Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetiminde Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemlerinin



Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetiminde Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemlerinin
Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetiminde Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemlerinin Kullanımı
Canan AKIN
Başbakanlık Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetimi Başkanlığı Bilgi Sistemleri Çalışma Grubu
Bütünleştirilmiş Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetimi hazırlıklı olma, zarar azaltma, müdahale
etme ve iyileştirme amacı ile mevcut kaynakları organize eden, analiz, planlama, karar alma ve
değerlendirme süreçlerinin bütünüdür (Kadıoğlu, 2007). Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetimi
Zarar azaltma
İyileştirme evrelerinden oluşur.
Her bir evre birbiri ile ilişkili ve farklı süreçler içermektedir. Acil durum yönetiminin
tüm aşamalarında çeşitli kaynaklardan gelen veriler Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri kullanılarak
işlenir.Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri özellikle risk değerlendirmesi ve uzun vadede zarar
azaltma stratejileri geliştirme konusunda özellikle önem taşımaktadır.Coğrafi Bilgi
Sistemleri Hazırlıklı olma ve müdahale aşamalarında, kapsamlı bir afet hazırlık ve
müdahale sistemi için entegre merkezinde ya da mekansal bilgilerin taşınabilir bir yerinde
kaynağı olarak da hizmet verebilir. Bir afet sonrasında Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri hasar
tespit destekleyen ve iyileştirme için gereklidir.
Anahtar Kelimeler
Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetimi ,CBS
Use of Geographic Information Systems in Disaster and Emergency Management
Integrated Management of Disaster and Emergency is preparedness, mitigation, and to
intervene with the aim of improving the existing resources, organizing, analyzing, planning,
decision-making and evaluation processes.
A set of Disaster and Emergency Management consists of stages.
All phases of emergency management depend on data from a variety of sources. GIS is
gaining favour in risk assessment and the development of long-term mitigation strategies. In
the preparedness and response phases, GIS may serve either as the integrating centrepiece for
a comprehensive disaster preparedness and response system or as a portable, on-site source of
spatial information. In the wake of a disaster, GIS is becoming integral in damage assessment,
and rebuilding.
Key Words
Disaster and Emergency Management GIS
The most general definition adopted by the United Nations and "for the people of
physical, economic and social losses, which can stop or interrupt the normal life and affecting
the local communities can not cope with all kinds of possibilities of natural, technological or
human origin of all the events," disaster "is called. Modern disaster management system, the
Loss and Mitigation, Preparation, Forecasting and Early Warning, Disaster understand the
efforts to protect the pre-disaster, such as "risk management" denilirken; Impact Analysis,
Response and Recovery, Reconstruction after disaster such as the work done to correct the
"crisis management" is called.
As is known, Geographic Information Systems; land already available, and then all
kinds of data to collect, store, update the computer-based system that helps ..
Variety and reliability of information-gathering methods, data collected after the update
process easier to perform the evaluation, the minimum level, the reduction of bureaucratic
procedures, providing time and labor savings, minimizing the margin of error, an easy and
fast way to correct existing errors, the system in any image easy reach of the numerical and
graphical data, the applicability of analysis methods and so on. .. According to studies done
with classical methods offer many advantages of this system is important for the use and
Disaster and Emergency Management Planning and Loss Reduction, Preparedness,
Response and Recovery phases occurs . Each stage consists of processes related to each other
and develop at different times. Planning and Mitigation of the disaster and emergency
situations that may occur in the process of life, property loss and can create effects on the
environment are determined. At this stage, reducing the risks and hazards preparedness,
response and recovery planning processes will be made by using geographic information
systems. Mitigation Planning and preparatory phase of the work but not abolish the disaster or
emergency situations, governments, organizations, and to save the lives of individuals,
property damage and environmental plans are developed to minimize the disaster damage.
Disaster plans also damage the geographic information systems are needed. Disaster need to
know the whereabouts of a possible disaster and the first affected by this disaster is that what
s. Thus, rescue teams and aid supplies to reach the right place and the area will be provided as
soon as possible. Disaster aid efforts after the disaster and became the temporary housing
areas of the injured people placement, health services and provision of food aid to certain
centers and regularly, to determine what they way, post-disaster threatening substations,
natural gas valves, industrial plants etc ... identification of places, places of business machines
and work areas are matters which took place on the detection of geography.
Geographical studies using data for the disaster, executives, effective and rational quick
and easy access to information is essential to make right decisions. For this purpose, there
comes the importance of Geographic Information Systems.
Kadıoğlu, M., 2008, Modern, Bütünleşik Afet Yönetimin Temel İlkeleri; Kadıoğlu, M. ve
Özdamar, E., (editörler), “Afet Zararlarını Azaltmanın Temel İlkeleri”; s. 1-34, JICA
Türkiye Ofisi Yayınları No: 2, Ankara. Türkyılmaz, E,Afet Bilgi Sstemi, Cografı Bılgı
Sıstemlerı Bılısım Günlerı / Fatıh Ünıversıtesı / 13-14 Kasım 2001
Montoya,L,GIS And Remote Sensing İn Urban Disaster Management, 5th AGILE
Conference on Geographic Information Science, Palma (Balearic Islands, Spain) April
25th-27th 2002

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