Grammar Basics (eng)

Yorumlar

Transkript

Grammar Basics (eng)
Turkmen/Lesson One
SIZIŇ ADYŇYZ NÄME?
What is your name?
Salam, or hello, and welcome to your first official class! OK, so I bet that now you really want to learn
Turkmen, right? Well then, let's start off with our names!
Throughout this lesson we will be analysing part of a conversation between a Turkmen man called
Murat and a Turkmen woman called Bahargül. Let's begin...
Siziň adyňyz näme?
"Siziň adyňyz näme?" or "What is your name?" is, for obvious reasons, a very important phrase to
learn. The phrase literally translates word-by-word as Your name what?. The word näme simply
means "what", and like other Turkmen question words, it always goes to the end of the sentence.
Read the conversation between Murat and Bahargül below:
Murat: Salam!
Bahargül: Salam.
Murat: Siziň adyňyz näme?
Bahargül: Meniň adym Bahargül. Siziň adyňyz näme?
Murat: Meniň adym Murat.
Although there might not be words in there that you understand, it should be pretty obvious what each
sentence means, considering that you already know how to say salam and siziň adyňyz näme?, and
that you know their names, too. Before you can read the translation for this conversation, first let's look
at some important grammatical points.
Cases
Like Russian or German, Turkic languages have a system of grammatical cases. Cases are defined
by changes that occur to a word when it is placed in different grammatical context. English has cases
for personal pronouns. For example: "I see him", "He sees me". Not "Me sees he", "Him sees I".
Turkmen, however, has six cases, and these cases are used for all words, not just personal pronouns.
The six Turkmen cases are: the nominative, used for the subject of the sentence; the genitive, similar
to English possessives; the dative, used to show directed action; the accusative, which is similar to the
English "direct object"; the locative, which shows locality; and the instrumental, which is used to show
origin.
While six cases might seem a bit overwhelming at first, it should be noted that the case suffixes simply
replace our English prepositions such as "from," "at," "with," "in," "on," and "to". Also, the rules for their
use are remarkably simple and inflexible, unlike those of the Russian cases.
In the case of the conversation that we were looking at, cases were used with personal pronouns (e.g.
Siziň). These follow fairly straightforwardly from the regular case endings. For now, though, we will
only be learning the nominative and genitive cases. As you can see, its all fairly straightforward,
except for ol which changes to on- in every non-nominative case. To make a pronoun genitive, simply
add -iň or -yň, depending on the pronoun's vowel harmony.
Case
Nominative men
Genitive
you (singular
informal)
I
meniň
(my)
he/she/it
we
you (plural or
formal)
they
sen
ol
biz
siz
olar
seniň (your)
onyň
(his/her/it's)
biziň
(our)
siziň (your)
olaryň
(their)
That's all fairly easy, but you still can't say My name is in Turkmen if you only know how to make a
pronoun genitive. Unlike English, the Turkmen language also adds a suffix to the object of possession.
This may at times be redundant (Meniň kakam geldi. = My father-(my) came.) but often the
possessive participle is omitted (Kakam geldi. = Father-(my) came.) so the suffix alone shows
possession, for example, adym Murat alone still means My name is Murat, even without using meniň.
The suffix added to a noun depends on it's vowel harmony, so using the words kaka (father), eje
(mother), at (name) and it (dog), let's look at the suffixes which need to be added:
Vowel ending
Consonant ending
Vowel ending
Consonant ending
My
-m
kakam - my father
ejem - my mother
My
-ym, -im (-um, -üm)
adym - my name
itim - my dog
Our
-myz, -miz
kakamyz - our father
ejemiz - our mother
Our
-ymyz, -imiz (-umyz, -ümiz)
adymyz - our name
itimiz - our dog
Your (sing., informal)
-ň
kakaň - your father
ejeň - your mother
Your (sing., informal)
-yň, -iň (-uň, -üň)
adyň - your name
itiň - your dog
Your (pl., formal)
-ňyz, -ňiz
kakaňyz - your father
ejeňiz - your mother
Your (pl., formal)
-yňyz, -iňiz (-uňyz, -üňiz)
adyňyz - your name
itiňiz - your dog
His/her/it's
-sy, -si
kakasy - his/her/it's father
ejesi - his/her/it's mother
His/her/it's
-y, -i
ady - his/her/it's name
iti - his/her/it's dog
Their
-sy, -si
kakasy - their father
ejesi - their mother
Their
-y, -i
ady - their name
iti - their dog
As mentioned already, the noun alone already indicates possession, so pronouns such as meniň,
seniň, etc., don't HAVE to be used. For example, in Turkmen My name is John could either be Meniň
adym John or simply just Adym John.
As you can see in the above table, possessive suffixes for nouns are not only about vowel harmony,
but also whether the noun, in it's nominative form, ends in a vowel or a consonant.
You've also probably noticed that at changes to ad- when a suffix is added to it. The word at is merely
one of the few irregularities of the Turkmen language, and its good that you're getting used to it at an
early stage.
Is?
You may be wondering what the word for "is" is in Turkmen. The truth is, there isn't one.
If you tried to translate "he is" by itself into Turkmen, or any Turkic language for that matter, it would be
impossible. If you tried to translate "he is good" into Turkmen, it would translate as o ýagşy, which
would translate word-by-word back into English as "he good".
It works in the same way in "Siziň adyňyz näme?" and "Meniň adym...", which literally translate wordby-word as "Your name what?" and "My name..." respectively.
Sentence order
Turkmen, like other Turkic languages, follows an SOV (Subject Object Verb) sentence order. Don't
know what subject, object or verb are? Let's look at a very basic demonstration in English, which uses
SVO instead of SOV:
Bobby kicked the ball.
Subject Verb Object
In this case, Bobby is the subject, because he is the one kicking the ball (i.e. the subject is the word
executing or otherwise attributed to the verb); kicked is the verb because it is a word of action (i.e.
verbs show what is taking/has taken/will take place); and the ball is the object because it is being
kicked by Bobby (i.e. something happens to the object by the subject by means of the verb).
Now that we've established what the subject, object and verb actually are, you'll be able to understand
that in Turkmen, the subject goes first, then the object, and then the verb. This is true in most cases,
but in some instances, mostly in sentences without verbs such as O ýagşy or Siziň adyňyz näme?, the
sentence order is just SO. Unlike in English, in which all sentences need to have verbs, in Turkmen
certain things such as "he is nice" can be demonstrated, as shown in the Is? section of this page,
without the use of a verb.
On the other hand, as a result of pronouns not being needed in Turkmen, sentences can also be verb
only, such as "geldi" (he came), although the subject (he) is still technically in the verb, so "geldi" itself
is both a subject and a verb. If you look at it in this sense, then you'll find that all Turkmen sentences
have at least a subject.
We will look at verbs in more detail at a later stage in this book.
Turkmen/Lesson Two
ÝAGDAÝYŇYZ NIÇIK?
How are you?
Salam, my Turkmenists! In this lesson we will continue looking at Murat and Bahargül. This time,
though, they will be asking each other Ýagdaýyňyz niçik?. Although this translates as "How are you?",
it literally means "How is your situation/condition/etc.?" (ýagdaý = condition, state, circumstance, etc.).
Murat: Salam, Bahargül!
Bahargül: Salam!
Murat: Ýagdaýyňyz niçik?
Bahargül: Ýagşy. Siz?
Murat: Ajaýyp!
Numbers - Sayılar - ??? - ???
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
zero
sıfır (5083 bytes)
one
bir (6680 bytes)
Türkmen
O'zbekcha
nol
bir
bir
two
iki (7232 bytes)
iki
ikki
three
üç (8704 bytes)
üç
uch
four
dört (8704 bytes)
dört
tort
five
beş (7232 bytes)
bäş
besh
six
altı (8704 bytes)
alti
olti
seven
yedi (7784 bytes)
ÿedi
etti
eight
sekiz (8152 bytes)
sekiz
sakkiz
nine
dokuz (8704 bytes)
dokuz
toqqiz
ten
on (6680 bytes)
on
on
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
a half
yarım, buçuk
a quarter
çeyrek
twenty
yirmi (4600 bytes)
ÿigrimi
yigirma
thirty
otuz (4253 bytes)
otuz
ottiz
forty
kırk (3190 bytes)
kirk
qirq
fifty
elli (4674 bytes)
elli
ellik
sixty
altmış (5953 bytes)
altmyş
oltmish
seventy
yetmiş (5834 bytes)
ÿetmiş
yetmush
eighty
seksen (6295 bytes)
segsen
sakson
ninety
doksan (5487 bytes)
togsan
toxson
one hundred
yüz (3430 bytes)
ÿüz
yuz
two hundred
iki yüz
iki ÿüz
ikki yuz
one thousand
bin (3703 bytes)
mun
ming
one million
bir milyon (7188 bytes)
million
million
billion
milyar
milliard
milliard
eleven
on bir (5593 bytes)
on bir
on bir
twelve
on iki (5634 bytes)
on iki
on ikki
thirteen
on üç (5409 bytes)
on uç
on uch
fourteen
on dört (6333 bytes)
on dÿort
on turt
fifteen
on beş (6729 bytes)
on bäş
on besh
sixteen
on altı (6228 bytes)
on alti
on olti
seventeen
on yedi (6346 bytes)
on edi
on etti
eighteen
on sekiz (6401 bytes)
on sekiz
on sakkiz
nineteen
on dokuz (5881 bytes)
on dokuz
on toqqiz
It is very easy to make up numbers [in Uzbek]. It is the same way as you would make up
numbers in English. For example:
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
Türkmen
O'zbekcha
eleven
on bir
(5593 bytes)
on bir
un bir
twenty one
yirmi bir
(5844 bytes)
ÿigrimi bir
yigirma bir
five hundred seventy one
bäş ÿüz ÿetmiş bir
besh yuz yetmush bir 571
eighty thousand seven
hundred one
segsen mun ÿüz bir
sakson ming etti yuz bir 80,701
five billion twenty million
one hundred thousand
twenty
bäş milliard? ÿigrimi
million bir ÿüz mun
ÿigrimi
besh milliard yigirma million bir
yuz ming yigirma 5,020,100,020
Language:
364
Turkish
Direction:
Into English
From English
Basic Words - Temel Kelimeler - ??? - ???
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
Türkmen
O'zbekcha
yes
evet (9809 bytes)
hawa
ha.
nima?
no
hayır (10034 bytes)
ÿök (däl?)
and
ve
we
or
veya, yahut, eğer, ise
Help me
va
Mana kemek edin
Yes, what is it?
Ha, nima demoqchisiz?
Yes, what can I do
for you?
Ha, sizga qanday yordam
berishim mumkin?
Thank you
teşekkürler; teşekkür ederim
(10913 bytes)
Thank you very
much
çok teşekkür ederim (12017 bytes)
You're welcome
Bir sey değil (7570 bytes)
please
lütfen (7784 bytes)
baş ustÿune
sorry
pardon
bagişlan
I do not understand anlamıyorum (13121 bytes)
How do you say this Bu [Türkçe] nasıl soylenir??
in [English]?
(15954 bytes)
Do you speak ...
... biliyorumusunuz; ...
konuşuyormusunuz (14225 bytes)
Sag bol,
(r)
spasiba
Men size
duşunmedim
(I do not
understand you)
English
Ingilizce (9809 bytes)
French
Fransızca (11465 bytes)
German
Almanca (12017 bytes)
Spanish
Ispanyolca (9256 bytes)
Chinese
Çince (10361 bytes)
good
iyi (3408 bytes)
ÿagşi
bad
kötü (3862 bytes)
ÿaman
not bad
ÿaman däl
so so
şöyle böyle (7633 bytes)
this
bu
şu
that
şu
şol
Directions - Yön - ??? - ???
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
Türkmen
here
there
over there
orada
left
sol (4680 bytes)
çen
right
sağ (4403 bytes)
sag
straight
düz (3355 bytes)
up
yukarı (5248 bytes)
down
asağı (5524 bytes)
O'zbekcha
top
ekari
bottom
aşak
far
uzak (4843 bytes)
near
yakın (5101 bytes)
long
uzun (5433 bytes)
short
kısa (4271 bytes)
a little
biraz
Colors - renkler - ??? - ???
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
Türkmen
black
kara, siyah
gara
white
ak, beyaz
ak
grey
çal
red
gizil
yellow
sari
blue
geok
green
ÿaşyl, gök
brown
gonur
orange
mämiş
O'zbekcha
People - ??? - ??? - ???
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
Türkmen
I
ben (4105 bytes)
men
you (singular, familiar)
sen (4054 bytes)
sen
O'zbekcha
you (singular, formal)
siz (4543 bytes)
siz
he she it
o
ol
we
biz (4322 bytes)
biz
you (plural)
siz (4543 bytes)
siz
they
onlar (4568 bytes)
olar
my, mine
meniñ, meniñki
your, your
seniñ, seniñki
his her, his hers
onuñ, onuñky
our, ours
biziñ, biziñki
your, yours (pl.)
siziñ, siziñki
their, theirs
olaryñ?,
olaryñky
who, whose
kim, kimiñki
man
erkek
woman
kadın
family
aile
spouse, wife
eş (3961 bytes), karı
spouse, husband
eş, koca (4012 bytes)
child
çocuk
girl, daughter, virgin,
maiden
kız
boy
oğlan
daughter ('girl child')
kız çocuk (5231 bytes)
gyz
son ('man child')
erkek çocuk (7456 bytes), oğul
mother
anne (4188 bytes)
father
baba (3636 bytes)
friend
arkadaş (6526 bytes)
older sister
abla
older brother
ağabey
aunt, older woman
teyze
uncle, older man
amca
(boy)friend
arkadaş
girlfriend
kız arkadaş
sincere friend (byfriend, dost
girlfriend)
sir
bay, bey
janob
madam, lady
hanım, bayan, kadın
xonim
ladies and gentlemen
hanımlar ve baylar (?)
xonimlar va janoblar
student
öğrenci
Doctor
Doktor
Waiter, Waitress
Oficiant,
Oficiantka
Officer
Oficer
Police officer
Melicioner
Director, manager
Direktor,
boshqaruvchi
Greetings - ??? - ??? - ???
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
Türkmen
O'zbekcha
Hi!
Selam
Salam
Salom!
Hello!
Merhaba (9809 bytes)
Bye!
güle güle; (10361 bytes)
Goodbye
Allaha ısmarladık
So long
Görüşürüz (5189 bytes)
See you tomorrow
Welcome
Assalomy Alaikum!
Sag bol
Ertire çenli koş
Hosgeldiniz (?)
Nice to see you
Koş geldiniz
Koş gerdÿuk
Good morning
günaydın (7784 bytes)
Good afternoon
iyi öğlenler (10913 bytes); iyi
gunler
Good evening
iyi akşamlar (12017 bytes)
Good night
iyi geceler (12017 bytes)
Gijaniz rahat
bolsun
How do you do? How
are you?
Nasılsın(ız)? (6485 bytes)
¥agdaÿin niçik? Ishlaringiz Qalai?
Thank you, not bad
Sag bol, ÿaman
däl
name
ad
at
What is your name?
isminiz nedir? (9180 bytes)
Adin nÿame?
My name is
Nice to meet you
Menin adim
Tanıştığımıza memnun oldum
(14036 bytes)
¥orÿan şat
Who are you?
Where have you come
from?
Ismingiz Nima?
Otiz Nima?
Kimsiz?
Siz nirerden
geldin?
I am from United States
Men Amerikadanman
My native language is
English
Mening ona tilim Ingliz tili
My nationality is
American
Men Americalikman
I live in the United
States
1. Men Amerikada
yashaiman
2. Men Amerikada
turaman
I am from Florida
Men Florida
shtatidanman
I live in the city of New
York
Men New Yorkda
yashaiman
Men New Yorkda
turaman
Dialogue - ??? - ??? - Gaplashish
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
Türkmen
O'zbekcha
Hello, I'm Farhod
Salom, men Farhodman
Hi, my name is John
Salom, mening ismim John
Where are you from?
Siz qayerdansiz?
I'm from Tashkent. What about
you?
Men Toshkentdanman. Sizchi?
I'm from Los Angeles, California
Men Los Angeles
Californiyadanman
What are you doing in Tashkent?
Toshkentda nima qilayapsiz
I am teaching at the University
Universitetda dars berayapman
What do you teach?
Nimadan dars berasiz?
Economics
Ekonomikadan
It was nice to meet you
Siz bilan kurishkanimdan
hursandman
It was nice to meet you, too
Siz bilan ham
Don't mention it; don't say so; not at Estağfurullah!
all.
Time and Dates - Zaman ve Tarihler - ??? - ???
If a word or sentence in the table is a link, you can click on it to get the sound file with its
pronunciation. There are .au, .ra, .rm and .wav files (depending on language)
English
Türkçe
Türkmen
clock
saat
sagat
later, past
sonra
half
buçuk
quarter
çeyrek
What time is it?
Saat kaç? (7323 bytes)
Sagat näçe?
It's 8 o'clock
Saat sekiz
Sagat sekiz
7:13, Seven thirteen
7:13, Yedi on üç (7400 bytes)
¥edi on üç
3:15, Three fifteen
3:15, Üç on beş (7469 bytes)
Üç on bäş
3:15, A quarter past three
3:15, Üçü çeyrek geçiyor (11222
bytes)
11:30, Eleven thirty
11:30, On bir otuz (7937 bytes)
11:30, Half past eleven
11:30, On bir buçuk (6550
bytes)
12:30, half past twelve
yarım
1:45, One forty-five
1:45, Bir kırk beş (8590 bytes)
1:45, A quarter till two
1:45, ikiye çeyrek var (10137
bytes)
day
gün (4622 bytes)
On bir otuz
gün
O'zbekcha
week
hafta (4940 bytes)
hepde
month
ay (3801 bytes)
aÿ
year
yıl (3944 bytes)
ÿyl
Monday
pazartesi (7739 bytes)
Duşenbe
Tuesday
salı (3435 bytes)
Sişenbe
Wednesday
çarşamba (7068 bytes)
Çarşenbe
Thursday
perşembe (6967 bytes)
Penşenbe
Friday
cuma (4945 bytes)
Anna
Saturday
cumartesi (7890 bytes)
Şenbe
Sunday
pazar (4434 bytes)
¥ekşenbe
January
ocak (3167 bytes)
February
şubat (6145 bytes)
March
mart (4915 bytes)
April
nisan (6002 bytes)
May
mayıs (5873 bytes)
June
haziran (5712 bytes)
July
temmuz (5130 bytes)
August
ağustos (7168 bytes)
September
eylül (5021 bytes)
October
ekim (4389 bytes)
November
kasım (5028 bytes)
December
aralık (3854 bytes)
spring
ilkbahar (6894 bytes)
summer
yaz (4343 bytes)
fall, autumn
sonbahar (6679 bytes)
winter
kış (4356 bytes)
today
bugün (4733 bytes)
yesterday
dün (4539 bytes)
tomorrow
yarın (4433 bytes)
birthday
doğum günü (6628 bytes)
Happy Birthday!
Doğum günün kutlu olsun!
(12277 bytes)
day
gün
morning; in the morning
sabah; sabah, sabahleyin
afternoon; in the afternoon
öğlen, öğleden sonra; öğleyin
evening; in the evening
akşam; akşamleyin
night; in the night
gece; geceleyin
early
erken
late, delayed
geç
later
sonra
presently, in a moment
biraz sonra

Benzer belgeler