Pre-Service Elementary Teachers` Attitudes towards Computer and

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Pre-Service Elementary Teachers` Attitudes towards Computer and
 JEE
ISSN 2146-2674 Volume 3 Issue 2
2013
Sarıçam et al.
Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Attitudes towards Computer and Computer
Using Skill Levels1
Hakan Sarıçam1
[email protected]
Cengiz Başar2
Salim Şahin2
Süleyman Balcı3
Bilal Yılmaz4
Yüksel Çabuk5
1,2
3, 4, 5
Dumlupinar University Faculty of Education
Dumlupinar University Educational Sciences Institute
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to examine the correlation between pre-service elementary teachers' attitudes
towards computer and computer skill levels. Attitudes towards computer and computer skill levels of pre-service
elementary teachers’ were also investigated in terms of gender, age, and grade level. The participants of study
consist of 145 students, 61 females, 84 males, between ages 18 and 29. The data were collected through the
Computer Using Skills and Attitudes towards Computers Scale developed by Yeşilyurt and Gül (2007) and
Personal Information Form developed by researchers. Correlation analysis, regression analysis and t- test were
used to analyze data. Results show that there were positive correlation between pre-service elementary teachers'
attitudes towards computer and computer skill levels. There were difference statistically between male and
female students’ scores of computer using skills and attitudes toward computers. Pre-service elementary
teachers' attitudes towards computer and computer skill levels did not differ significantly according to ages and
grade levels.
Introduction
In our time, the information is constantly changing and people are using many ways to get
information instantly. This has become easier now with the computer technology. In addition,
computers are seen as an indispensable part of modern education (Isman, 2002). Many parents
think that the education without computer support would be inadequate and they make their
children’s school choice accordingly. Due to opportunities offered by the computers, they
have more advantages than the other education tools. It is because computers simultaneously
address more senses and this transforms the education from monotonous teaching to more
colorful one. (Lean, 2002). Programs and varied figures used in computer supported education
prevent learners’ distraction and result in learners to focus on the lesson (Altun, Yigit &
Adanur, 2011) and overcoming the monotony by means of various figures graphics,
animations and sound effects, learners’ lesson enjoyment can be achieved (Baki & Öztekin,
2003).
Carrying out education with the computer support has got in the agenda of all
educational institutions in our country and even serious studies on the use of computer
technology in education have been started. All schools have been strongly encouraged to use
computers and its derivatives and extensive resources that cannot be considered insufficient
1
This paper was presented partially at CICE April 2013 Kutahya Turkey 36 JEE
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Sarıçam et al.
have been allocated for this purpose. Finally, within the framework of Fatih Project, to give
tablet computers to every student is significant to show the importance given to the subject.
Especially by the project of giving a computer to each student and installing a smart board in
every classroom, the incompetency of the teachers in certain subjects and in certain seniority
of their profession on the use of computer and technology have been stated on various
occasions. With the computers are widely used in most educational institutions, other
educational materials are prepared for this purpose (Day & Odabaşı, 2004). According to
Aydın (2011), the teachers and trainers who carry out the education and training should have
the equipment to use the materials prepared within the same direction.
Teachers’ attitudes and prejudices against the computer play a major role for them to
develop and to use their computer skills in education and training (Yeşilyurt & Rose, 2007).
Teachers thought that they are inadequate in the matter of computers can cause to develop a
negative attitude towards the computers. With a good education in the computer field,
negative attitudes are believed to be eliminated (Asan, 2003).
In contemporary education, it is desirable that the teachers should show the learners the
sources of the information and guides them to it rather than that the teachers in the position
all-know (Senemoğlu, 1994). The teachers’ role are big in raising learners who are able to use
computer technologies, one of the most important tools that can reach the sources of
information (Çelik, Kocaman & Onal, 2008). In this context, when searching the primary
educational program of Ministry of Education (MEB), it is seen that the skill of using
information technologies is one of the basic skills (Ministry of Education, 2012). In the
community, individuals that can update his knowledge and have the ability to access
information are needed (Senemoğlu, 1994). To raise and guide individuals with those features
are the responsibilities of teachers and educational institutions (Seferoğlu & Akbıyık, 2005).
One of the most important factors in ensuring the success of computer-aided education is
educating teachers (Uşun, 2000). In computer supported education, due to being in the
executive position, the teacher's attitude and expectations are very important. Here, teachers
are expected to know the newest and useful computer programs and to use them in class in an
active manner (İpek, 2001).
In the light of all these considerations, that the probability that teacher candidates may
encounter a smart board and a tablet computer is high from the first day they step in a class
entails them being educated to use computer technologies at the highest level. It is vital to
determine the attitudes of teachers who are still carrying out the education and training in
these institutions and the attitudes of students of education faculties who are candidates for
carrying out the education and training in the future (Yeşilyurt & Gül, 2007). It is because
teachers' attitudes towards computer are highly related to using computer in education. This
has emerged in many studies conducted. (Erdoğan, 2006; Aral, Ayhan, Unlu, Erdogan &
Unal, 2007). On top of that, negative or positive attitudes of teachers towards any subject are
one of the important factors affecting students’ success (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992).
In terms of meeting students' interests, needs and desires and also in terms of efforts of
transferring social expectations to the next generations, primary education years are
considerably important (Brown, 2010). The most basic needs of an individual from reading
and writing training to character education are met in those ages (Senemoğlu, 2005; Stout,
1999) and skills of using computer technologies which are very important for the future of the
community are tried to be given in this period too. (Kılıç, 2007). When thinking that teachers'
knowledge, skills, abilities, competencies, attitudes and behaviors, etc. are very important for
students who will take them as role models (Senemoğlu, 2011), determining pre-service
elementary school teachers’ attitudes towards computer and their skills of computer is thought
to be very contributive to the literature and the educational programs that are to be prepared in
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the future. The main purpose of this study is to determine pre-service elementary school
teachers’ attitudes towards computers and their level of computer skills and to examine the
relationship between the these two variables in Education Faculty of Dumlupinar University.
The sub-objectives of this research are:
1- Do elementary school education students’ attitudes toward computers and their
level of computer skills change with the sex?
2- Do elementary school education students’ attitudes toward computers and their
level of computer skills change with the age?
3- Do elementary school education students’ attitudes toward computers and their
level of computer skills change with what year student they are?
Methodology
Participants
This research has been conducted on 145 current students studying in elementary school
education in faculty of education in an university in Turkey. 145 college students studying in
classroom teaching undergraduate program was carried out. It consists of 61 female (42%), 84
male (%58) students with the ages ranged between 18 and 29 years and average age of 21.3
(Table 1).
Ages (years)
Gender
Grade Levels
Male
Female
18-22
23-25
26-29
First
Second
Third
Fourth
84
61
55
46
44
36
37
36
36
Table 1. Results of descriptive statistics
Instrument
Computer Using Skills and Attitudes Towards Computers Scale (CUSATCS): When
Yeşilyurt and Gül (2007) develop the scale, 53 items of the scale have been prepared by the
researches by first of all scanning relevant literature review and consulting pre-service
teachers opinions. The scale had been used on 164 pre-service teachers doing their major in
science branch and taking computer lessons in Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education in
Erzurum University. At the end of the implementation, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO)
coefficient and Bartlett's test significance value of the data that were acquired from the
responses obtained from 158 pre-service teachers that were taken in the assessment to be .84
and p = .00 respectively. As a result of exploratory factor analysis that was applied to 26-point
scale, a structure with three sub-factors (available facilities, the level of computer skills and
the level of computers school use) was obtained and it was seen that it accounted for 48.874%
of the total variance. Corrected item-total correlation coefficients ranged from .86 to .39.
Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient for current facilities, the level of computer
skills, the level of computers school use and the whole scale were r= .90, .78, .68, .91
respectively. In addition to this, personal information form which was used and it was
prepared by the researchers contains demographic variables such as gender, age and class.
Procedure
After Yeşilyurt and Gül were contacted via email and permissions were taken, Scale of
Computer Using Skills and Attitudes towards Computers (BKBBYTÖ) was reproduced with
the individual information form. Permission for participation of students was obtained from
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related dean. Students voluntarily participated in research. Prior to administration of scales, all
participants were informed about purposes of the study. Relationships between two variables
(computer using skills and attitudes towards computers) and their sub-dimensions were tested
using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at .05 probability level. Also, the
female and male students’ computer using skills and attitudes towards computers levels were
compared by the t-test to see whether there were significant differences between their
responses in terms of gender. Effect sizes can also be thought of as the average percentile
standing of the average treated (or experimental) participant relative to the average untreated
(or control) participant. An ES of 0.0 indicates that the mean of the treated group is at the 50th
percentile of the untreated group. An ES of 0.8 indicates that the mean of the treated group is
at the 79th percentile of the untreated group. An effect size of 1.7 indicates that the mean of
the treated group is at the 95.5 percentile of the untreated group (Cohen, 1988). In terms of
ages and grades, the scores were compared with the help of an F test (ANOVA) through
variables. The data obtained was transferred to the computer medium and assessed with
SPSS.17 package program.
Results
Dimension
A. Available facilities
B. Computer using skills
C. Levels of computer school
use
D. Computer using skills and
attitudes toward computer
A
B
C
1
.36**
.27**
1
.39**
1
.80**
.79**
.63**
D
1
Table 2. Results of Pearson’s Correlation Analysis among the Computer Using Skills and Attitudes
toward Computer
As shown in table 2, there are significant positive relationships among available
facilities, computer using skills and level of computer school use (r=.36, .27 and .39
respectively p<.05). Namely, “If levels of computer using skills increase, scores of attitudes
toward computer increase” can be said according to this finding.
Variables
Gender N
Mean
St. Dev.
Female 61
49.45
5.78
85
45.35
7.20
Female 61
23.08
5.54
85
20.15
5.89
Female 61
15.52
3.93
85
15.81
3.15
Female 61
Computer using skills
and attitudes toward
Male 85
computer
88.06
11.47
81.31
12.32
Available facilities
Computer using skills
Level of computer
school use
Male
Male
Male
** p < .05
39 t
p
Cohen’s d
3.71
.00
.63
2.97
.00
.51
.46
.65
-.08
.00
.57
3.29
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Table 3. t-test results about Computer Using Skills and Attitudes Toward Computer’s Scores
According to Gender
As illustrated in Table 3, available facilities mean scores of female (49.45) students
were higher than those of female students (45.35), t= 3.71 p< .05 with a significance level of
.05. As a matter of fact there is a good equalization because of Cohen’s d(effect size)= .63.
This finding shows that there is difference statistically between male and female students’
available facilities scores. Computer using skills mean scores of female (23.08) students were
higher than those of female students (20.15), t= 2.97 p< .05 with a significance level of .05
and Cohen’s d(effect size)= .51. This finding displays that there is difference statistically
between male and female students’ computer using skills. Level of computer school use mean
scores of female (15.52) students were higher than those of female students (15.81), t= .46 p>
.05 with a significance level of .05. This finding demonstrates that there is no difference
statistically between male and female students’ levels of computer school use. Computer
using skills and attitudes toward computer mean scores of female (88.06) students were
higher than those of female students (81.31), t= 3.29 p< .05 with a significance level of .05
and Cohen’s d(effect size)= .57. This finding represents that there is difference statistically
between male and female students’ scores of computer using skills and attitudes toward
computer.
Variables
Available facilities
Computer using
skills
Level of computer
school use
Computer using
skills and attitudes
toward computer
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
Between Groups
48.13
2
24.06
Within Groups
6097.56
137
44.51
Total
6145.69
139
Between Groups
82.34
2
41.20
Within Groups
4654.31
137
33.97
Total
4736.65
139
Between Groups
3.54
2
1.77
Within Groups
1838.89
137
13.42
Total
1842.42
139
Between Groups
6.06
2
3.03
Within Groups
20730.68
137
151.32
Total
20736.74
139
F
Sig.
η²
.54
.58
.007
1.21
.30
.002
.13
.88
.001
.02
.98
.000
Table 4. One-way ANOVA results about Computer Using Skills and Attitudes toward
Computer’s Scores According to Ages
As reported in above table, the F values for students' ages were not statistically
significant about available facilities, F(2, 137)= .54, p> .05 and computer using skills, F(2, 137)=
1.21, p> .05 and levels of computer school use F(2, 137)= .13, p> .05 and computer using skills 40 JEE
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attitudes toward computer F(2, 137)= .02, p> .05. Besides, because of η² (effect size)< .01, there
is no equalization.
Variables
Available
facilities
Computer
using skills
Level of
computer
school use
Computer
using skills
and attitudes
toward
computer
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
Between Groups
61.30
2
30.65
Within Groups
6084.38
137
44.41
Total
6145.69
139
Between Groups
27.06
2
13.53
Within Groups
4709.59
137
34.38
Total
4736.65
139
Between Groups
45.43
2
22.71
Within Groups
1796.99
137
13.12
Total
1842.42
139
Between Groups
61.30
2
30.65
Within Groups
6084.38
137
44.41
Total
6145.69
139
F
Sig.
η²
.69
.50
.009
.39
.67
.005
1.73
.18
.02
.69
.50
.009
Table 4. One-way ANOVA results about Computer Using Skills and Attitudes toward Computer’s
Scores According to Grade
The F values for students' grades were not statistically significant about available
facilities, F(2, 137)= .69, p> .05 and computer using skills, F(2, 137)= .39, p> .05 and Level of
computer school use F(2, 137)= 1.73, p> .05 and computer using skills-attitudes toward
computer F(2, 137)= .69, p> .05 as reported in Table 5. Also, there is no equalization, because of
η² (effect size)< .01.
Discussion And Recommendation
A positive relationship between pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward computers and their
computer using skills has been found in this research that aims to determine the relationship
between pre-service elementary teachers’ attitudes toward computers and their computer
using skills. This result is parallel to findings of studies of Busch (1995), Loyd & Gressard
(1986) and Yeşilyurt & Gül (2007). In the mentioned study, it is stated that computer using
skills which develop as a result of experiences effects attitudes toward computers. In the same
way, Erkan (2004), in his study conducted with pre-school teachers, states that there is a
positive relationship between computer skills, experiences and teachers' attitudes towards
computer. Bağcı-Kılıç (2001), in her study also demonstrated that pre-service teachers have a
high attitude toward computers and toward communicating on computers, which might show
that they might use such technologies in their career life. Task Force on Technology and
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Teacher Education (1997) implied that teachers need an "attitude" that is courage in the use of
technology, supports them to take risks, and motivates them to become lifelong learners.
In this study, significant differences have emerged between attitudes toward computers,
computer using skills and available facilities for females. Ray et. al. (1999) research, the data
support the conclusion that females are more positive about computers than males. A lot of
researchers get same results (Kutluca & Ekici, 2010; Sadık, 2006; Shapkaa & Ferrarib, 2003).
Not only do women concern the value of computer technology as a way to simplify tasks and
to increase productivity, but it also presents evidence to support the belief that women have
become more comfortable with technology, removing an obstacle to opportunities related to
technology (Schumacher & Morahan-Martin, 2001). Educators said that females have a
higher regard for the contribution of technology to productivity improvement and are more
comfortable with technology than men, they should be encouraged to pursue technologyrelated careers (Balka & Smith, 2000). Hovewer, results of recent studies (Şerefhanoğlu,
Nakipoğlu, & Gür, 2008; Köse & Gezer, 2006; Köse, Savran Gencer & Gezer, 2007; Teo,
2008;Tezci, 2009) state that there is no significant difference between attitudes of females and
males toward computers in their studies conducted on second grade learners, high school
learners, vocational tertiary school students and teachers respectively. Altun et al. (2007) and
Altun et al. (2011) have concluded that the attitudes of male students are more positive than
that of female students. That the findings have been found out to be different from those of
the previous studies have contributed to the field and this difference is thought to be resulted
from computer usage of females, not less frequent than males, with the increasing
opportunities (Tunçok, 2010). The finding that no significant difference in the scores of levels
of computer usage has been found supports this hypothesis.
No significant difference has been found between pre-service elementary teachers'
attitudes towards computers and computer skill levels by their ages and grade levels. These
results are not surprising for us, because of some other factors, such as years of using
computer (Shashaani, 1997), frequency of usage computer (Teo, 2008), the situation of
owning a computer (Birgin, Kutluca, & Çatlıoğlu, 2008). Gerçek et al. (2006) and Şahin
Kızıl (2011) have found parallel results in a similar study they conducted on pre-service
teachers. Taghavi (2006) has examined students’ attitudes toward computer in his study that
he conducted in a university in the US and has concluded that there is no difference in the
attitudes of students in terms of age and grade levels.
Before making any generalization under the light of the findings of this study, it is
necessary to draw attention to some of the limitations. First of all, this study is limited to preservice elementary education students of a faculty. In addition, the number of participants is
inadequate. Thus, studies with students studying in different departments and studies with
different sample groups will make these results gain various dimensions. Second, the
variables like computer ownership, income status, previously taken computer courses (Altun,
2003), previously attended external computer classes (Köseoğlu et al., 2007) may affect
computer using skills, and attitude towards the computers. Therefore these mentioned
variables need to be included in the study.
In the light of these findings, the following recommendations can be made:
• Undergraduate programs of education department of the university should be revised
to nurture elementary school teachers with high computer using skills and positive
attitudes towards computer.
• More computer use in the lessons should be encouraged.
• Within the Fatih project, not only primary school students and their teachers but also
pre-service elementary teachers in universities should be given seminars and similar
briefing activities should be prepared.
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