land use changes, too. However, what has been done up to now is not
sufficient.
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Planning for a more accurate land and shore use in delta areas as soon as possible and declaring
these areas as protected areas even partially will help these unique ecosystems to continue their
existence in the future.
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