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As a visitor to the site you'll first want to know what there is for
you to see:
From about 1(,S0/1600
to 1200 Be, Hartusha
of dıe Hittitl's, the head
or an
Iands of Aııatolia, extending
was the Capital City
eınpire rhar reached across rhe broao
at times even into the north of Syria.
The ruins of the city walls and the gates, the temples
palaces awaiting
the visitor today represent
conJitiol1s
and the
in the 13th
century BC, the zenith of the city. Thcrc had been, of coursc, earlier
habitation
in
sertlement
the
region,
here during
and
there
was
the later "Phrygian",
and Byzamine periods. Although
also
substantial
Hdlenistİc,
Roman
there are not many remains from
these periods to be seen, you will fiııa information
about them in
this book.
ADay
in Hattusha ..
h
•
h"
1
•
'A step-by-step tour through the cit)' and the neighboring
rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya.
(Ç)
7nn7
;.:"qP Yayınl,);! and Ji.ı,-qerı Sccher
I'.•I.IN
77': R07 [J49'~J
"The Hittites, their forerunncrs
and their followers.
.
155
A brief history of the city and those who have lived here over
'the
("}ı-aphıc
past several mil/emıia.
Desıgn
Savaş Cekiç
~-JrJr'tC'd
uy
Graphis Matbaa
In addition,
a synopsis of the archaeological
and a bibliography
with suggestions
research at the site
for funher
reading are
included at the end of the book.
P:UrJL:_t'tl!rı
Turkl-:'Y
by Eqe Yayııları
Apı "JU3:1/) Cıllarıgır
80060 1'.;ı,~l1lbul - Tı:r'.iye
i PI lU i171 21;9 i);;7rı
="x LO 2121 249 0:ı2C
f' mnd:
(lbc'-.:ılavldtaypro:ed,Qly
A~,ıC'l11 'lat<1C1I S.)k.ık,
Many finds from the excavations
at Hattusha
are on display iıı the
SC(Jpf Pdlô~
Museum
here at Boğazkale
worth avisit!
and at the çorum
Museum.
It's well
DI
"<
"<
.,
C
DI
~
DI
.•
::i
n
-
!:!
_
O
..•. n~
<'"DI
DI
O
::a
CD
••
__ ..
••
The rock sanctuary
northeast
Charles
Texıer,
lravpler' to vısıi Hattusha
the firsı
[Fig 126) it did not take
long, then, for the relıef sculpture
fantasıes of rnany scholars.
19th century
bro ught
European
to ınspıre the
Varıous travelers
th eir sketchbooks
of the
-
and
you take the road
(= rock with writing)
Yazılıkaya
ın 1834 wıth
croppings
1.5 km to the
leading
east towards
lics ncstlcd
Yozgat.
bctwccn
rock out-
at the foot of the high ridgc east of Hattusha
marks the turn-oH).
In contrast
twü rüoms of this sancruary
natural
lies about
of the Great Tenıple of the Lower City. From the viIIage
of Boğazkale
The story of the discovery of Yazılıkaya alsa begihs
of Yazılıkaya
(a sign
to thc tcmples within the city. the
(Chanıbers
A and B), hemmed
in by
rock faces up to 12 m high, tic opcn to thc skics. i\tthough
the site has been in use since the 15th century
until the 13th ccntury
did thc 10ng proccssion
BC at least, not
of gad s and god-
desses take thcir placc here, chiscIed onto thc rock faccs by Hittite
same
everı ıheır
spades;
small
excavations
place The new medıum of photography
sıte earlyon;
No one, however,
what to make of these many sculpted
were
The reliefs,
reached the
by 1861 Jules Delbet photographed
same of the reliefs
Hıttıtes
took
practically
unknown
whıch obvıously portrayed
encounterıng
led: mcctings
knew quıte
fıgures;
at the time.
two groups
one anather, were variously
of the Amazons
the
interpre-
and the Paphlago-
nıans, of the Medes and the Lydians, or of Heracles
and Astarte wıth theır folloWNS.
later that it was understaad
represerıl
divinities
It was only much
that the figures
of the 13th century BC.
here
sculptors.
lt apparently
Celebration",
allause
rcprcscnts
of the Weather
hcld to honor all the panrheon
the beginning
Tour
the "House
Gad wherc festivities were
at thc <.:oming of thc Ncw Year and
of spring.
of the Site. The actual rock sanctuary
from the outside world by arather
plcx. Although
reconstruction
of thc Ncw Year's
impressive
only the wall sodc
drawing
was screencd
architectural
zone remains
in place,
gives an idea of how the buildings
have looked
with the typical
eonstruction
that was employed
mudbrick
and timber
haıııe
here as well (Fig.127).
path takes you along past the front of this complex;
comthe
must
waıı
Taday the
the original
entrance,
though,
was through
Fig.128).
Another
flight of steps mak one intn an open COUft, bor-
dered by variolis smail chambers.
for ablutions
the courtyard.
and preliminary
Through
a gateway
oH
Apparently
with stairs
this area was used
rites; this is suggested
stiıı anather
(see Plan
by an altar in
g<lte with sreps (just abollt
where the taıı trees now stand) one would then have entered
large Chamber
A.
the
Fig.127
Yilzılıkaya. Reconc.trlJ'.I<l1l (Jr !'IP huıldırıqs
LU rJetın alter R N~1l1'iJrı"l
i~
front of the rock sanctıı~ri
The light east on the reliefs v<Jrıc" greaLy
dcıties
on the left can be best seen in the late mornıng.
naan,
and the elimactic
the course
small
Chamber
reliefs
were
carved
ımpression
served
has
of which
in
no trace
relıcfs
culturos
pa1ntings.
were
wcre
fand
up bpttpr
12-{~
pm]
between
mueh
amatt,
in the early
11 a.m
casıer-
to see
almost
whıte
5maller
of color
once
rcmdıns
brightly
of bright
color
lıg ht
taday,
tn
:he
and
1 p m. The
The
rock
sudaee
the much
Chamber
while
af ter-
ıs bcs~ lıt in
The best
you may get from
the
A, the male
c;cene on the baek wall
8 comes
orıgınally
reliefs
although
show
of the after'1oon
newly
these
on the right
Chamber
to the
and the time of day
the goddesses
In the large
according
scason
BL.
when
[same
better
prc-
Furthermore,
we assume
paınted,
nearly
in their
artwork
all
ard
that
early
cult
The larger Charnher
A is ahout 30 nı long, and origilıally !ı;-ıd
paving on the f1nor (Figs.129-130).
reliefs,
chiseled
inro panel s running
On cithcr side you sce the
horizorırally
across
the
natural linıestonc walls. (Figs. 110 and 135 prcsent the numbering
scheme Llsed to identify the individı.,," rl'lid,).
On rhp left ,ide we
h,ıvc malc dcitics (with the exception of rclid Nos. 36 and 37); on
the right, female. Theyall
b:e the opposite cıııl of the chamber,
towards
which they appcar to be slowly progressing;
and there,
indeed, is the elimactie tableau: as leaders of the hol)' processiün,
the two supreme divinities, the \\leather gad and the sun goddess
greet one another.
Ncarly
aıı of the gods along the left side of the chamber
(Fig.131-132)
Theyall
are dressed in shan skirts and high pointed
hats.
wear shocs curling up at the toe, and man)' are arıned
with eithcr a sickle-shaped
over their shoulder.
sword or amace,
The mountain
which they carry
gods are characterized
by
lung "frilled" skirts (rclicf Nos. 13-15, 16.1 and 17). Several of the
gods have square-trimmed
beards, and you can pinpoillt
in same of their ears. Three gods ,He portrayrd
earrings
with wiogs: god
Pirinkir (relief No. 3 ı), a mooo god (rclid No. 35) and the divine
Shaushka
"Sun-god
(relicf No. 38). Behind
of the Heavens"
the moon
god follo\Vs the
(rclicf No. 34) idemificd
by a wingcd
sun over his head. Conspicııous
are two bull-men
(relief Nos. 28
and 29; Fig.131); they stand on the symhol for "earth"
and sup-
any individual
portrayed
attributes
in side profile,
and their entire
marching
straight
bodies
ahcad,
are rigidly
whereas
the
port a crescent ıııoon - the symbol for "the heavens" - over their
torsos of the males - in contrast - are rendered in front view, that
heads. The only female divinities
and
is, turned toward the observer. These sex-discriminate
gO,d
characteristic
Kulitta
(relief
ShaushkJ;
Nos.
36 and
37),
on the left are Ninatta
handl11aidens
of the
of Hittite relief sculpture
in general.
they take their place behind him in the procession.
The climaetic
The
stances are
female
divinities
on the right-hand
side of chamber
seene on the wall at the end of the ehambcr
(Fig. 134) portrays
a mecting of the two supreme
(Fig. l33) are dressed in long plcated skirts and all wear curling-
wcather gad Teshub
tocd shoes, carrings and high headdresses.
(rclicf No. 43). The bearded
They display scarce\y
divinities,
the
(relief No. 42) and the sun goddess Hebat
god stands on the shoulders
of two
pbecd
oval with a vertica] stroke do\\'n the middk.
naınes have yet not been deciphered.
ariseTl ovcr the iııterpretatioıı
of others.
that with all dcitics thcir Hurriarı
culture
of castcm
a straııg
İnflucnce
(entürjc~
ne:;
~Lvtrdl
Anatolia
Many of the
and somc controvcrsy
It is intercsting
has
to note
rıame in writterı. The Hurri~ın
and northern
over the Bittites
qUteii~ \Vti"c- ()f
;vlcsopotaınia
hel d
during
the 13th and
14th
i lurııan
baı.:kground.
mountain gods and earries a large maec. At some distanee behind
him appear two figurcs standing on ıııountain peaks, one pruhably the wf'ather god of Hatti (rclid No. 41) and one probab!y
to be identified as Kumarbi
(relicf No. 40). The sun goddess alsa
wears a plcated skirt and high headdrcss.
Shc stands on the back
of a wild cat that stands in turn on a series of four mountain
peaks. Behind her - half hidden by her skirt - is a prancing
wearing the high pointed hat of the gods; its cOUllterpan
bull
can be
seCll behind the skirt of Teshub. Behind Hebat eomes Sharumma,
son of the divine pair, again pbecd
standing on mountain
on the back of a wild feline
peaks. Two female figures follow him: his
sister "lanZll and an other gir!, a granddaughter
two stand together over a doublc-headed
of Teshub. These
eagle.
Many figures in the prOl.:ession are iderıtified by inseriptions
Luvian hieroglypics
lınder
the reliefs Law bcnch-
and pedcstal-like
projections
whieh might have been ıısed to display offerings and decor were
left protruding
from the rock face at variolis intcrvals (Figs.131-
133). The long stone ledge at the left (belaw figures Nos. 25
in'
in front of their faees or over their out-
stretched ~lrms. On top stands thc sYl11holfor "god", a horizontally
through
33) displays three large rectangular
dcpressions
outer edge; these may have held eult aecessories,
for example.
at the
ineense bumers
~s""),,,~-;"
.--' ~"-.
-....•.
";':~..~::2:·~~·::,
"~"~~,:jJi~._~,-,:;~~·':.~,_::.:
;;:",.,..,..
.- '::":"'~<::""~:;:·f~:5::'!:.:~~~:·~,·:'
-:~~:::.;:.:
"
":~~'..<,~..:
i
i
1--,
'
_.r
I, _
i
,-.
i
!
I,
I
I,
The order of the gods along the left
si de of Chamber A
1-12 :'...
'/ci'.c·
9uu':,
r,l~ijr~S
f,-ort
!:W"
:ıi (he Uırj('r\,'v:,/lc
short
ırı
;kr:?,
Twclve
ıdenlııot
nCJ'-I.Y
~rıd hıgh renteri hat;
I,'J
In theır rıchı hCd'd' ti"'€y hO.d aöıc~le'5haped
fP!.;!
,n
'ho:'.>ı'-
'''ı'f-..
C::lı;tıı/iDr("",
'h!:.,_ ::-3':':-:' re·...".' c· t',vd'.'':' JppC'JtS
;Ijr""i~'d !'i !:!;::;~t;::.ı c r-r"<!ı!!')"ı
t~;::ı
t!""":
rT1dlE
30
th a h~rn at U-'e
sword whıcı
sw')Cd ovu
Cf>i::liT""':b~i B as '.'\'e~l. '//!ı:?re :t
31
rrıO\~n~,~1n ~O'J::'. b~,::ı"'df:rl fıgııre.:;
v/eanng
the
5a'Y1e horol?d
32
:utt "~erıqq: :;;~<'1 ts 'f.'ıtb frıtls visual.y s'y'mbolıze
moun~.-1jns .:lnrl corıngo;
r'.Jat:""it--s ın hıpr()gı~/:)hıcs fn::-ıt yef re::ognızecl
"~lL')
\4 ,-J"ıd
g-::·c. A ınale
"i(jJfe
skırt
and
Fo pJınt::?d
18-22 Fıve d!vınıl eSNı:h no IdentıfıcatJn.
A.I wear Ihe Iypıcal srort skırl
anı hrgn pmred hdl \~·ih hxos. bul Nos 20 and 22 boast a I?ng
Upi-?fl r":lOdk ür sr1dv,/1 as well. Ncs. 18 a~d 21 öre armec with maces.
25-27
T .....
~,:., bfdı(h:d
Y'J(L 11\ '.,lı~Ht '"')kırh cFld piJllıt;~u hdtS. B~)th G.Jrrv
~nan!'::;. ;;ınc No. 'L4 ,JlSc; ru:: a c.oJk. ~J;:ırn('s written atıove theır
eXl~T1df'r; ldl dım::; lıa·/e ·ıc.ıt vet. ~J('en decıphered
34
pr'esı::rved
for Nu
2J, r~') iL; ITırty be the ~prlPisrı,:.:ı.shrlpı.
No 27 O,ho!ı1dhe N·:rg,JI god of the l;ndcrworld
crealures
wlth
[,3 rfı:ıangie
the hndquaı'ters
wıth (Iocble
-~.,kv
Le:::
cl
unknol/v'rt
gad Di prcterj1cn,
deer'
ry)d, .A fTH1e
hcrns
;IÇtJr?
',Nfn!
n~
"
",c CJrrıes J slckle·srapEd
ru.lI'll·1(j
€'xte","o~s
c.re~Lerıt
of a oull
at ('ıther
rnGun!
The war god Ashıabı
wıth
hurrı;,
'-iı:=
A Illclf 'ıgure ın a sh~rt skırl ane ooınt~d
c.:d",·le; d ~lckte ..~tıaoecJ
sW:)rd G·•..cr- hi:. rıqht
but wıth
A ma!e f,gu'en
a ~ong -cbe and sha",ıl
35
A 11100" 90d. A beJıded fıgu'e 1'1 a horned OOll1tec hat. a short skırı
a,d a long shaw!. A cre5cent mo:)n sil'; atcp hı" hat. and wıngs rıse
f: orn /IIS shouıders
36-37
N,,,,,tl,, dred Kulittd, dl'''''U''~~:', ol tlıe goc Sh,)ıy,hk" /1;0 381 Two
fernale fısures 'Nen' ıng bl OlhP:'; and [on~ :)ler31p.u s..ı..ırl~ 8on) have
round (aps, No. 36 carrıes wrat seems to be a mırror ın ıer rght
hand. wh te No. 37 holds whaı 15 probably
a vıai ol salve or
oirılnent.
Thıs ratreı
deep- set ;'dicf prcscrves ~on'e 0~ tt-e orig nril surfa(p
2rıa
C\.~
"Sur ·God of the Heave'ls
eap and 'n hıs rıght hdnd " k'lg s:ôlf
or wand [Iıtuus) that spırats cpward a: the tower end. The creseent,
s'ldped gr ip of a 5wcrd urut! uc'es ucl.uw hj~ uIJlstretched
left arnı
A stZlr lık e sun dısk b0twC'en
;:ı widr ollts;:;rC',1ri nair of \:\Itngs fl.:);::ıt:;
over rıs hea,j.
38
appdrently "urnan 101'50 dnd arms. You can make oul t~eır tultd
laıl', lucked beween theı' hınd legs r~ey mııst be the Bulıs of Ihe
IledHIs,
HJI'! and Sheıı; they sland ün the symbollor
··earth·
2-f'rrılJullor
Ilıy
O~ hıs head is a rounded
Thre~ 90% jressed !rı short skıı!, and pınteu
hal> All earry
s·Nord:. ct ıer theır rıght s.'loutders
Ne nar:i: IS
1'f10
.b.'l
hat
slcklp.-sh.::l:Jec1
28-29
V';t:'.:jL
shouldcr
16a-17
:'.'vc rncn.nlJın 00dC; bc'arjcd f gures wear'ng frilled skıds and
p"""'led c,al,. bent foıwaır! Thanks lo cl .Clyer of deposil, por!, of 1\0
ı 6,~ ın parl.ıcular ha\ie S-I.frvıved ır. espec allı gooc (ondıtıon, The
IlcHlle::ı !ıcıit' rıu~ yt'! lH~E'; ·.h:uph:~ı ed
23-24
rr,Jle figL.J-:-
LJ
Vı.'earlng rı short
'Ial. H·s 'lanı€, has r;c:. yet been deci~'lcrcd.
UrıU[-.:'rıııflE'd
:"'xı cJpp,J;~':·i-t:)· vn.::rn-ı(d
SI'ürt ski1t and poı'ıted nat wth
sword over h s 'grıt shoclder
33
16
The yoC! Pırınk,!
shor: ,;kı-~ and::; raund cap. VJil"jS >ise steep\y from h:s shoulders
f'·at.=, n'eır
::ıC:.C\ITıpan'y'
hıs riqht shouldC"
r'.~'''tp ["',"ınfln] h.-:rk,.~,ı~rrlc:.
j';=ı.:::'
13...15 rh~t?f'
ı~
Mcst lıkely the WJr goo ZABA3A
Hcsr.u"1 A rr.;:ı"culn"
fıgıır0
wparıng a shorl skırt and r0 nted nat and cilCryıns ? sıckle shaped
Shaushka. a~ alternatıve
emb:ıdıınent
ol Ihe yodaess Ishtdr /i
Illale tıqure wıth horned poınted hat. a shcrt skır! and an over'skııt
whıc~ talls ın multıple
Irüm 'ııs sh~ulders.
falds, as wetl as a cloak. Wıngs rıse sleeoly
endi and hJld Iho
over
tt'~ır
heads
39
Ea, Ihe G~d of Wısdom
short
skırt
.:ınd rJ lonq
shoulder.
A bearded fıgure wılh hürned poınted haL.
doal·c
He cJrrres
a mace ever rııs rıght
45-46
The climactic scene on the end-wall of Chamber A
40
M.~;~,ıpr'~',bcbl_\' the Jn~-: ~<,lJr.ld' !:ııA
r.:,.]!I-..t'".'c 1--1.::;1,.3
shoıl. ::.kırt Jrld.:; cı::ıav.
tı Hlelle Jf
m~i.(>-::jUt til,? crec:Jent
rJ
'\lan;:::lj.t.ır ,1?lj9r,~rr
0rar:djaL.ghte~
a high
'Int'ı
T=:;hiib;nd-ieh;:L
:.,1
Gf i eshub
iV'ic
f21--ı.);·;
~'y'
;:h~(':-:,n"";);::.n;(-rl
7ıqur(:,
thp
;n tO'-lg ~;(,JIC'd
:'~ ıris d',j b\ous',::.s ne: as :di\ or fL)'~'.·lnqas tnat cd Het'at Frr)'n undu !I,!:.'-r IH!JI' ,ı~d(jdr e:-:ı:t:~ - '2~~fırılilrn~! PH; w()! n t::! ;....eh~l - ri
B~!ıH'ld ~1:,,,\'Irl~ h-?ll ycu can
~;lJ!)rc,
"V"(J1Uf~iS" Ih.::ıt rep;p:-;f'r~t
s·, ..rnç-i.ıkP
t'9u·e
t(ı,?[-ded
He stands on t'-~~,O
h:çh
ht;
:TounLwıs
SI
Jr
[':::ın'] li,,'r
:j:::ıs':::enc~
to ~hi? \
ia;:ı -The t'I!O ~,t;:ırj
abo\ie
tO)!?
ct ô dc,~)b!.e-headed eagl2
ITICI?'?
p, "bciLlv "he ,'J,cJthe·· qnc d -ialt, A bear1pd fl'lur c VJ th 03 onırted
':.':'::~I·:J s:~~'!'"''J t"_~!~ ":; ;..<ı!-t!- ..,:.,ı:":
Hı:> ',',',a~rc;: ,=ı :;:,hn," ~krrt
!-,,~:t ~_:;;'::::
Thr. (Jı)(~:k"~:~p':'
ii (;i-'ııpr~i 'iı'-.ıı,;-r.j
,rı
U'_~~,·.f;;;"ll ylljJ,
h·:-; r ghı,
I'ııjiıü
cl
:3r~if
m?:::e, dnj
le tt
ii hı:,
::·t2fl :.'1 liF1I_C"). Lıke No <40:'w stand s en two mrıunlcJln
hı? ~;~-,d,; r~,p'::;:~~:~r-~t
~h(1:
.?l l~ng
prar.p:=.sinr., th("~y ,'lll'ht"or
pı..;.Jks
Si\ırts. bdts,
42
Th,::.v.'edthL'I·
'~<)d-::"-ln1t',
liiqh hat c)ôc)rn2d wıt'ı
rrescent
/\
ırCı!!)'
qrı:.' ın hıs tiPU
ciL.
Old!.
~.k'ardcd flQUr2 wilh a shcrt skırt 3'ld a
hcrns
-1e :arr "_"-,Ll ,:,hnrı svvora
hı') left;
ın hıs
rıgtıl
hdııd
iN
h-ıı,~r-,
a
fteu
J
P' dncirlf~ bdt -.vt;ı,Jr·'ng tt12 heJt ::ıi dvır.ıt,/:
J(".:c'!l~nc1nyınr.~IrIs,=rıpt1ol'
i he ıelıd
Iıgure'?, r'-ks 1 t::ı 42 all f..:ıcr>to your rı(~ht. No':,
fPprl?:se'lt
thE nE'.:·!l ...•
'] nj lh·? two mos~. honcred
thcı'- pl,l('(' cıt :hE t'cad
d .'lntltes
43
(Jf
h~.'/) c:ıntını::en:~
The sun goddess H"bat. D,lennlp
Wdı'-:>t
3ll ~ace to yoıır
Id0n~ılı(;:ıtırın
44
bııll
(iiLi
'Nhor?~';
ı.uwJrrj
lIıı.;;-lT'(hırl'j
s~arıd wıth theır en tıre
:h~ Ic)r-;os
-,:ıl
lr::ı:;t
thF. chests
fronıal\'y'
(u·· .•.
-cu
:)/1
the
TıCW'"!
sc;.:-r~c iJnd this qeddE'S5 (new
:0'- pre:::ıcr~'aLionı~h:::ren!.J~-:>i h;ri~
:.JCDIJi·dl.c
Llücks.
lw?ıı :;:ilı rT:r!rp k]ur(~s
One :JtC'ık whı'-:" cUl.le
~j[:)od here IS (ın cısplay ın the B09c?kale M.Jselım
"1i:Ne
C'ICJirldilv
i~nort~-,~'{sl'ıP.
goddes,-,Ic,ht,ır
fıguı e 'NeJClng ., tull btouse and
A lon]
behınd
1
sugges-
o' h~if falls down
IVvl'::"
Teshub.
sor of Hebat "ne
'ght
~Lf-
wears
Nıth ~ lıne of hor ns up tre Iront
back. 'J"d 111hrs beli h, carrıes
h~r
49
Tr2 »cddcss 1\llotu. The n,che jlsflJrrr:ng
cul rnto t'ıP rock i~c" ın posl-I--ıtlı>e
Iı'JI I·,e hıer(ıglyprıc
ın "IIS left nand
~ a udutC
Ildnd Sharrucoma
ucpıcter.1
ıesnuh.
a short
skrt
hN hp,ıo mw,; I·.~vc he?n
t·mes
the only Male ın the
F.nd
cl
poın:ed
c\ 10'1g twıst of h31r tilll"
a crecocen>haftec
,JX€'. Hp, lDO,
of a \,'ııld '::2l, i,he t<Jil of 'Nr-ııcr ascerds
i~
dtx'\."/
tJ2CI-<S,
thcır lcft
tItrE' rC'fT'al'lS \..ndEClpherL'd
r:ıroce<:,s'on to tiıe
\,"vhıch
ll-c
Ji"lC
PGssrCJ!ythe goddes3 Taru Tak;tu· cnly the .dertıfv1ng heroglyoh'"
are preser·.ıed: t· ..•e iıgure ıt~>?tf ("as be-?n badiy daTıaqc,<j. lnserted
vvallec U:J
left
nf thF
Sh(~ ıs çoısed on :he back of a large w-ld fetıne,
The ged Slıarl·umrna.
: 1\)'lt (IL.
1'-'1'~c:J f~orrı
ın the rocı.c, Ii::,su:-e betweer.
~nrl L.3
whıcJ' s:ands ın :Lrr: O'ı iGur lO,,!·)h:lJ::. RflhıflO her iS a (Gur.terpart
10 :he pldrrLlıg
46a
rınd female
ÇI
~,kırt. b'2lkd. Sh'.:' wears <1hıgh h-?addres-;
tıvı::ı ci bd'_tlem'=:i~::, :::ına n:y wall
bJck tcı :hr
/ı)
'~p;_'n
1-'11<,:li-\'"
"ı:ı.::ı;rl
h<ıtr (.:ıil,; :bl!Jn the:r
1\ I'NI:;~ of
- of the f1l3le fıgures app€3r
deıues. 'Nh:::ıt;:ıke
ot ma
Thcı İi(J'.Jre; fo·iJ\i~/I·ı(~ ~·Jo /I:~thLS
a lcwg Pll'dtC:i
ın ~n
ıt ıs ıdentifici
bull (.:.a.f o; Tpc,h.Jb'
;;s 'thE
thp
shav,ı(s or- d0ah,:~ ane the hUh ~"::rlddrP:.;SP~
lıa:1l::?nıenls
bO::;IE~ d~~JıCıt:d ın pofılp.
,Y':, mDunt<'1ln god5
1'1 (ib,üJy :\~2mnl and
Lnzı - hy tr.e tv pe "of
,;~ıd tl-ıı: :dlfd ::;,t.;:rl.~..,I'H>,' ','.'(:31" 8?hmd T(.::.;lı,Jh·~,lpI)S can be
,:,f,:-:n
h,..,f,.-l'
ı'
~t
Lll ıiıe tU'.:-, ·ui.l I.cnqth
Ll::ı
r>J',)le'Northyheıe as w,,:L is '.lıa~ dlı ferrales
T~J(~e Hp :ı'aııJ~ on the :;~oIJlder;;; d two te2:rrl.;~li fıgures :dent~hdl
blouses,
curLng
':,;100S
111'11'1lrlıldl
fprr;::.!e;
3 "'ıd tht~Y ~,tanj '..•.
Jtth th~ r rıg'"'t h.:ınd::, ('~:'_C'ndcd1'1 fısts
tlı u
holci~
he
r e,;:>~rl1ble
ff-'V'1f·.I'
i rk2 tl:,",
'1c.:nd~ lwo mountam
swrFri on hıs
~tdndı:ı on the bae""
aln10st vertıcöUy.
"ulde, a leash atlddl~J
hat
uown hıs.
iıı
hıs rıght
to the neck of the fel1ne.
peaks,
Twc more '"elıe! fıglIres can/ed or se::Jarate blocks et stüne must
have stood between NJ':,. ~,~ Jrıd Jb
Relief Number 64:
The Great King Tudhaliya
ıv.
The Iargest relicf figure in the sanetuary
opposite
the dimaetic
goddesses
(Fig.136).
stands
011
[he \vall
scene, at the end of the procession
Rcpresenred
here, as indicated,
of
is no god,
pectful distance - the meeting of the gods, as if he \Vas pa~'iııg his
respects to the highesr deities. For this reason as well we assume
it was this Great King who was responsible
menrs of the Yazdıkaya
century Be.
This relief, protected
sanetllary around
the middle of the
ı3th
by nature with a natural patina - alayer
of limc deposit - is less weathered.
year raund,
for the final arrange-
bm in mid-june
It lies in shadow most of the
- just at the beginning of suınmer -
it receivcs same direct suıılighr for
,1
short time in the Iate after-
noons.
The appearance
of the King is almost exactly like that of the
sun god as represented
here (rclief :--Jo.34) and in the Hieroglyph
Chamber of the Upper Ciry (see Fig.96); he wears a long robc and
a cloak, shocs curling at the toe, and a roLlnded cap. In his left
hand he holds a !ituus, a wand curving up at the lower end; the
crescent-shaped
hi!t of a sword protrudes
figure stands on two roıınded
a scale-pattern.
from his cloak. The
obiects designated
as mountains
by
Over the king's extended right haml is chiseled his
name and full title in hieroglyphic symbols arranged as a cartouchc
(d. relicf No. 83 in the smailer Chilmher B
the center is the name - the hieroglyphic
!ike a high boot (ring on its bad;
of a bearded
moııntain
= Fig.143):
bclow at
sign "tu" - which looks
above thi<; the re is the sYl1lbol
güd in a frilled skirt and a high püinted
hat;
both
right
to
and
Idt
inscribed
!Ll!JLlrn,ı
A
the
the
LS
the
;ınd
Idt -
insignia
"Great King"
(a
smailer
winged
demans in reIief
(Nos.
67-68)
stand
outside
the
passage
137).
for
the
B. Two
Iion-headed
and
framİng this - at the
far right
into
Chamber
(a dagger
channe!
the roek provides
entry
title
over a bIossam),
narrow
through
With
guard
arım
(hg.
threat-
eningiy raised, they seetll to
high
he protecting the entranee.
eane lınder a volute);
and abovl' the entire
sign floats a winged
double sun.
The chanıber,
Two deities in re·
lief
(Nos.
abollt
18
m long, is 4 111wide at the
65-66)
norrlı enel, na rrowing to 2.5
stand İn poor prescr-
(Fig. ı38).
vatİoıı on the nosc-
m at the sollth
!ike protrusion
Tht: f,ıı:es of the stl'cply
of the
rock face jııst right of
rising high walls at the sides
the entranee to Chamber A (ct. Fig.13U). A
were
Idt
natural,
triınming
Fig.137
male figurc in a high
Yi17l1lkrlva.
One of he de~ıüns [relıe! no 681
;ıL the cntrance
poİnred hat sits opposite a femaIc figure in a high reetangıılar
to Chamler
S
relief sculpture
headdress.
Between the m
wİth the sign for Jeİty, but what follows İs illegible.
unexcavated
This relief ma>' have been related to the large fissure whieh
deep into the rock to the right of it. Excavation
prnved lInable to provide
Cıııes to i littite cıılt ritua!.
here is l11uch
was
with
the cleft unforrunately
The
better prcservcd beı.:aııse the
chamher
İs a table or sacrificiaI altar. The naınes above bath figures bcgin
penetrates
withoııt
or paring.
within
us with many
ı9th
earth
partly
and
fillcd
reınained
until the mid
century.
We
assLltne
chamber
the Grcat
\Vas
,1
that
memorial
this
to
King Tudhaliya
Fig.139
A HoIlılo "t;ıIL:e h,y,o 0Prh,lrc,
olıgln'lı; lr"m
Yanı
kd'ld
r:h"rrbpr
B ;ıı
LV erected by his son Shupiluliuma
II, who set up a slatue of his
procession
of gods (relid Nos.I-12)
in the brger
Chamber
A,
brlıer here. The large limestone black by the entranee at the nort-
they wear shırts, belts, short skirts .'Ind shoes curling up at the toe.
Iıem end of the ehamber
They each carry a ereseent-shaped
eould "veli have been the base of tlıe
statue. A large basalt slab of the same dimensions,
bearing the o-
ver-life-size fect of a statııe, was faund in the neighboring
of Yekbas/Evrcn
and transported
viIIage
tue itself must have stood at least 3 nı Iıigh.
earved
Figs.140
to the figures
The God Sharrumma
Tudhaliya
to the right of the entrance
a line of gods of the Underworld
and 143). Identİcal
hats that identify them as divinities.
to the Boğazkale J\'1tıseıım gar-
den in 1981 (Fig.139). Judging from the size of the feet, the sta-
On the wall immediarcly
and the horned roinıed
s\\'ord flung over the shoıılder,
(relief Nos.
Was·
69-80;
at the end of the
striding
forward
with the Great King
IV under his arın (relief No. 81; Figs.141 and 143).
The divinity Sharrumma,
the patron of Tııdhaliya
IV, İs depicred
as an eseort of the Grent King (nfter his death?), who carries the
same long curling wand (a litulls)
as he does in Reliei Number
64
With these three rclicfs Great King TlIdhali~'a IV
representations.
IS
the sole human being represemed
among the gods in the whole
of the m:o chambers.
The Sword God, or the god Nergal of the Underworld
No. 82; Figs.!42-143).
This most lInusua! iconography
depicts an
ııpriglıt ,word w!th the pomme! on the hi!t above fashionca
a nde
(relief
imo
head wearing the tali horned and pointed hat of the gods.
He wears a ring in his
ear, and his ha İr falls
Jown
the back of his
neck. In place of arms
and shoulders
are the
foreparts of two crouching linns, facing Oııt\vards. The hilt itself is
Fig.141
Cha:TifE:r [. cJt ''jiiJiiı·kaYd
ı:pd
(:',h,?ı~::~jn~''''na Iretief
Ttıi': :Jn?et t\ıııq T udl-a~jya 1\/ ,il thE etııb-ace of the
by t\VO lions
formed
rı,:)_ 81J
with
teeth
ponrayed
in the main chambcr,
and is dressed the same, again wearıng
a
bared,
vertically
as
if creepiııg
down
long robe with a shawl, a rounded cap and shoes curling up at the
two
Bclow the
toe.
hi lt is a vertically
Sharnımma,
portrayed
at a noticeably
larger scale, w€aı;s a··
sides.
shorr skirt with a helt, and a twist of hair falls dow n his back.
bed
Both figures carry sh ort s\Vords with sickle-shaped
rowards
nınuna 's Idt arın is thrown
araund
the King's
breast to grasp the wrist of his upraised
hilts. Scharshoulders
and
tali homed hat of the gad appears a cartoııche
rib-
narrowing
the
point
which is not depicted;
right hand. Behind the
with the name and
titles of the king. At the far right the sign for" hera"
bl ade,
the
has been .
there nıight have heen
a podium
agaİnst
the
rock (ace here.
added here; the insignia also differs from those of the king here
in relief No.S3
the
and rclief No.64
ideogra ın for
.:_,ı.,;,-_,.::O':'O;··:""X~'i:"'(.:;:~" -
._.:"':::::~:·z·:,~~;r·'~\::o
'.
-~~'~iT~~~~[J~:~~:-~·:~.'·;-:c::
in the main chamber
"mou Ilta in god"
rep laccs
the
in that
pictoria
i
Fig.142
Chember B at Yazıcıkaya.
Nccqal of the Underworld
The 'Sword God,
[retıe' no 821
-....-:==..-~--,"".,'
{,~ji:~/Y.~)'i~'.:-~~~:
;;i
/!
.1/
i
"
_ ....'
~,.
!
\:\
Cartouche
with the name and titlc of the Great King Tudhali-.
ya LV (relief No. 83; Fig.143).
This cartouche
is for the greatest
part like that next to the large relief of the King in Chamber
(relid
No. 64). Under
a winged
sun \ve see the name in the
center; it ıs Cüınposcd of the hieroglyphic
sign for "tu"
rescnıblcs a high boot Iying hcel downward)
•
••
.•
a lıearıleıl ınountaın
A
.
rn
1
(whid1
under a pictograın
l'
i
i
.
of
tt.
goo \\'carıng a rumeo SKırr ano nıgn n,J[
blossoın)j
for "!abama"
and finally at the exteriar
(a dagger above a
left and right,
the title
"Great King" (a high cone under a volute). This cartouche
A brief history of Hattusha/
over the millennia.
This chapter atteınpts to present .1 b.ıckground
have bern meant to identify the cult statue that hypothetically
Hattush,ı/Boğazköy.
In case the ruins awaken stili hırther curio-
sity, a bibliographic
appendix
lists sources
Hattusha,
or Boğazköy,
The Landscape.
Cappadocia.
niches (Fig.14 i ) \vhere offerings might ha ve been placed.
Assunıing that the eult statııe onee stood at the north end of
which tlıe reliefs face as well, one might
think that the original entranee should have bem in the southem
part of the chamber.
Ho\vever,
what must have been anatural·
opening in the sidc here was obstructed
the large blOl.:ks you see in plaee today.
with more JdaileJ
information.
Central Anatolia,
In the rock faee at the h,ıek of the room there are three deep
towards
for your visit to
may
stood at the north end of the chamber.
the chambcr,
Boğazköy
1
,ULU
holding a nıace in his raised right hand; to both the Irh and the
right then coınes the symbol
The Hittites, their forerunners
and their followers
already in Hittite times by
Within a dry contilH:ııtal dimatic
steppe-vegetation;
lies in northcm
just at thc north cdge of the ancient region of
zone, wc see scant
over so me large areas there is scarcely a tree in
sight. The winters are long and cold; the summers rdativcly
short,

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