A study Reservoir Turkey on freshwater ichthyofauna of Kemer and

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A study Reservoir Turkey on freshwater ichthyofauna of Kemer and
1. Black Sea/Mediterranean
Vol.J 4: 25-32
(2008)
Environment
A study on freshwater ichthyofauna of Kemer
Reservoir and Akçay Stream of the Aegean region,
Turkey
Akçay ve Kemer Baraj Gölü'nün tatlısu ihtiyofaunası
üzerine bir çalışma, Ege Bölgesi, Türkiye
Gülnaz Özcan!' and Süleyman Balık2
'Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Fisheries, İskenderun, Hatay - TURKEY
2Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, İzmir, TURKEY
Abstract
This study was carried out to determine the ichthyofauna of Kemer reservoir
and Akçay stream. As a result of examining the samples collected between
December 2004 and June 2006, it was revealed that 15 fish species, belonging to
6 families, were found in the basin of Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream.
Among these, Lepomis gibbosus, Silurus glanis, Oncorhynchus
mykiss,
Carassius gibelio and hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops & Morone
saxaıilisş are alien species. Three species, Petroleuciscus
smyrnaeus,
Alburnoides bipunctatus, and Oncorhynchus mykiss were recorded for the first
time from the Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream.
Key words: Kemer reservoir, Akçay stream,
ichthyofauna,
alien fish,
endemlc
Introduction
The first study on freshwater ichthyofauna of the inland waters of
Turkey was started in the mid-1800s and has continued up to the present
in Turkish inland water. The ichthyofauna of the inland waters of (Büyük
Menderes River Basin) Anatolia has been examined in several studies
• Corresponding author: [email protected]
25
(Balık, 1979; Elvira, 1987; Elvira, 1997; Geldiay and Balık, 1999; Sarı et
aL., 1999; Barlas et aL., 2001; Şaşı, 2002; Şaşı and Balık, 2003; Yılmaz et
aL., 2003; Barlas and Dirican, 2004; Dirican and Barlas, 2005; Özcan,
2007; Özcan, 2007a; Özcan, 2007b; Özcan and Balık, 2007b).
To date, ichthyofauna of the Kemer reservoir has not been directly
studied, but eight species were recorded in the Kemer reservoir by Özcan,
2007; Özcan, 2007a; Özcan, 2007b; Özcan and Balık, 2007b. Only,
Akçay stream was studied by Balık, 1979 (4 species), Yılmaz et aL., 2003
(8 species), Özcan, 2007a (1 species), Özcan, 2007b (1 species).
Therefore, these studies have a little information ichthyofauna of Kemer
reservoir and Akçay stream system.
.
The distribution and origin of freshwater fısh, especially the endemics,
has been attributed mainly to the geological history of the country.
About 60 species are known as endemic in the Turkish inlad water.
Besides, a very large number of introduced or translocated species are
also present in Menderes ri ver basin, Turkey. L. gibbosus was fırst
recorded in the Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream by Özcan, 2007a.
Hybrid striped bass (M. chrysops & M. saxatilis) were fırst reported in
Kemer reservoir, Aydın (Güner et aL., 2006). C. gibelio was fırst
recorded in the Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream by Özcan, 2007b.
The aim of this study was to determine the lately presented of the fısh
(endemic and exotic) fauna in the Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream
sytems.
Materials and Methods
Kemer reservoir was created after an 180.50 m-high wall built in 19541958 by DSı to irrigation, flood control- and energy. There were Kemer
reservoir and Hydroelectric Station constructed on Akçay Stream with an
expected capacity of 143 GWh/year. The surface of the reservoir of
Kemer is 14.75 km", the size of overall volume totals is 5,44 hrrı'.
According to the measurements taken in December 2004-June 2006, the
maximum depth measured was SIm. The reservoir water reduced at the
end ofthe summer-autumn months (May-September).
The samples examined in this study were taken from various areas in
Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream (37° 32' 58" N and 28° 32' 48" E)
between December 2004 and June 2006. The fısh were caught by using
gill nets with mesh sizes of 18-55 mm, cast nets (12-22 mm) and
electrofıshing (WFC91 1 portable electric fıshing machine).
26
Materials obtained were fıxed and preserved in 4% formaldehyde
solution and deposited at the Faculty of Fisheries, Mustafa Kemal
University, Turkey (in collection of Dr. G. Özcan). Colour features of
fısh were examined in fresh specimen. Fin rays, lateral line scales, gill
rakers and pharyngeal teeth, which are meristic characteristics necessary
for determination of genus, species and subspecies of samples brought to
the laboratory, were counted, and total length (TL), standart length (SL),
fork length (FL), head length (HL) and interorbital distance (ID) from
metric characteristics were measured.
Results
Kemer reservoir included 1 outlet, Akçay stream, and 6 inlets, Değirmen,
Deli, Akdere, Sarhos, Yeni and Mortuma streams. Akçay stream
discharge in Aegean Sea through the he Ip of Büyük Menderes River
(Figure 1).
AYDIN
BUYUK
MENDERES
RIVER
,.
Figure
ı. The
map of Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream
Fifteen species were caught during the study. These species belonging to
6 families were defıned in Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream, as listed
27
ı.
in the Table
Of these species, the presence of P. smyrnaeus, A.
bipunctatus, and o. mykiss were recorded in Kemer reservoir and Akçay
stream for the fırst time in the present study.
Table
ı. Freshwater
Taxon
CYPRINIDAE
l.Cyprinus
carpio
Linnaeus, 1758
2.Acanthobrama
mirabilis
Ladiges,
1960·
3.Barbus
plebejus
Bonaparte, 1839
4. Barbus pectoraZis
Hecke1, 1843
5.Capoeta bergamae
Karaman, 1969·
6.Leuciscus cephalus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
TPeıroleuciscus
smyrnaeus
(Boulenger, 1896)
8.A lburnoides
Bloch,
bipunctaıus
1782
9. Chondrostoma
(Elvira,
meandrense
1987) •
10.Carassius gibelio
(Bloch, 1782)"
BALITORIDAE
11.Nemacheilus
angorae
CENTRARCHIDAE
12.Lepomis gibbosus
(Linnaeus, 1758)"
SILURIDAE
13.SilUl'us
glanis
Linnaeus, 1758"
28
fishes of the Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream.
Distribution
Akçay Kemer
Stream Reservoir
Conservation
status
+
+
DD
+
+
VU
+
+
LC
+
+
+
+
VU
+
+
LR
+
+
DD
+
+
LR
+
+
VU
+
+
+
+
Conservation
measures
Introduced
date
No measures
No measures
No measures
2007
DD
+
+
2006
LR
unknown
SALMONIDAE
14.
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
(Walbauın,
+
1792)"
MORONIDAE
I5.Morone
chrysops
(Rafınesque, 1820) X
+
Morone
saxatilis
(Walbaum, 1792)"
* : endemic fısh species
a: Alien fısh species
+
2007
+
1999
/
Five exotic and translocated species were recorded in the basin, such as
the prussian carp (C. gibelio), pumpkinseed, (L. gibbosus), wels catfısh
(S. glanis), rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and hybrid striped bass (M.
chrysops & M. saxatilis). Also 3 endemic fısh species were found in the
area: A. mirabilis, C. bergamae and C. meandrense.
Discussion
in this study area, fıfteen fısh species (3 endemic and 5 exotic) in 6
families were identifıed. Native species (Cyprinidae (9 species-except C.
gibelio) and Balitoridae (1 species) families) naturally occur in the
region of Asia minor. The presence of this families Centrarchidae (l
species) and Siluridae (1 species) has been introduced to and established
in the area. Also, one hybrid species belonging to the Moronidae family
and one exotic species of Salmonidae family that entered the reservoir
and streams after escaping from the aquaculture fısh farming, haven't
established a species population yet. .
Among the fıshes identifıed, three species (O. mykiss, P. smyrnaeus, A.
bipunctatus) are new for Kemer reservoir and Akçay stream.
.
.
Chondrostoma holmwoodii meandrensis reported new subspecies from
the Büyük Menderes River by Elvira (1987), but same researcher
changed the new species as C. meandrense (Elvira, 1997).
;
Three endemic fısh species were found in the area: A. mirabilis, C.
bergamae, C. meandrense. According to the Smith and Darwall (2006)
two species are vulnerable (C. meandrense, C. bergamae). A. mirabilis is
vulnerable in the Büyük Menderes River (Crivelli, 1996; Sarı and
Bilecenoğlu, 2002), and extinct from Lake Bafa (Sarı et aL., 1999).
29
••
Non-native species have become successfully established over wide
areas in a short time. The pumpkinseed L. gibbosus in Turkey could have
considerable negative consequences for the local fısheries economy, as
pumpkinseed is a potential competitor for the food of numerous endemic
fısh species: A. mirabilis, C. meandrense, C. bergama e and B. pectoralis
(Özcan, 2007a).
As a result, total fıfteen fısh species were recorded in the Kemer
reservoir and Akçay stream, fıve of these were exotic and three were
endemic. If fıshpassages or fishstairs are not constructed on the
hydroelectric plants, reservoir, irragation regulators, native fısh species
und er serious risk and non-native species have a negative effect on
certain endemic species.
Özet
Bu çalışma, Akçay ve Kemer Baraj Gölü'nün ihtiyofaunasını belirlemek için
yapıldı. Aralık 2004 ile Haziran 2006 arasında toplanılan örneklerin incelenmesi
sonucunda, Akçay ve Kemer Baraj Gölü havzasında 6 familyaya ait 15 balık
türü bulundu. Bunlardan, Lepomis gibbosus, Silurus glanis, Oncorhynchus
mykiss, Carassius gibelio ve hibrit çizgili levrek (Morone chrysops & Morone
saxatilis) yabancı türlerdir. Üç tür, Petroleuciscus smyrnaeus, Alburnoides
bipunctatus, ve Oncorhynchus mykiss Akçay ve Kemer Baraj Gölü'nden ilk kez
kaydedildi.
Anahtar Kelimeler:
endemik.
Kemer Baraj Gölü, Akçay, ihtiyofauna,
yabancı balıklar,
Acknowledgements
The authors thank the colleagues at the Department of Hydrobiology, Ege University for
their help in collecting materiaL. The study was supported by Mustafa Kemal University
(Project No: 04 M 1704).
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Received:
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Accepted: 21.12.2007
32

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