New Approaches in Religious Education in the Process of

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New Approaches in Religious Education in the Process of
ISSN: 2147-0405
Number 2
ÇANAKKALE 2012
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
JOURNAL OF INTERCULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS STUDIES
TURKEY
Number 2 ● June 2012 ● ISSN: 2147-0405
PUBLISHER
On behalf of Çanakkale Theology Association
Prof. Dr. Hamit ER
EDITOR
Prof. Dr. Hamit ER
GENERAL PUBLICATION DIRECTOR
Asist. Prof. Mehmet BAHÇEKAPILI
ASSOCIATE EDITORS
A. ZişaБ FURAT AsisЗaБЗ PrВf., İsЗaБbИl UБiversiЗМ
Hasan KAPLAN (Associate Prof., Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University)
BOOK REVIEW EDITORS
MИraЗ ŞİMŞEK AsisЗaБЗ PrВf., ÇaБakkale OБsekiН MarЗ UБiversiЗМ
KeБaБ SEVİNÇ Research AssisЗaБЗ, ÇaБakkale OБsekiН MarЗ UБiversiЗМ
EDITORIAL BOARD
AsisЗ. PrВf. AМşe ZişaБ FИraЗ İsЗaБbИl UБi, TИrkeМ
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Eileen Daily (Loyola University, USA)
Prof. Dr. Enes Kari (University Of Sarajevo, Bosnia)
Prof. Dr. Hamit Er (ÇOMU, Turkey)
AsisЗ. PrВf. MehmeЗ BahçekaГдlд ÇOMU, TИrkeМ
Prof. Dr. Ednan Aslan (Wien University, Austria)
Prof. Dr. Elfine Sibgatullina (Russian Sciences Academia)
AsisЗ. PrВf. Eşref AlЗaş ÇOMU, TИrkeМ
Prof. Dr. Marcia Hermansen (Loyola University, USA)
AsisЗ. PrВf. MИraЗ Şimşek ÇOMU, TИrkeМ
INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD
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Assoc. Prof. Apollina Ria Avrutina (St. Petersburg State Uni.)
AsisЗ. PrВf. A. ZişaБ FИraЗ (İsta ul Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Bayraktar Bayraklı(Marmara Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Cafer Karataş UlИdağ UБi.
Prof. Dr. Carl Earnst (Universty of Nort Coralina)
Prof. Dr. Ednan Aslan (Wien Uni.)
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Prof. Dr. Ejder Oku uş (Osmangazi Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Faruk Karaca (Atatürk Uni.)
PrВf. Dr. FikreЗ Karčić SarajevВ UБi.
PrВf. Dr. (aМaЗi (чkelekli, UlИdağ UБi.
Assoc. Prof. Hasan Kaplan (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
Dr. Hazem Said Mohammed Montasir (Al-Azhar Uni.)
PrВf. Dr. İbrahim EmirВğlИ DВkИН EМl“l UБi.
Prof. Dr. İlha Kutluer (Marmara Uni.)
Asist. Prof. Mahmut Kelpetin (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Mehmet Bayyigit (Selçuk Uni.)
Assoc. Prof. M. Emin Çimen (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
Prof. Dr. M. Zeki Aydı (Marmara Uni.)
AsisЗ. PrВf. MehmeЗ BahçekaГдlд ÇaБakkale OБsekiН Mart Uni.)
Assist. Prof. Muhammed Abay (Marmara Uni.)
Asist. Prof. Muharrem Önder (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
PrВf. Dr. MИsЗafa KчМl“ OБdВkИН MaМдs UБi.
Prof. Dr. Nedim Bahcekapili (Avrupa Islam Uni.)
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Prof. Dr. Ömer Turan (Middle East Technical Uni.)
AssВc. PrВf. ÖНcaБ Taşçд ÇaБakkale OБsekiН MarЗ UБi.
PrВf. Dr. Recai DВğaБ, AБkara UБi.
Prof. Dr. Recep Yaparel (Dokuz Eylul Uni.)
AsisЗ. PrВf. ŞeМma ArslaБ İsЗaБbИl UБi.
Dr. Ne etti Kızılkaya (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
PrВf. Dr. Amir Pašić )RC)CA
PrВf. Dr. AМkИЗ KaНaБcдgil İsЗaБbИl UБi.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ayşe Güveli (Essex Uni.)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. B“leБЗ ŞeБaМ UlИdağ UБi.
Dr. Cangüzel Zülfikar (Universty of Nort Coralina)
AsisЗ. PrВf. DВğaБ KaГlaБ SelçИk UБi.
Prof. Dr. Enes Kari (Sarajevo Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Elfine Sibgatullina (Russian Sciences Aca.)
AsisЗ. PrВf. Eşref AlЗaş (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
Assoc. Prof. Fazil Hoca (Skopje St. Kiril & Metodiy Uni.)
Assoc. Prof. Galina Miskiniene (Vilnus Uni.)
PrВf. Dr. (“srev (aЗemi İsЗaБbИl UБi.
AssВc. PrВf. (aМaЗi Beşirli GaНi UБi.
PrВf. (ИseМiБ TekiБ GчkmeБВğlИ SelçИk UБi.
AssВc. PrВf. İrfaБ BaşkИrЗ İsЗaБbИl UБi.
Prof. Dr. Laurentiu Tanase (Bucharest Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Marcia Hermansen (Loyola Uni.)
AssВc. PrВf. MehmeЗ Dalkдlдç İsЗaБbИl UБi.
Prof. Dr. Martin Rothhangel (Wien Uni.)
Assoc. Prof. Mehmet Zeki İbrahimgil (Gazi Uni.)
AssisЗ. PrВf. MiБe TВГçИbaşд ÇaБakkale OБsekiН MarЗ UБi.
AssisЗ. PrВf. MИammer İskeБderВğlИ SakarМa UБi.
AsisЗ. PrВf. MИraЗ Şimşek ÇaБakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Mustafa Usta (Marmara Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Numan Aruc (Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts)
Prof. Dr. Ömer Dumlu (Dokuz Eylul Uni.)
Assoc. Prof. Ömer Faruk Teber (Antalya Uni.)
Asist. Prof. Ramazan Demir (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
Prof. Dr. Recep Kaymakcan (Sakarya Uni.)
Assoc. Prof. Süleyman Akyürek (Erciyes Uni.)
PrВf. Dr. ŞiБasi G“Бd“Н İsЗaБbИl Uni.)
Kenan Sevinç (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Uni.)
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TABLE OF CONTENTS_______________________________________________
ARTICLES
Religious Studies and the Study of Islam in Modern Turkish Academia*
BÜLENT ŞENAY /7-44
The Concept of the Soul (Nafs) in the Early Sufism according to al-QИshaМrб s
Risāla al-QИshaМrбМa aБd al-(Иjwбrб s Kashf al-Mahj”b
YURI ISHIDA, / 45-57
New Approaches in Religious Education in the Process of Globalization: The
Bunch Model, or the Technique of Phenomenological Reading
(AMİT ER - ŞEVKET YAVUZ / 59-66
BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri/Religious Classes in the
Public Schools in the Balkans
AYŞE ZİŞAN FURAT / 67-109
The RВle Вf ReasВБ iБ KaБЗ s The CВБflicЗ Вf Зhe FacИlЗies
MUHARREM HAFIZ / 111-119
Searching for Happiness in the Modern World: Positive Psychology and Religion
KENAN SEVİNÇ / 121-146
The (isЗВrical BackgrВИБd Вf MemВriНaЗiВБ (дfН Вf Зhe QИr aБ
ABDULLA( EMİN ÇİMEN / 147-166
REPORTS
14th Coordination Meeting of the Faculties of Theology, Department of Religious
Education
AHMET ALI ÇANAKCI / 167-173
İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleri DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд Xдv. KВВrdiБasМВБ TВГlaБЗдsд
AHMET ALI ÇANAKCI / 173-179
REVIEWES
PsikВlВglarдБ DiБ ve TaБrд Gчr“şleri, PsikВlВji ve DiБ,
GÜLÜŞAN GÖCEN / 181-186
T“rkiМe de Bir Felsefe GeleБ-ek-i KИrmaМa Çalдşmak, FeМlesВf SimalardaБ Seçme
Metinler,
ŞENOL KORKUT / 186-197
RELIGIOUS STUDIES AND THE STUDY OF ISLAM IN MODERN
TURKISH ACADEMIA*
BИleБЗ ŞENAY, M.A., PhD
E-mail: [email protected]
Citation/©: ŞeБaМ, B., (2012). Religious Studies and the Study of
Islam in Modern Turkish Academia, Journal of Intercultural and
Religious Studies. (2), 7-44.
ABSTRACT
This article presents a brief history of the study of religion and the history of
religion as academic disciplines in the faculties of theology/divinity/ilahiyat
in Turkish universities. It presents a descriptive and analytical survey of
theoretical and critical approaches and trends in the study of religion and
Islamic studies in Turkey, including reference to a few leading scholars
alongside a selected leading bibliography on the topic. Faculties of theology
in Turkey are called Ilahiyat Faculties. Ilahiyat means divinity/theology.
Divinity / Theology / Ilahiyat studies combine the study of religion with
Islamic studies. It is impossible to give a detailed picture of the many
subjects, studies, and trends that are in some way related to the study of
religion in the whole of Turkish faculties of theology without locating the
topic within a general religio-historical context.
Keywords: Religion, History, Islamic History, Religious Studies, Turkish
Academia
* This is a slightly shortened version of an article that was originally published in 2004
as a chapter in New Approaches to the Study of Religion, Peter Antes, Armin W. Geertz &
Randi Warne (eds), Berlin & New York: Verlag de Gruyter.
 PrВf. Dr. B“leБЗ ŞeБaМ, fВrmer diГlВmaЗic cВИБsellВr, UlИdag UБiversiЗМ, FacИlЗМ Вf
Theology, Bursa, Turkey.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
In our age of globalisation and transformation, and of an increase in religious
commitments, academic viewpoints not only affect but also shape the future of
the relationship between religious hermeneutics and the trio of modernity,
secularism and globalisation. The academic study of religion in general and of
Islam in particular can generate insight into glВbaliНaЗiВБ aБd ˝glВcaliНaЗiВБ˝.
The past and the present of the study of religion in Turkey are construed here
in the context of the intellectual and social-religious history of Turkey. The
˝ГreseБЗ˝ Вf TИrkeМ cВБЗiБИes ЗВ be cИlЗИrallМ, iБЗellecЗИallМ aБd politically an
arena in which the relationship between laicism and Islam still has an impact
ВБ iБsЗiЗИЗiВБal aБd academic makiБg aБd ЗhiБkiБg . The academic sЗИdМ Вf
religion in Turkish universities has been profoundly influenced by the
extensive clash ЗhaЗ ВccИrs beЗweeБ Зhe MИslim s self-perception based on
ontological presuppositions and conjectural self-perception of modernizers in
an age of the supremacy of the Western civilization. In terms of the
transformation of traditional valИes, as Şerif MardiБ exГlaiБs, Зhe mВderБ
Turkish experience of Kemalist secularism does not appear to have succeeded
since the Islamic self-image offers a very strong ontological consciousness for
which the modernizers failed to provide a substitute (Mardin 1983: 110-113).
Turkish-Muslim scholars aimed to rebuild epistemological and methodological
structures of Islamic intellectual tradition to overcome the challenge of the
epistemologically formulated self-perception of the westernization-oriented
elite in Turkey. The spread of periodicals and books for the verification of
religious truths via scientific innovations might be explained through this
perceived need. Although the academic orientation in the 1990s and 2000s, in
terms of both the quantity and Зhe qИaliЗМ Вf ГИblicaЗiВБs iБ ˝religiВБ-relaЗed˝
studies, reflects a relative independence from the effects of the secularization
debate, we still have to be aware of the fact that Turkish society might be
evaluated as a model for such an extensive contrast, which in turn makes an
impact on the whole academia. This contrast derives from the fact that while
the Ottoman Empire had been characterised by a spirit of cosmopolitanism, and
pluralism by ethnic, linguistic and religious mixture and interchange, the
modern Turkish state emerged out of its collapse and was fundamentally
opposed to such pluralism of identity. Modern Turkish identity is a product of
variВИs БegaЗiВБs. The Бew sЗaЗe aimed ЗВ ЗraБsfВrm TИrkish ideБЗiЗМ ЗhrВИgh
uniform incorporation, connecting the concept of citizenship with that of socialcultural-liБgИisЗic assimilaЗiВБ RВbiБs
:
-86). Religious attachment
was seen as a subversive force, also posing a threat to the modernization and
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ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
nationalization process in Turkey. According to Richard Tapper, the secular
alternative, however, was no alternative to Islam in providing identity and
organising principles of life. At the public level, it was no substitute for the
divine laws of Islam; at the individual level, it could not meet intellectual needs
for an ethics and eschatology, and its values were inadequate and thin (Tapper
1991: 7).
1. Faculties of Theology (Ilahiyaat) in Post-Ottoman Turkish Universities
The crux of experiments in laicism in Turkey was not to turkify Islam just for
the sake of nationalism, but to turkify Islam for the sake of religious
enlightenment. The triumph of the idea of a secular state over the idea of an
Islamic state produced a series secularizing reforms within legal, educational,
and cultural institutions. The first phase of these reforms began with the
abolition of the Caliphate. Two more bills were passed, one abolishing the
Ministries of Shariah and Awqaf, the other closing the madrasahs, unifying
education under the Ministry of Education. Bills ablishing the religious orders
and their cloisters were passed shortly after. This phase ended with the
secularization of the Constitution on November 3, 1928. The second phase from
1928 tol 1938 was one in which the previous changes were supplemented,
extended, and consolidated. Article 9 of the Law of Associations promulgated in
, ГrВhibiЗed Зhe fВrmaЗiВБ sВcieЗies based ВБ religiВБ, secЗ, aБd tarîqa .
Propaganda against the principles of laicism was prohibited by Article 163 of
the Penal Code adopted in 1926 (Berkes 1998: 461-478). Each of these
experiments in laicism in political, legal, and educational institutions
manifested a religious-secular duality.
Although the Turkish state had renounced its connection with Islam, in practice
it considered religion far too important and dangerous a force to be left in the
hands of the religious-minded. While non-Muslim communities retained their
autonomy in religious matters, the mosques, the Islamic endowments (awqaf),
the education, appointment, and payment of imams and khatibs all remained
firmly under government control (Mortimer 1982: 146).
In any case, religion has clearly been central in the developments that have
occurred throughout the last century of modern Turkish history. Islam has
emerged again as a dynamic element in the culture, and has increasingly
developed a strong presence in civil society. Back in 1924, the new postOttoman Turkish Republican Regime had already constituted a Directorate of
Religious Affairs (Diʼanet İşleri Başkanlığı) to manage the administrative affairs
9
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
of religion. The approach was predominantly pragmatic. It did not aim at a
religious doctrine, a dogma, or a theology; it remained experimental with
respect to religious reform and led progressively to the further secularist
facilitation of religious services and reform. The new organizational apparatus
was not designed to be a spiritual organization. It was from this pragmatic
ground that a Faculty of Theology (Ilahiyaat) was also established in the
UБiversiЗМ Вf İsЗaБbИl iБ
Berkes
:
.
Secularization trends in the Ottoman higher education played the crucial role in
the rise of general, non-theological study of religion in nineteenth century.
Similar to the Dutch experience of secularization, the secularization trend on
Ottoman soil was also strengthened by the rise of a secular intellectual life after
the Tanzimat liЗerallМ meaБiБg Бew regИlaЗiВБs , which brought a policy of
secularism in the sense of bringing forth a differentiation between the
˝ЗemГВral˝ aБd ˝religiВИs˝ iБ Зhe TИrkish-Islamic context. Tanzimat was the
period of government reforms in the Ottoman Turkey, which began in 1839
with the reign of Abdulmajid I, the first reform being the edict known as the
Hatt-ı Sharif of Gülhane. The doors to the West were thrown wide open in 1839
with Tanzimat. The Turkish economic, political, legal, and educational
institutions began to change in a way that involved basic values without any
particular reference to Islam. Tanzimat came into existence through the
political impact of the West upon the policies of reform that began in the form
of diplomatic intervention by the European powers (MacFarlane 1850, v. I:
p.25). Throughout the conflicts over the so-called Eastern Question, religion
was used as a cover for power politics. Russia, France, and Great Britain
pursued their policies on the basis of claims to the right of protection over the
Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant communities of the Ottoman Empire. Russia
as a foe, and England and France as friends, demanded reforms with respect to
the conditions of these communities which were already protected under the
Ottoman-Islamic Dhimmî law. The demands inevitably had implications for
reform policies. This led to diverse interpretations of the reforms, and finally,
caused further complications of the principles enunciated in a charter known as
the Tanzimat Charter. The experiments of the Tanzimat reformers gave shape
to a policy of secularism in the sense of bringing forth a differentiation between
Зhe ЗemГВral aБd religiВИs iБ Зhe TИrkish-Islamic context (Berkes 1998:
137-200).
It was during the post-Tanzimat period that a secular intellectual life began to
emerge. The very rise of a secular intellectual life was also the beginning of the
emergence of two mentalities that arose and began to diverge from one
another. A close look at the educated elite of the post-Tanzimat era would allow
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ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
us to see the implications of the split between the worldviews regnant in the
religiВИs aБd iБ Зhe secИlar areas Вf iБЗellecЗИal aБd edИcaЗiВБal life. )Б Вrder
ЗВ wВrk ВИЗ aБ iБЗegraЗiВБ beЗweeБ Зhe Бew aБd Зhe ЗradiЗiВБal , aБ
institution, called Encümen-i Dâniş (Society of the Learned), was established
within the educational field under the lead of Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, a well
kБВwБ hisЗВriaБ aБd iБЗellecЗИal. CevdeЗ s sЗaБce was ЗhaЗ sИccess iБ
renovating Turkey lay neither in stubborn resistance to change, nor in
automatic imitation of the West, but in the intelligent revival of traditional and
Islamic institutions by the infusion of Western scientific and technological
inventions (Berkes 1998: 178; Ülken 1979). This has been the essential ethos
with regard to the nature Вf aБd direcЗiВБ Вf chaБge advВcaЗed aБd sЗill beiБg
maintained by the Islamicists then and now. From the idea of Encümen-i Dâniş
emerged the idea of establishing the Dâr al-Funoon (a House of Sciences). This
was going to be the first experiment in a Muslim country to establish a modern
university over against the traditional medieval ones. It constitutes an
interesting case. Courses were first offered in the 1870s and varied from time
ЗВ Зime. EveБЗИallМ Зhe geБeral idea Вf Зhe sЗИdМ Вf religiВБ fВИnd its way into
the Turkish university system as part of Islamic studies. The rise of a secular
iБЗellecЗИal life cВiБcided wiЗh Зhe iБЗrВdИcЗiВБ Вf geБeral hisЗВrМ Вf religiВБs
in the Dâr al-Funoon curriculum.
ReligiВИs sЗИdies iБ a mВderБ ИБiversiЗМ format had been attempted in 1900
iБ İsЗaБbИl UБiversiЗМ, Зhe ЗheБ called Dâr al-Funoon. It was in this university
that the first faculty of divinity (then called the Department of al-uloom alshar`iyyah was fВИБded alВБg wiЗh several ВЗher deГarЗmeБЗs. İstanbul
University was transformed from the old madrasa model into a modern
institution of higher education. Originally initiated in 1863, in 1870 it was
enlarged to unite different separate Higher Education Madrasas within one
university structure. This aim finally was accomplished in 1900 (Akyüz 1999:
146-149). Nevertheless, the faculty of theology within this Dâr al-Funoon was
closed down in 1914 and the students were transferred instead to a separate
traditional Mutahassısîn Madrasah (a higher education college for specialisation
in religious studies) which later in 1918 was named Sulaʼmânıʼʼa Madrasah
where courses on the history of religions were taught in the Department of
Kalâm and (ıkmah. The closure of the first Faculty of Theology within the Dâr
al-Funoon in 1914 meant that for another decade there would be no study of
religion at university level until 1924, when a new Unification of Education Act
(Tevhid-i Tedrisat) brought structural transformation of the traditional
educational system to the modern form. With this transformation in 1924, the
Department of Kalâm and (ıkmah in Sulaʼmânıʼʼa Madrasah was renamed as
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
the faculty of theology which continued until 1933 (Usta 2001; Atay 1993;
İhsaБВğlИ
; ErgiБ
: AМhaБ
: -39).
From 1900 to 1924 when the new republican state set its education policy with
the new Unification of Education Act (Tevhid-i Tedrisat), there were a number
of madrasas which offered higher religious education (Usta 2001: 34-35). In
1924, the new Unification of Education Act (Tevhid-i Tedrisat) was passed and a
new Faculty of Theology was established in Istanbul University. However, this
Faculty was closed down in 1933 and no theological and religious studies were
available from 1933 to 1949 due to political reasons. This period witnessed a
planned program for the removal of Islam from political life and secularized
society. The question of how to assess the success of a program based on the
idea ЗhaЗ )slam was Зhe caИse Вf Зhe cВИБЗrМ s backwardБess Бeeds ЗВ be
answered carefully. The Islamic tradition had developed very deep roots among
Turkish Muslims. Therefore, despite legal and political reforms attempting to
minimise the role of Islam in public and intellectual life, academic study of
Islam did not cease and the scholars such as İzmirli İsmail (akkı (Kalâm and
Islamic Thought), Mehmet Ali Aynî (Islamic History and Mysticism), Hilmi Ömer
Buddha (History of Religions), Şemseddin G“naltaʼ (History of Religions) and
others continued to contribute to this Faculty until 1933. After a period of
silence, in 1949, following lengthy discussions, the re-establishment of a faculty
of theology was approved by the Parliament with full support of its members.
Since then, despite numerous political debates surrounding the future of
religious education in the country, faculties of theology continued its higher
education missions under Turkish Higher Education Law, increasingly
establishing its status in the academic and educational life of Turkish society.
Today in 2010 there are 29 faculties of theology providing theological and
religious studies at both undergraduate and postgraduate level in Turkey (Usta
2001). Graduates from these faculties are eligible for becoming either RE
(Religious Studies) teachers in primary, secondary and further education
schools, or working in various areas of religious services (mufti, imam, and
preacher) under the Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs, or if they wish, can
continue to postgraduate studies.
One has to remember that Turks today are Muslims in the same way that most
Europeans and Americans are Christians. Their religion is an integral part of
Зheir cИlЗИre aБd sigБificaБЗ iБ aБ iБdividИal s life ГrimarilМ as a framewВrk fВr
rites of passage. Turkish studies of religion are also part of this overall reality in
Turkey.
12
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
2. The (istory of Religions and Phenomenological Theology in Turkish
Universities
There has been a long tradition of the study of religion in Muslim culture
developed from famous Muslim scholars in the past who provided a basis for
religious studies as understood in the International Association for the History
of Religions (IAHR) today. Contemporary Turkish scholarship in the field, with
its long heritage transformed from the Ottoman madrasa institution (as an
extension from the Nizamiyyah madrasa model of the Abbasids) is significant in
terms of an empirical and historical study of religions other than Islam. A survey of the study of religion in twenty-nine faculties of theology in Turkish
universities shows that alongside the ongoing transformation of higher education in the country, the "phenomenological/secular" type of the study of
religion has found its way into the traditional pattern of institutional selfunderstanding with relative ease. In part, this is due to the fact that the
Turkish-Muslim experience (quite a different one compared to the ArabMuslim experience) of overcoming the tension between modernity/secularization and Islam has led to a wider tendency towards intellectual freedom and
a "value-free" study of religion despite criticism of the idea of "value-free" study
itself. There is also a general positive attitude toward "interdisciplinarity". The
study of religion has a special meaning in a country like Turkey with its secular
democracy and with a population following Islam in general. The study of
religion in Turkey classically meant the study of religion within Islamic
disciplines. It did not exclude, of course, a study of other religious traditions.
However, during the formative period and early history of the Ottoman state
the discipline of the history of religions was not to be found in the curricula of
the madrasas, institutions that served as the basic and perhaps the most
advanced teaching organizations throughout the empire. Nor was the subject
taught in other schools. The history of religions that came into being in the
nineteenth-century Europe had a considerable influence in the Ottoman state.
In 1874, the program of the faculty of literature in Istanbul University included
a course entitled "General History and Science of the Religions of Ancient
People" (Tarih-i Umumi ve İlm-i Esâtîri'l-Evvelîn). However, since the very first
department of religious studies in Dâr al-Funoon a hundred years ago, the study
of religions other than Islam has not essentially been an academic discipline in
an independent department as In, for example, departments of religious studies
in Lancaster, Marburg or Santa Barbara. Individual courses in what we now call
religious studies are taught as part of the general field of Islamic studies in
faculties of divinity. One should also remember that faculties of theology in
Turkey were essentially established to train both religious education teachers
13
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
and religious services specialists (imams, preachers and professionals to work
under the Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs).
The history of religions and the study of religions in the context of humanities
and social sciences have eventually been incorporated within the teaching
programs of the faculties of theology in Turkey. It seems appropriate—indeed,
imperative—if one is to progress far, or ever to speak with any authority, to
equip oneself with the tools, methods, and content of technical scholarship in
one special field, but the concern for greater depth of study and knowledge of
one historical religious tradition is in no sense a renunciation of the broader
aims of history of religions. However, it has proven difficult to see a direct and
fruitful relationship between the activities of Islamicists and those of historians
of religions.
One of the reasons for this difficulty can be said to have been the everincreasing adherence to the so-called phenomenological approach. Although a
wide variety of scholars employ the word "phenomenology" to describe their
methodological intentions, they do not always agree on what the label means.
Nor do they always share a clear sense of the intellectual traditions without
which phenomenology of religion has arisen. The reason for this lack of
agreement is that there are at least two strands of thought—two intellectual
points of departure—which can produce a phenomenology of religion. The
most obvious is the one that stems directly from post-Kantian and postHegelian continental philosophy. Regardless of whatever else It includes, this
strand always lists Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) as its primary inspiration and
founding father. Thus, to this day, the phrase "phenomenology of religion"
tends to evoke Husserlian interest, Husserlian techniques, and Husserlian
conceptual terminology. Religious studies has taken more from examples of the
ways Husserl approached things than from the substance of his philosophy. The
second strand of phenomenology has been nurtured from within the history of
religions. Many Western scholars, recognized to be phenomenologists of religion, have been trained first as historians of religion and not as philosophers.
Many would also understand history of religions and phenomenology of
religion to be complementary and interchangeable undertakings. Such
phenomenologists of religion frequently admit to having no more than a
surface understanding of Husserl's fundamental contentions (see, Bettis 1969;
Sharpe 1992). When they trace their intellectual roots, the genealogy they offer
tends to reach back not to Husserl (who, nevertheless, is usually mentioned),
but to such figures as Cornelius Petrus Tiele (1830-1902), and Chantepie de la
Saussaye (1848-1920) in Holland. It was around this time that the Dutch
Universities Act, passed on 1 October 1877, separated the theological faculties
14
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
at the four state universities (Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, Utrecht) from the
Dutch Reformed Church. The original draft of the Bill had referred to the
establishment of "Faculties of Religious Sciences", but in the event, the title
"Faculty of Theology" was retained. However, dogmatics and practical theology
were removed from the curriculum, their place being taken by the history of
religions, which was assumed to be neutral and scientific (Sharpe 1992: 121).
In the nineteenth century, there were powerful secularizing influences at work
in this development, and in this sense the Dutch university served as a
paradigm for the kind of situation which was to arise in other countries in
Europe. It should not be surprising therefore to see that in Turkey, which was
experiencing a transformation period from an empire to a nation-state, similar
developments were occurring. In parallel to various reformative developments
in Turkish higher education during those years, the General Education Act,
passed in 1869, a year before the Dutch Universities Act, made provision for the
permanent establishment of the Dâr al-Funoon which was to consist of three
faculties: Philosophy and Literature; Law; and Mathematical and Physical
Sciences (Ayni 1927; Akyiiz 1999). It was in the department Philosophy and
Literature that a subject course on the history of religions called "Introduction
to History and the Study of Ancient Religions and Mythology" was introduced.
After the declaration of the Meşrutiyet II in 1908 (the new constitutional era
addressing major political-social issues), the course became "The History of
Islam and the History of ReligiВБs (Tarih-i Din-i İslam ve Tarih-i Edyan) and
was 6 credit hours a week (Tanyu 1960).
At the same time that Chantepie de la Saussaye was a professor of the history of
religions at Amsterdam, a leading Turkish scholar in Istanbul, Ahmet Midhat
Efendi was writing his lecture notes for History of Religions the very first
systematic textbook on the history of religions written in Ottoman Turkish. The
bВВk was ГИblished iБ
, Зhe same Мear Вf Зhe ГИblicaЗiВБ Вf DИrkheim s Les
Formes Elémentaries de la Vie Religieuse. In his History of Religions, Midhat
mentioned Chantepie de la Saussaye as one of the few leading European
scholars of the history of religion. He also points out that the history of religions
(Tarih al-Adyaan) was relatively a new discipline and that Muslim scholars
siБce Зhe ЗeБЗh ceБЗИrМ classical wriЗiБgs ВБ ВЗher religiВБs fВr examГle, Kitâb
al-Milal wa n-Nıhal by al-Shahrastânî had БВЗ ГrВdИced aБМ sМsЗemaЗic hisЗВrМ
Вf religiВБs exceГЗ fВr ЗheВlВgical reasВБs, aБd ЗhaЗ receБЗlМ EИrВГeaБ schВlars
had started to write systematic books on the subject (Midhat 1912). What
makes MidhaЗ s wВrk sigБificaБЗ is Зhe facЗ ЗhaЗ he understood and explained in
a verМ arЗicИlaЗe waМ Зhe differeБce beЗweeБ makiБg БВrmaЗive ЗheВlВgМ aБd
Зhe descriГЗive sЗИdМ Вf religiВБ . )Б OЗЗВmaБ (igher EdИcaЗiВБ, he was Зhe firsЗ
15
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
scholar to teach the subject of history of religion within the department of
divinity. While he tried to convince his reader of both the importance of history
of religions and its compatibility with Islamic studies, he also emphasized the
imГВrЗaБce Вf ВbjecЗiviЗМ: The ГИrГВse Вf Зhe (isЗВrМ Вf ReligiВБ is БВЗ ЗВ briБg
evidence in favour of or against any religion. Therefore it is essential that the
hisЗВriaБ Вf religiВБ sЗИdМ Зhe religiВИs ГheБВmeБВБ wiЗh aБ ВbjecЗive
aГГrВach. MidhaЗ
:
Midhat supported his point about the need to be objective to the point of
agБВsЗicism bМ referriБg ЗВ DescarЗes s asserЗiВБ ЗhaЗ ЗВ dВ ГhilВsВГhМ ВБe
must forget all that one has learned and look at things without bias. According
to Midhat, this approach should be fundamental for the historian of religion. His
emphasis on the necessity of studying religions in terms of their own beliefs,
rituals and institutions allows us to call him an early defender of
phenomenology of religion in Turkish academia. He also encouraged an
interdisciplinary approach for the historian of religion. As early as 1912, by
referriБg ЗВ geВgraГhМ Вf religiВБs , sВciВlВgМ Вf religiВБ aБd ГsМchВlВgМ Вf
religiВБ wiЗhВИЗ БeglecЗiБg eЗhБВlВgМ, ГhilВlВgМ aБd archaeВlВgМ , his wВrk
suggested that the history of religions needed to move towards a systematic
and interdisciplinary study of religion as an academic discipline (Midhat 1912:
2-17).
In Holland, another contemporary of Midhat, Cornelius Petrus Tiele, was
perhaps the continental equivalent of F. M. Müller in England. Tiele and
Chantepie are credited as being the first phenomenologists of religion, if only
because they employed a descriptive system of classification in coming to terms
with the particulars of religion. This strain of phenomenology of religion in the
continental Europe has moved from Tiele and Chantepie into the twentieth
century through the influence of W. Brede Kristensen, Gerardus van der Leeuw,
C.J. Bleeker, Mircea Eliade, their students and a host of others from Jacques
Waardenburg to Eric Sharpe. The two phenomenologies share terminology,
method, and conviction, yet their intentions can be remarkably different. The
course of developments of the history of religion and the phenomenology of
religion in the West are well known to Turkish scholars of religious studies.
However, what is needed by the latter is a broad approach to the study of
religion that balances philosophical-epistemological concerns with
phenomenological-historical modes of approach.
Ahmed MidhaЗ s wВrk allВws Иs ЗВ saМ ЗhaЗ hisЗВrМ Вf religiВБs was Зhe firsЗ
discipline of religious studies that entered into the academic curriculum in
Turkish universities in nineteenth century. In line with what has been said
16
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
about the origins of the discipline there have been subsequent developments in
the area. As noted before, following lengthy discussions the first faculty of
Divinity, closed down in 1933, was re-established in 1949. Various scholars
have taught history of religions since then. Ömer Hilmi Budda (1949-1952) was
the first Historian of Religion who taught in this Faculty. The following scholars
were the pioneers of the history of religion in this first faculty of theology in
Turkey: Mehmet Karasan (1952-1954), Annemarie Schimmel (1954 -1959),
Hikmet Tanyu (1959-1960; 1962-1972; 1973-1982), Kemal Balkan (19601962), MehmeЗ TaГlamacдВğlИ
-1973), and the late Günay Tümer (1980; he ЗaИghЗ iБ aБd reЗired frВm Зhe facИlЗМ Вf ЗheВlВgМ iБ UlИdağ
University). From this line of scholarship the discipline gradually spread to
other Faculties of Divinity.
One contemporary example is Ömer Faruk Harman (1950- ), a professor of
history of religions. Harman currently continues to teach history of religions at
Зhe FacИlЗМ Вf TheВlВgМ aЗ Marmara UБiversiЗМ, İsЗaБbИl. (is dВcЗВral sЗИdМ was
on al-Shahrastânî, and after his work on text and content Jewish sacred
writings (Metin ve Muhtevâ Açısından Yahudi Kutsal Kitapları), he presented his
qualifying thesis for full profesorship on the value of The Gospel of Barnabas in
the context of Biblical SЗИdies. (armaБ s ВЗher majВr cВБЗributions in the field
1
of history of religions were made through the articles he wrote for the new
EБcМclВГaedia Вf )slam like maБМ ВЗher schВlars Вf religiВИs sЗИdies iБ TИrkeМ.
This Encyclopaedia of Islam in itself is an indicator of developments in Islamic
Studies and religious studies in Turkey. Harman, one of the few students of late
Hikmet Tanyu (1918whВ devВЗed himself ЗВ Зhe hisЗВrМ Вf TИrkish
religiВБ amВБgsЗ several ВЗher sИbjecЗs, is a ЗМГical examГle Вf TИrkish-Muslim
scholar caught in between the western secular-oriented religious studies
tradition and the Islamic studies tradition in Turkish Faculties of Divinity. He
believes, as he explained to the writer in an interview on the historical and
discursive course of the History of Religions as a discipline in Turkey, that there
is no reason why the study of religion and the History of Religions as an
academic enterprise cannot be methodologically secular, and that Islamic
studies can certainly benefit from the findings of the western History of
1
Harman's work covers a range of topics, both specific to Christian, Jewish, and Islamic
traditions (such as the Bible, Christian Councils, Mary the mother of Jesus, missionaries,
Christians, and Nazareth) to more general comparative treatments of topics like religion,
sin, pilgrimage, saints, mountains, and women.
17
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
2
Religion. Another scholar in this category is Günay Tümer (1937-1995), the
late professor of History of Religions. Alongside his general contribution to the
History of Religions in Turkey, one of his major works is Bîrûnî ʼe Göre Dinler ve
İslam Dîni (Islam and Other Religions According to al-Bîrûnî). Al-Bîrûnî (d. 1150)
is one of the most significant classical scholars of comparative religion in
Islamic scholarly tradition. Tümer`s work provides an analytical evaluation of
al-Bîrûnî s wВrks Kitabu`t-Tahqîq ma lil-Hind min maqûla maqbûla fî l-`aql aw
mardhûla) on Hinduism and Indian civilization.
Today in the field of history of religions, a disciplinary tradition has already
emerged iБ TИrkish facИlЗies Вf ЗheВlВgМ iБ which БВБ-cВБfessiВБal sЗИdies are
conducted on various aspects of non- Islamic religions' There is also currently a
Turkish Association for the History of Religion not yet affiliated to the IAHR,
that has organized several symposiums in different subjects and published the
papers as the Proceedings of History of Religions. The third conference was
held as aБ )БЗerБaЗiВБal sМmГВsiИm ВБ The PasЗ, PreseБЗ aБd FИЗИre Вf
ChrisЗiaБiЗМ iБ iЗs
Зh Мear iБ JИБe
. This sМmГВsiИm was aЗЗeБded bМ
scholars from outside Turkey such as Peter Antes, the president of IAHR. The
author of this article also attended this symposium, delivering a paper on
CВБЗemГВrarМ Jewish ChrisЗiaБs iБ BriЗaiБ as a case Вf ReligiВИs (МbridiЗМ .
The Proceedings of this symposium were published in Turkish.
Returning to the phenomenology of religion and its relevance far the study of
Islam, the contribution that the phenomenology of religion has made and may
make to the ongoing enquiry into the significance of religion in human life must
be acknowledged. The problem, however, in integrating "Western" approaches
to the study of religion with Islamic studies arises precisely where the
"phenomenology of religion" meets with questions of truth and meaning.
Despite its significance for the study of religion, phenomenology can be
criticized for evading the responsibility of identifying the epistemological
ground on which knowledge is founded. It can be claimed that the
phenomenological enterprise, as a descriptive endeavor with a focus on
objective enquiry, defeats itself precisely because of its tendency to
circumnavigate this question. In attempting a typology of manifestations of a
comparative nature any data from the history of religious traditions it distorts
the study of religion's aim to understand its subject, by implicitly taking up an
agnostic stance in relation to the nature of knowledge or reality. The apparent
objectivity or neutrality of this phenomenological approach is, on closer
2
An Interview with Ömer Faruk Harman on the Study of Religion and the History of
Religion in Turkey ,
JИlМ
, İsЗaБbИl.
18
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
scrutiny, a judgment against religious worldviews. Despite Max Muller and his
associates' belief that they could explain not just aspects of religion but all of
religion through an investigation that was mainly historical (Pals 1996: 7), an
alternative paradigm for the study of religion, as Donald Wiebe argues, is
required. Wiebe criticizes the phenomenological approach for its relativism. It
fails because it is uncritical in the way it determines its subject of study and in
the way in which it is content to allow different "truths" to be possible.
According to him, addressing the question of truth in a more direct way would
be a contribution to methodology in the study of religion (Wiebe 1981: 228).
This might even mean that we will need to reevaluate the status of sociology of
religion, psychology of religion and practical theology as well as philosophy of
religion and the history of religions (Ward 2000: 170).
In relation to the question of truth and the phenomenological approach, it is
true that by means of epoche, a scholar of religion attempts to bracket his/her
subjective position (Platvoet 1982: 5). Nevertheless, here theology, which is assumed to tackle the question of "truth," can be helpful, as it is not necessarily
confined to doctrinal formulation. As Frank Whaling aptly argues, "there is the
descriptive, historical, positivistic type of theology beloved of historians in each
tradition who attempt to describe what the case is doctrinally in a functional
way without passing over into value judgments." Such value judgments cannot
be totally avoided for the contexts themselves contain presuppositions that are
not value-free. Nevertheless, this is the nearest thing to a "phenomenological
theology" and it focuses upon description rather than confessing the faith. On
the other hand, systematic theology takes a confessional approach with no attempt to be value-free, in order to enhance the tradition. All religious traditions
contain this type of theology. In line with this type of theology there is also the
philosophical type of theology that engages other positions at a philosophical
level by taking them seriously and reacting to them. In this stance, there is
room for argument and divergence. Another type of theology is what might be
broadly called the theology of dialogue that implies an open attitude towards
learning from others (Whaling 1999: 239-40). We need to remember the fact
that contemporary "religious studies" as a separate field of the study of religion
arose out of the matrix of Christian theology (Whaling 1999: 239-40). In other
words, there is a discernible process in the development of religious studies—
on the one hand rejecting theology (while at the same time ironically drawing
on Protestant theological tradition in the use of Otto, and beyond him,
Schleiermacher), and on the other hand embracing Muller's idea that there can
be a science of religion (Flood 1999; 18). Islamic studies in Turkey, against this
backdrop, falls closest to what Whaling calls "phenomenological theology." (For
19
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
a further analysis of phenomenological theology, see Laycock, ed., 1986: 1-22).
(Вwever, Зhere are sЗill ГrВblems wiЗh regard ЗВ ГheБВmeБВlВgМ iЗself.
As the phenomenological approach, or some variation of it, whatever it may be
called, has gained ever more adherents—until recently, almost every historian
of religions has been a phenomenologist at one point or another—the tendency
has been for scholars to seize upon certain results of phenomenological
analysis. There is no doubt that, as a result of the phenomenological method
and the scholarly emphases it has established, our awareness of many areas of
human religiousness has been vastly expanded; similarly the phenomenological
mode of thinking has served to clarify and facilitate the task of the historian of
religions. For the student of Islam, however, the succession of emphases and
the direction of development in the history of religions have had little direct
significance. Not all of these emphases evoke an immediate and enthusiastic
response as offering resources to probe more deeper into the Islamic tradition
and to forge more adequate understandings of it. Although phenomenology of
religion can still be described as the systematic treatment of history of religion,
as did W. Brede Kristensen in 1950s (Kristensen 1960), the study of Islam as a
purely religious phenomenon results in major gaps and neglected areas, which
are all the more unforgivable for being nonexistent in the study of Christianity
and Judaism.
3. Ilaahiyyat Studies in between Religious Studies and Theology
In the West, many universities, especially in England and Germany, no less than
in the United States, have kept their old departments of theology or opened
new ones. The situation has been similar in Turkey. However, a problem that is
presenting itself more and more in faculties of theology is the extent to which it
is possible today to continue a course of Islamic studies that starts from the
point of committed faith. Therefore, there is a tendency to substitute religious
studies, where the phenomenon of "religion" is studied in a more detached,
historical and interdisciplinary manner, although with sufficient attention paid
to aspects of religious experience usually described as "spiritual" or "mystical."
Despite this interdisciplinary tendency, however, the dominant orientation of
study of religion in Turkey remains Islamic in character and approach. Other
disciplines such as history of religions, sociology of religion, psychology of
religion and philosophy of religion come in as complementary studies at
undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
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After all that has been said thus far, first and foremost it must be both
acknowledged and emphasized that Religionwissenschaft is an Islamic discipline, in the sense that it first emerged as a scientific endeavor in the Muslim
world. The honour of writing the first history of religion in world literature
seems in fact to belong to the Muslim Shahrastani (d. 1153), whose Religious
Groups and Schools of Philosophy described and systematized all the religions of
the then known world, as far as the boundaries of China (Sharpe 1986: 11).
Therefore it can rightly be claimed to be a special legacy of Islam to humanity's
intellectual history. But this discipline, like many other disciplines, suffered
neglect in those centuries when Muslim attention was taken up with the
struggle for independence from economic and political colonization. Where the
Muslims left off, the West picked up, and thus the discipline was subsequently
developed under a different worldview (Smart: 1991) and academic tradition,
for different needs and purposes. The Enlightenment influence, and the evolutionary and anti-religious sentiments that have dominated the Western intellectual milieu over the last few centuries, led to a certain trend of thought that
found its way into almost every aspect of disciplinary scholarship, including the
study of religion. Henceforth grew numerous approaches, or methodologies, in
the science of religion such as the anthropology of religion, the sociology of
religion, the psychology of religion and the phenomenology of religion (from
Chantepie de la Saussaye to Ninian Smart). It is amongst these patterns of
thought that contemporary Religionswissenschaft stands (Kamaruzaman 1998:
31) and develops its "self-analysis." The roots of contemporary academia, institutionalized in the modem Western university system, are established in the
soil of the Enlightenment. Religious Studies in the West, of course, is a relatively
modem academic discipline that has tended to have a particularly uneasy
relationship its older sibling, theology. The distinction often made between the
two runs along the following lines: theology is the traditional study of the
"Judaeo-Christian" religions, usually with some presumption of Christian
allegiance. Religious studies, on the other hand, is a secular discipline that
neither presumes nor precludes allegiance to any particular religious system or
worldview. Within a secular academic institution, the conception of religious
studies as an avowedly non-confessional, secular and "open-ended" academic
discipline has clear advantages in terms of the prevailing attitude towards the
academic work of that department. It also has implications for the perception of
religious studies in the wider academic and non-academic communities in
which scholars live and work. The very fact that the modem study of religion is
not unaffected by the Christian heritage of Western culture and by the development of theology as an academic discipline in the West, in the sense that even
humanistic and atheistic forms of secularism in the post-Enlightenment West
21
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
an academic discipline in the West, in the sense that even humanistic and
atheistic forms of secularism in the post-Enlightenment West continue to define
themselves in opposition to the Christian theological categories that they claim
to have superseded (King 1999: 41-42), is precisely the reason why Islamic
scholars subsequently tend to think of religious studies as a Western discipline,
with its methods and approaches being of little interest to them. Thus there is
an urgent need to reactivate Muslim scholars' interest in this field in order to
create a productive cooperation with non-Muslim scholarship, despite the fact
that there are a number of theoretical presuppositions that condition the
manner in which religions come to be understood by the modem Western
academic. These factors are the success and development of natural sciences
and the rise of scientific rationalism as a potent worldview in the modem
Western world, the rise of secular humanism, a progressive view of history, and
eurocentrism.
One major issue that allows us to better understand the question of "approaches" in the study of religion in Turkey is the relationship of social sciences
to "religion." In other words, the relationship between the study of religion and
the secular social sciences is a crucial topic to understand the question of
"approaches" in the study of religion in Turkish academia. Social sciences in the
modem sense entered Turkey through continental European studies of the
social sciences and humanities. Nevertheless, they have been used in a selective
way in order to appropriate whatever the researcher has in his/her academic
agenda. This sometimes extends to using social sciences to develop an apologetic stance in favor of Islam. One also has to remember that the study of
religions in general has no methods of its own. The methods that are appropriate to its very diverse materials and research goals are borrowed from the
humanities and social sciences (Platvoet 1982: 225 n. 35). Therefore, they can
also be seen as inadequate for the study of religion. There is of course a tendency to see the critical, reductionist approach to the interpretation of religion in
the social sciences as "ill-defined." But one should remember that Muslim academics in Turkey read and know what is written and thought in distant places.
Scholarly work elsewhere is taken up by Muslim scholars as part of the equipment with which they approach and appropriate their own heritage. That is to
say, not only do Muslim scholars respond externally to the views of other
scholars; they also incorporate new advances in understanding so that their
own views of themselves and their tradition is changed and reformed by these
new elements. On the other end of the scholarship, however, Islam continues to
be excluded from the fields of sociology, social psychology, discourse analysis
and cultural anthropology; it can even be said that since Ibn Rushd, Islam has
22
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
been ignored by Western philosophers in their discussions of truth and its
theory and practice (Arkoun 1987: 339). This is so, for example, in spite of the
very significant contribution of the school of perennial philosophy (philosophia
perennis), including scholars from different faith communities such as Seyyed
Hossein Nasr, Huston Smith, A.K. Coomaraswamy, R. Guenon, T. Burckhardt, M.
Lings and F. Schuon, that has articulately advanced the thesis that religions are
different externally (in a formal and not in a judgmental way) but internally
they converge at the level of spirituality (Whaling 1999:239; Nasr 1982;
Needle-man 1986). One wonders here whether Edward Said is not correct in
his analysis that the "area specialist" (Islamicists) or the social scientists who
write on Islam continue to maintain an academic attitude—a learned
perspective— towards the Islamic phenomenon with a well-informed
Orientalist approach in the sense that their "... learned perspective can support
Зhe caricaЗИres ГrВГagaЗed iБ Зhe ГВГИlar cИlЗИre… Зhe mВsЗ cИrreБЗ
transformation overtaking Orientalism: its conversion from fundamentally
philological discipline and a vaguely general apprehension of the Orient into a
social science specialty Said
:
. AccВrdiБg ЗВ Said, Зhe Бew ВrieБЗalisЗ
ЗВВk Вver Зhe aЗЗiЗИdes Вf ЗradiЗiВБal OrieБЗalism.
In terms of the present-day trends in the study of religion within Islamic
Studies in Turkish faculties of divinity, while there is an effort to integrate the
Islamics studies and the general study of religion more fully, there is also a
greater openness to the study of other religious traditions. However, in
comparison to the general study of religion, so far as understanding in the field
of Islamics is concerned, proceeding from the preoccupations of the leading
western scholars of religion seems to have produced little gain. There are
several reasons for this. At the points where the history of religions has had
some of its greatest successes, it has been irrelevant to the work of Islamicists,
and Islamicists have in consequence exhibited very little interest in what
historians of religions have to say (Adams 1967:182). According to Adams, this
ГrВblem has emerged dИe ЗВ aБ aГГareБЗ lack Вf meaБiБgfИl relaЗiВБshiГ
between the systematic scientific study of religion on the one hand and the
work done by IslamisЗs ВБ Зhe ВЗher. Adams
: vii MИslim schВlars,
however, have described the problem somewhat differently. The late Fazlur
Rahman, for example, believed that the study of Islam suffered a great deal in
the West, not specifically because of the gap between historians and Islamists,
but mainly because of the lack of scientific objectivity on the part of Western
scholars. Citing the problems of prejudice, he explained that:
pre-БiБeЗeeБЗh ceБЗИrМ WesЗerБ ЗreaЗmeБЗs Вf )slam sИffered frВm…
[religious prejudice], while nineteenth and early twentieth century
23
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
schВlarshiГ sИffered ГarЗicИlarlМ frВm… [cИlЗИral aБd iБЗellecЗИal
prejudice] (Fazlur Rahman 1985: 193).
This criticism has not gone without response. In an attempt to minimize
possible prejudices, and to achieve a greater degree of scientific objectivity,
Wilfred Cantwell Smith suggested that scholarly research which concerns a
religious community should be verified by members of that community itself.
Thus for a statement to be valid about a religion, it must be true or valid for
ЗhВse iБside ЗhaЗ religiВИs ЗradiЗiВБ, БВЗ jИsЗ accВrdiБg ЗВ Зhe evideБce drawБ
bМ ВИЗside schВlars SmiЗh
:
. SmiЗh s sИggesЗiВБ seems ЗВ be a gВВd
starting point for overcoming past prejudices in regard to the study of Islam.
Yet it is still not a complete answer to the problem of scholarly objectivity.
Rahman has pointed out the problems in applying this principle by referring to
the fact that there is no consensus amongst believers of any religion, including
Islam. He has remarked that there are many statements made all the time by
some insiders that are repudiated by other insiders (Fazlur Rahman 1985: 193. RahmaБ s criЗicism has beeБ fИrЗher sЗreБgЗheБed bМ William RВff s
qИesЗiВБ: (Вw maБМ – or how few - Muslims may in such circumstances
cВБsЗiЗИЗe a cВИrЗ? RВff
:
ThИs Зhe ГrВblem Вf develВГiБg aБ
objective or at least an unprejudiced methodology runs into the more basic
problem of defining what is properly considered to be Islam or Islamic. Is it, as
Wilfred Cantwell Smith argues, what Muslims believe? Is it something judged
acceptable to the Muslim community? Or should one follow other tests of
validity such as referring to the tenets of the religion itself, to the Qur`an as the
revealed and infallible word of God and to his historical accounts of the words
and the conduct of Prophet Muhammad?
While all these questions remain to be addressed, one must nevertheless say
that Muslim students of the history of religions recognize the positive
contribution of the Western history of religions as a discipline and the
phenomenological approach within an interdisciplinary context to the field of
Islamic studies itself. Also, the interrelationship of several disciplinary
approaches, namely ontological, epistemological, axiological, historical and
sВciВlВgical, mighЗ be a meaБiБgfИl aБchВr ГВiБЗ ЗВ ИБdersЗaБd Зhe sВ-called
differences between Western and Islamic Weltanschauung in relation to the
academic study of religion, notwithstanding the semantic differences of the keyconcepts such as dîn religiВБ . EveБ Зhe caЗegВrМ Вf religiВБ clearlМ has a
history that is bound up with the cultural and intellectual history of the West
and deserves some attention in any discussion on the nature of religious studies
as a discipline in Muslim academia. The modern western use of the concept of
religiВБ is Зhe ГrВdИcЗ Вf Зhe cИlЗИrallМ sГecific discИrsive ГrВcesses Вf
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ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
Christian history in the West and has been forged in the crucible of interreligious conflict and interaction. Christianity has generally served as the
prototypical example of a religion and thus, as the fundamental yardstick or
paradigm-case fВr Зhe sЗИdМ Вf ВЗher religiВБs . OБe Вf Зhe ceБЗral Зasks fВr Зhe
scholar of non-Christian religions is, therefore, precisely to work towards
untangling some of these presuppositions that have framed the discussions in
the study of religion thus far (King 1999: 35).
In order to achieve this above-mentioned anchor point in Turkish Faculties of
Divinity, a greater variety of compulsory and optional courses have been
introduced in Theology curricula. Courses in the fields of Qur`anic studies,
Islamic legal studies, Prophetic tradition and Islamic theology, are accompanied
by the courses on the history of religions, the sociology of religion, the
psychology of religion, and so on. However, the latter, namely, general religious
studies subjects, are predominantly Western-oriented in their theoretical and
methodological approaches, with only occasional adaptation of Islamic cases
and phenomena. There are, however, a few exceptions to this orientation. One
such example is İННeЗ Er
-), a professor of sociology of religion, whose
works address the compatibility of applying the methods and approaches of
western sociology of religion to Islamic phenomena, as a primary issue for the
sociology of religion in relation to both the Islamic and Turkish-Muslim
phenomenon. In Sosʼal Gelişme ve İslam (Social Development and Islam),
Er constructs a sociological analysis of certain Islamic categories (such as the
role of zakat—alms-giving as an economic institution in social stratification,
mobility and integration) that helps us to understand Muslim societies both in
historical and contemporary contexts. While he essentially does not see any
difficulty in holding the social sciences idea of "objectivity" in his analysis, he
also presents us an example of study that deals with its subject through the
lines of an inevitable contextualization of culturally constructed scholarship.
According to Er, this does not and should not contradict with the general ethos
of the sociology of religion (Er 1999: xii).
Er's other contributions to Turkish sociology of religion can be found in his Din
Sosyolojisi (Sociology of Religion), a collection of his articles on various subjects
from the history of sociology of religion in Turkish academia to a sociology of
hijrah-migraЗiВБ iБ Зhe )slamic cВБЗexЗ Er's wВrk reveals a disciplinary stance
that questions how Muslim social scientists do their work of sociological
theorizing, how Muslim social and cultural systems are to be defined and
ordered, and what relationship they will have with the modern world. In his
writings, Er draws his readers' attention to the distinctions between the
25
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
culturally and historically constructed, secular development of Western
sociology of religion, and sociological studies of religion on Muslim societies.
One of Er's central emphases is that the experience of modernity should not be
taken as equal to Westernization, and that Muslims can experience modernity
within an Islamic civilizational and cultural context His analyses of migration,
modernization, religion and the social environment. Islamic sociology, and Ibn
Khaldun's founding position in the history of Islamic social science are all
valuable contributions to the sociology of religion in the Turkish-Muslim
context (Er 1998).
Er's work will prompt a careful reader to think that timeless (eternal), nonspatial (universal), and non-social (abstract) concepts alone will not help us
construct a social theory relevant to a contemporaneously, empirically and
materially existent Muslim society. What Muslim social scientists need is an
empirical-theoretical paradigm of Muslim society that can serve the needs of
Muslims practically, empirically, and reconstructively, not a paradigm within
which real social problems and puzzles are only solved in the abstract. Muslim
scholarship needs to develop a social science of societal change—of
reformation and transformation. The "social, economic, and political in
institutional relation with the religious" should be the framework for theorizing
and social action within which Islamic social science theories have to be
constructed and their conclusions and findings recommended for
implementation. Considering the fact that Western social science assumes that
humans are rational beings and constructs its theories on the basis of this
assumption, what meta-theory with regard to philosophical anthropology can
an Islamic social science set for itself? How can this social science work out a
micro-macro integration or the agency-structure linkage either in theory or
practice? In working out this kind of social science, one has to be aware of the
fact that all sorts of historical, sociological, and political factors, indeed, politics
itself, enter into the choice of a paradigm of any science. The Kuhnian definition
of a paradigm reveals the significance of this integration of dimensions: "the
entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques, and so on shared by the
members of a given community" (Kuhn 1970: 175). What the paradigm for
Islamic social science will be is an all-important question facing Muslim
scholars of religion. It is from this form of the study of religion that religious
studies in Turkey might come closer to an approach that recognizes that
theology in future, a theology within a re-enchanted world, will be more aware
of the place it occupies in discursive borderlands, and that theology is
profoundly interdisciplinary, drawing upon the work done in both natural and
cultural sciences (Ward 2000:171).
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4. Islamic Studies from Contextualization to Contextualism
In Turkish academia, the study of religion within the framework of
theologically-oriented studies is traditionally represented by Islamic studies.
This is due to the fact that we are the history makers: we perceive a chain of
events and see progress in that chain. Theology's concern with the question of
history and "tradition" is profound. The Islamic faith is rooted in historical,
sometimes "meta-historical/' events. The various disciplines of Islamic studies
are deeply concerned with historical texts and events. Where do the facts end
and their interpretations begin? What do the facts about the life of Muhammad
the Prophet of Islam mean for the contemporary person and how are they
determined? Islamic theology's concern with history does not stop at its meditation upon the founding events of the Islamic religion and their interpretation.
The changes and transformations in the Islamic tradition of interpretations
itself is a history—a history of dissemination and traditions (for example, in
Islamic jurisprudence, Hadith, and Kalâm). It is a history given particular
theological validation in terms of the origins of the Islamic ethos, and how it
remains relevant and effective today. On the one hand, Islamic studies from
Islamic Law (Fiqh) to Islamic Theology (Kalâm) and from Qur'anic studies to
the Hadith deal with the essential question of how Islam as a historical and
prophetic tradition remains relevant for contemporary mind and heart. On the
other hand, the very secularist experience in Turkey where the West and Islam
meet in a unique way inevitably draws scholars of Islamic studies to tackle this
question in an interdisciplinary context in order to maintain the sense of
continuity of Islam on Turkish soil, or whatever remained from the "last of the
caliphates."
In terms of how Islamic studies from Islamic Law Fıqh to Islamic Theology
(Kalâm) and from the Qur'anic studies to the Hadith deal with the essential
question of Islamic origins and its relevance for contemporaiy life, the most
significant area of theoretical debate within Islamic scholarship and the study
of religion in Turkey today is the methodological debate over the question of
contextualization. As far as Islamic studies are concerned, "theology/religious
studies" scholars in Turkey are deeply engaged in this task of contextualization.
The notion of context is a way of both comprehending past plenitude and
portraying it through "thick description," to borrow a term from Clifford Geertz
(Geertz 1973:14). For the Islamic studies tradition in Turkish academia, the
question of contextualization is of central importance for the ways and methods
Islamic sources and origins are interpreted. Through contextualization, words
and sentences must be read in the context of the document, and the document
27
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
itself read as part of its community of discourse of the belief system that gave it
meaning at the time. Discourses, worldviews, and beliefs in turn must be
understood in the context of their times and cultures. Likewise, human
activities and institutions are to be understood in relation to the larger network
of behavior or social organization and structure of which they are said to be
part. Social, political, religious, economic, family, and other institutional
practices make sense only when placed in their social and cultural contexts
(Berkhofer 1995: 31). Although they do not question the desirability of finding
"proper context" as the appropriate background for understanding the Islamic
past behaviors, and institutions, scholars in various disciplines of Islamic
studies and the study of religion in Turkish universities differ among
themselves about what constitutes a proper context in any given case.
Contextualization in Islamic studies predominantly operates as a "modernist"
methodology and in the end tend to turn into contextual ism. This is exactly
what "non-modernist" scholars of Islamics criticize. According to them,
contextualization is also a question of "position." The study of religion itself
becomes a question of position. A position, such as phenomenology, which
seems to deny the link between "religious phenomena" and "meaning" is, for
example, necessarily a critical position regarding religion. Overtly antireligious
perspectives like secularism or Marxism likewise view the history of Islam in a
negative light. From a religious perspective, the representations of a religion
contain or refer to a tradition-specific reality, whereas from a
phenomenological perspective, because of the separation of meaning from
phenomena, this link is broken. This is not to say that religious discourse such
as Islamic Theology is irrational, but rather that the legitimacy of a discourse is
governed by the wider historical context in which it is embedded, as opposed to
some notional, independent rationality. Certainly, rational process is a property
of most discourse, based upon sometimes unreflexive, unquestioned presuppositions. An Islamic discourse about Qur'anic Law clearly operates according to
processes which are rational (such as the method and approach of İjtihâd), but
within the boundary of the presuppositions of the Qur'an as revelation, while
phenomenological discourse about Islamic law and origins operates according
to secular rationality, itself founded upon the ontological presuppositions of
modernity.
3
It is exactly at this point that Hayreddin Karaman (1934-) , professor of Islamic
Law and a leading scholar in Turkey, observes that in terms of the study of
3
Hayreddin Karaman is currently the most well known scholar of Islamic law in Turkey;
he retired from his chair at the Faculty of Theology at Marmara University in 2001. After
28
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
religion. Islamic Law with its "methodological philosophy" (Usûl al-Fıqh) is not
just any discipline but a discipline reflecting the whole Islamic Weltanschauung;
consequently. Islamic studies cannot follow the phenomenolo-gical approach,
through which the discourse/study is separated from the subject and the
"truth" is bracketed. According to Karaman, the recent trends in Turkish
academic circles that claim to "reread" and "reinterpret" Islamic origins are
essentially confused methodologically and epistemologically. He believes that
these "re-readings" are just new attempts to rewrite Islamic thought and
history overall in the name of a new hermeneutical approach. This approach is
no more than a reductionist and simplistic way of incorporating the ontological
presuppositions of modernity into the Islamic framework under the pressure of
the Turkish experience of secularism. In doing so, these modernist interpreters
of Islamic sources (the Qur'an and the Hadith), origins (the Early Islamic
History) and traditions (Fıqh, Kalâm, etc.) simply take the easy road to arrive at
both modern and at the same time Islamic solutions, by passing the challenging
4
and more systematized method and approach of Ijtihad as an internal
many years spent in the service of academia at both undergraduate and postgraduate
levels, with both his classical and modem knowledge he still continues to contribute to
various debates ranging from academic topics to questions like 'how to live as a Muslim
in a secular society such as the Turkish society through his writings and once-a-week
cВlИmБ iБ a dailМ БewsГaГer YeБi Şafak . KaramaБ's views ВБ Зhe sИbjecЗ qИВЗed iБ Зhis
article were taken from a personal interview with him on July 30, 2001.
4
İjЗihРd liЗerallМ meaБs hard sЗriviБg, bИЗ ЗechБicallМ iЗ meaБs exercisiБg iБdeГeБdeБЗ
juristic reasoning to provide answers when the Qur`an and Sunnah are silent. Islamic
jurisprudence dealt with questions of religion and acts of worship, and with legal
transactions, along with all provisions, rules, and particulars derived from them. That is
why jurists in Islam were at once men of religion and jurisprudence. They were called
schВlars `ИlamР becaИse Зheir field Вf study included all departments of ancient
knowledge. As a result, Islamic jurisprudence played such a significant role in the history
of Islamic thought as well as in all aspects of Muslim life. It is known that Islamic
jurisprudence is based on two sources: the Qur`an and the Sunnah (The Prophetic
Tradition). There are various methods accepted by the majority of the jurists to derive
rИles frВm Зhese ЗwВ sВИrces. )jmР` cВБseБsИs Вf ВГiБiВБ aБd qдМРs aБalВgМ are Зhe
two major ones. There are other methods acknowledged by some schools but refuted by
others. These are based on necessity, custom and equity; such as istihsân
(appropriateness) in the Hanafî school, al-masâleh al-mursalah (excepted interests) in
the Mâlikî school, and the like. The jurists took up all these sources and methods, known
as evideБce adillРh Вf Зhe law, iБ a sГecial braБch Вf kБВwledge called `дlm al-usûl
(science of basic sources and methods). They began to work at discovering legal
solutions from such sources and evidences. This sort of activity was and is referred to as
ijtihâd (endeavor or interpretation). It was a cause and approach at the same time for
expanding legal provisions to comprise new cases, as well as strong factor in the
development of Islamic law according to the needs of countries and the conditions of
changing times. If questions arose about the meaning of a Qur`anic text or tradition or
29
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
interpretative dynamic in Islamic scholarly tradition, thereby producing hybrid
and at best superficial answers. Karaman suggests that the method and
approach of Ijtihâd is certainly worth taking seriously in religious studies
discourse in relation to Islamic studies. He strongly believes that Islamic
tradition of scholarship needs only to revitalise and reformat its methods,
approaches and meta-ЗheВries iБ Зhe lighЗ Вf mВderБiЗМ s aБd ГВsЗmВderБiЗМ s ВБЗВlВgical aБd sВciВlВgical challeБge. Ijtihad, from this
perspective, is the premier theoretical approach and method for recasting the
)slamic sЗИdies ЗradiЗiВБ, raЗher ЗhaБ ГИЗЗiБg everМЗhiБg iБЗВ Зhe baskeЗ Вf
hisЗВricism, siБce hisЗВricism is esseБЗiallМ a secИlar-modernist stance in
relation to religion and society.
In the views of non-modernist Muslim scholars, historicism is a principle
underlying the contextualist approach. Contextualism is not necessarily the
same as contextualization. Contextualism as a methodology in religious studies
presupposes that events and ideas can be explained only by being set within
the context of their occurrence. Why they occurred as they did is to be
explained by the revelation of the specific relationships they bore to other
events occurring in their circumambient historical space. The contextualist
iБsisЗs ЗhaЗ whaЗ haГГeБed iБ Зhe field caБ be accВИБЗed fВr bМ Зhe
specification of the functional interrelationships existing among the agents and
agencies occupying the field at a given time (Ritter 1986: 183-188; also,
D`Amico: 1989). Whether or not contextualism produces accurate explanation
revelation and early Muslim practice were silent, jurists applied their own reasoning
through these methods to interpret the sВИrces. İjЗihРd esseБЗiallМ cВБsisЗs Вf aБ
inference (istinbât) that amounts to a probability (zann), thereby excluding the
extraction of a ruling from a clear text. The laws or rulings are provided by clear texts
from a specific framework called al-ma`lûm min ad-dîn bid-darûra, meaning that they
partake of the fundamental essence of Islamic jurisprudence and that they lead, if
rejected, to the negation of Islam. Nevertheless the great majority of the Qur`anic verses
aБd Зhe PrВГheЗ s ЗradiЗiВБs are БВЗ Вf this very strict nature. The Qur`an is
authenticated per se (qat`î ath-thubut) but the majority of verses containing legal rulings
(âyât al-ahkâm) are subject to analysis, commentaries and interpretations (zannî) as is
Зhe case fВr Зhe PrВГheЗ s ЗradiЗiВБs (ahâdith) which are for the most part open to
speculation regarding both their authenticity (thubût) and their meaning (daleel).
İjЗihРd as a whВle as bВЗh a sВИrce aБd aГГrВach , has iБ facЗ beeБ cВБsidered bМ maБМ
`ulamâ (scholars of Islam) as the third chief source of the Islamic Law in which one will
fiБd ijmР`, qдМРs, isЗislРh, isЗihsРБ alВБg wiЗh all Зhe kБВwБ sИbdivisiВБs amВБg Зhe sВcalled supplementary sources of the Islamic law. The various methods of Islamic law
that feature next to the Qur`an and Sunna are all manifestations of ijtihâd, albeit with
differences that are largely procedural in character. In this way, consensus of opinion,
analogy, juristic preference, considerations of public interest, etc., are all inter-related
under the heading of ijtihâd (For further details, see M. Hashim Kamalî, Principles of
Islamic Jurisprudence, Cambridge: UK, 1991).
30
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
with regard to religious phenomena according to social scientific standards, its
exponents, whether in Islamic studies or Christian studies, believe that
historicism is the principle approach for contextualism. Historicism, therefore,
means that what happened is described and thereby explained in terms of
when it happened (such as referring certain Islamic traditions back to the Arab
jaahiliyyah/pre-Islamic culture) and what happened around it at the same time
or over time, depending upon emphasis is put on synchronous or diachronous
interpretations. This is not to argue whether historians do or do not abstract,
generalize, select, and organize data as they contextualize, for they do. As a
cВБseqИeБce Вf cВБЗexЗИalism s ГresИmiБg and producing uniqueness as its
chief explanatory or interpretive mode, modernist scholars in the area of
Islamic studies tend to describe past ideas, activities, events, and institutions as
more and more self-contained and distant from the present day as they are
increasingly contextualized to their times. This contextualism through
historicism results in various degrees of cultural and historical relativism. This
is a major challenge facing Muslim scholarship in theology and religious
studies.
One of the esseБЗial Зasks Вf ЗheВlВgМ aБd religiВИs sЗИdies iБ TИrkish
universities, therefore, seems to be to develop a meaningful, stronger but
cВБЗemГВrarМ discВИrse, Вver Зhe Вld qИesЗiВБ Вf wheЗher religiВБ
(interpreted through metaphysics, theology, and general religious studies) can
be taken as a source for the genuine knowledge achieved through the methods
of science. A contemporary discourse within Islamic studies tradition will help
ЗВ develВГ a reflexive cВБЗexЗИaliНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe religiВИs ГheБВmenon without
going to the extreme of contextualism.
In Turkey, contextualization, and the historicist position of contextualism, have
recently been major areas of debate in the field of Qur`anic studies and
exegesis. This can be seen, for example, beginning in a series of publications
such as the proceedings of A Sʼmposium on the Question of (istoricism in
Understanding the Qur`an – November 1996. The discussions presented here
clearly suggest that contemporary Turkish scholars of religion and Islamic
studies are aware of where current debates in hermeneutics, philosophy of
history, and religious studies are heading in general. But the problem lies in the
central question of the extent to which historical and textual criticism under the
methodological approach of historicism ought be applied to Islamic origins.
This book from the Symposium provides us an opportunity to read and engage
in this critical debate through the opinions of a group of leading Turkish
scholars of Islamic studies. Another significant text is İslam D“ş“ncesinde Yeni
Araʼışlar (New Perspectives in Islamic Thought, I-III), a collection of writings and
31
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
papers presented in various conferences and symposia in Turkey. This series of
books contains the views of Turkish-Muslim scholars on various subjects
ranging from the familiar question of historicism to the question of whether the
QИr`aБ is a wВrd , ЗexЗ Вr lВgВs , wheЗher Зhe ГИrГВses Вf sharia caБ be a
methodological base for interpreting the Islamic origins in a historicist
approach, to the question of Qur`anic hermeneutics.
This debate around historicism and contextualism with regard to Islamic
origins takes a different turn when one looks at Islamic philosophy. According
ЗВ MehmeЗ AМdдБ
-), now a leading scholar in the field as a professor of
Philosophy of Religion, it seems that the traditional Turkish attitude to
philosophy in general and to Islamic philosophy in particular never freed itself
frВm Зhe iБflИeБce Вf )slam s classical wriЗiБgs, esГeciallМ al-GhaННРlî s wellknown criticism of the falâsifah. AМdдБ ГВiБЗs ВИЗ ЗhaЗ iЗ was dИe ЗВ Зhis
influence that one can see a theologico-philosophical endeavour which one
mighЗ lВВselМ Бame as Зhe tahâfut ЗradiЗiВБ – a tradition which was largely
based on Tahâfut al-Falâsifah The )БcВhereБce Вf Зhe PhilВsВГhers aБd
which took little notice of the Tahâfut al-Tahâfut of Ibn Rushd. This does not
mean, however, that al-GhaННРlî s criЗicism Вf Зhe falâsifah was accepted
ИБcriЗicallМ. AМdдБ believes ЗhaЗ iБ sГiЗe Вf Зhe classical aБd mВderБ iБЗeresЗ iБ
some major theological and philosophical problems, Islamic philosophy,
especially its metaphysical dimension, never became popular in the Ottoman
educational sМsЗem AМdдБ
:
. The siЗИaЗiВБ is qИiЗe differeБЗ iБ
Turkish Faculties of Theology today. There are many works, published and
ИБГИblished, iБ Зhe field Вf )slamic PhilВsВГhМ. AМdдБ, a leadiБg schВlar whВ has
contributed to Islamic philosophy through his writings, currently teaches at
ГВsЗgradИaЗe level aЗ FacИlЗМ Вf TheВlВgМ iБ İНmir. OБe Вf AМdдБ s wВrks is his
Din Felsefesi (Philosophy of Religion) in which he explores Islamic theological
discussions at the juxtaposition of Kalâm and contemporary Philosophy of
Religion. A collection of his philosophical writings on various subjects, from the
idea of Al-Madîna Al-Fâdıla (The Virtuous City by Al-FРrabî ЗВ )bБ SîБa s
understanding of happiness, and from al-GhaННРlî s AГГrВach ЗВ Зhe qИesЗiВБ Вf
Ta`wîl meЗhВd Вf iБЗerГreЗaЗiВБ, aБ imГВrЗaБЗ sИbjecЗ fВr )slamic schВlars ЗВ
Mawlânâ s understanding of freedom of the will, aБd ЗВ MИhammad )qbРl s
analysis of religious experience can be found in another work, İslam Felsefesi
Yazıları (Essays on Islamic Philosophy AМdдБ
. AМdдБ s esseБЗial fВcИs has
been to emphasize the need to first rediscover the Islamic philosophical
tradition and then reflect upon it from a contemporary perspective.
As for the specific theological discipline Kalâm (Islamic Theology) in Islamic
schВlarshiГ, Зhe medieval ChrisЗiaБ Иse Вf Зhe exГressiВБ Вf ЗheВlВgМ as Зhe
32
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
qИeeБ Вf Зhe scieБces remiБds Иs ЗhaЗ iЗ wВИld БВЗ ГВssiblМ be sИrГrisiБg ЗВ
know that Kalâm used to be treated as the highest of the disciplines (ashraf al`uloom) in classical Islamic tradition. In fact, Islamic systematic theology
arguably pre-daЗes ChrisЗiaБ sМsЗemaЗic ЗheВlВgМ, wiЗh ЗeБЗh ceБЗИrМ AshariЗe
and Maturidite scholars producing comprehensive philosophical and
theological accounts of Islamic belief two centuries before Thomas Aquinas
(1226-1274) produced a similar account for Christianity.
Regarding contemporary studies in the field of Islamic theology, relatively new
and "non-confessional" works have already become available for the academic
and general reader in Turkey. A leading scholar in the field of Islamic theology
is Bekir Topaloglu (1936-) whose works (Topaloglu 1985) have provided a
valuable foundation for the new generation of theologians in Turkish faculties
of divinity. For example, Ahmet S. Kilavuz (1954-), one of his students, focused
on the question of "the borderline between blasphemy and faith" in his doctoral
study which is an example of new interdisciplinary trends in theological studies
in Turkey. Kilavuz is currently a professor of Kalam and teaches Islamic
theology/Kalâm in the faculty of theology of Uludag University. In this work, he
presents his subject in an interdisciplinary context of theology and Islamic law.
Following a descriptive analysis of the views of various Sunni theological
schools on the question of blasphemy, he connects his theological analysis of
blasphemy with the question of apostasy in Sunni-Hanafi legal tradition. In
doing so, Kilavuz takes a non-confessional stance (Kilavuz 1994). Kilavuz's
İslam Akaidi ve Kelâm'a Giriş (Introduction to Islamic Theology) is also a very
concise but analytical textbook for those who are interested in the concepts,
debates, schools and history of Kalâm, a book that needs to be made available
for the international academia iБ )slamic sЗИdies KдlavИН
. )З ГrВvides a
systematic, descriptive analysis of Muslim theological schools and trends with
an extended bibliography.
Scholars of Islamic theology in Turkey frequently refer to İzmirli İsmail (akkı
(186&-1949), an early twentieth century Turkish scholar of Kalâm, whose socalled New Kalâm is seen as a fresh attempt to revitalize Islamic theological
discussion. With his bridging approach to al-Ghazzâlî and Ibn Taymiyyah, the
two opposite ends of Islamic theology and interpretation, izmirli is recognized
as one of the few contemporary Turkish Muslim scholars of Kalam to relate his
theological views to philosophy and Islamic law. Izmirli attempted to synthesize Kalâm and Falsafah under the name of Yeni ilm-i Kelâm ("new theology").
He also made comparisons between the Mutasawwıfs (Islamic Sufi masters) and
Western mystics. His reply to a letter about Islamic religion sent by the
Anglican Church in 1916 to Dar al-Hikmah (then the highest religious
33
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
institution in istanbul) was later summarized by Abdulaziz Cavis and translated
iБЗВ TИrkish bМ MehmeЗ Akif İНmirli
;
-51). In various areas of Islamic
studies, there are certainly others who ought be mentioned for their
contributions to Islamic studies in contemporary Turkish intellectual history.
There is a need for individual works by scholars like Ahmed Hilmi, Musa Kazim,
Said Halim Pasha, Hamdi Yazir, Ferid Kam, Ismail Fenni and Said Nursî to be
made available in Western languages. One valuable source to learn more
generally about the contributions of these Turkish scholars to Islamic studies is
T“rkiʼe de İslamcılık D“ş“ncesi – Metinler ve Kişiler (Islamicist Thought in
Turkey – Texts and Authors bМ İsmail Kara Kara
.
Another interesting disciplinary area in Islamic studies in Turkey is Tasawwof
(Islamic Mysticism). The history of the subject of, and discourses about
Tasawwof is not much different from the history of other Islamic disciplines in
faculties of theology in Turkey. However, it is perhaps due to the problematic
history of popular Tasawwof in the Turkish experience of republican secularism
that the subject was integrated into undergraduate and graduate teaching at a
relatively late stage. Virtually until the 1950s, Islamic mysticism was not a
subject of academic study in Turkish studies of religion aside from a few
individual but important works, litis was a period of silence in the area of
academic Tasawwof in Turkey due to the political pressure placed on sup
groups, a consequence of the policy of radical secularization that abolished
religious orders and their cloisters.
This silencing notwithstanding, there were individual works on Sufism in
Turkey in the first quarter of the twentieth century. The earliest known
academic study in the field of Tasawwof is considered to be Malâmıʼʼah and the
Malamites by A.B. Gölpınarlı (1900-1982) which appeared in 1930. GчlГдБarlд
was an outstanding writer who authored approximately 100 books and 400
articles in the field of Islamic mysticism. The first faculty of theology in 1949
did not include Tasawwof in its academic courses. However, following Jareeda-i
Sufiyyah (1909-1919), the first known journal on Sûfism, another journal called
Tasawwof appeared in 1949 that discussed various subjects in philosophy and
mysticism. According to Mustafa Kara (1951-), a professor of Islamic mysticism,
what one can call an "academic study of Tasawwof emerged in the 1970s
through major translations of Sufi classical writings into Turkish. One such
example is the 1976 translation of Shifâu s Sâeel of Ibn Khaldûn by Suleyman
Uludag (1940-), a professor of Islamic thought and mysticism. Kara, who was a
student of Uludag's, continued his work in topics related to various local
histories of Turkish sûfism (Kara 1993), whereas Uludag's contributions in the
field of Islamic thought and mysticism came through his very informative
34
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
academic introductions to his translations of classical Sufi literature, and later
on his widely read book entitled The Structure of Islamic Thought. This book
looks at the three major trends and schools in the history of Islamic scholarly
tradition: Salafiyyah (the traditionist), Kalâm (Islamic theology), and Tasawwof
(Islamic mysticism), with general mention of the place of Falsafah (philosophy)
in relation to these three schools. Uludag essentially attempts to remind his
readers that these various schools of interpretation are all parts of the wider
circle of Islamic tradition of interpretation, each emphasizing different dimensions of the same discourse, namely Salafiyyah with its preoccupation with the
miss (revealed text), and naql (narrative), Kal&m with its emphasis on `aql
(reason) and istidlâl (drawing rational analysis from the rule), and Tasawwof
with its priority of kashf (experiental/inspired knowledge) and ilhâm
(inspirational knowledge). According to Uludag, these three lines of interpretation are complementary epistemological approaches to each other, with various
types of standpoints within them. The most liberal position is Tasawwof and the
strictest one is Salafiyyah. Uludag describes the falsafah in historical Islamic
tradition as always struggling for recognition, especially due to the Ghazzalian
influence (Uludag 1985). Uludag's other contributions include his Turkish
translation of Fasl al-Maqâl, a philosophical treatise, and al- Kashf `an Minhaj aladellah, a theological treatise, both by the famous classical scholar Ibn Rushd. In
addition to his informative introduction to these translations, Uludag tells us
that the importance of these two treatises comes from the fact that in Fasl Ibn
Rushd basically argues for, and in fact defends the falsafah, without denying the
place of revelation, whereas in al-Kashf he directs his criticism from philosophical and theological perspectives against the then and to some extent still
dominant theological (Kalam) school of al-Ash'ariyyah including the question of
Tawil (Uludag 1985:61-73).
In Turkish theological circles there is a significant interest in studying lbn
Arabi, as seen in both through published and unpublished academic work.
Diyânet, the Directorate of Religious Affairs in the Turkish government, has
generally kept silent on the question of Islamic mysticism, probably due to the
Turkish legal ban on the Sûfî orders in effect in Turkey since 1925. It nevertheless published a few works on the subject, one of which is a major work entitled
the First Sûfîs in Turkish Literature by Fuad Köprülü (1890-1966) who was a
well-known scholar in the field.
Any reference to academic and intellectual work in the field of Tasawwof in
Turkey would be incomplete without making mention of Erol Gungor's (19381983) major intellectual work, İslam Tasawufunun Meseleleri (Issues on Islamic
Mysticism, 1980). Although the late G was a professor of social psychology, his
35
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
two major works are considered intellectual masterpieces on the subjects with
which each deals. The first, İslam Tasawufunun Meseleleri, engages its subject
from both comparative and social psychological perspectives. With his valuable
assessments of topics varying from the origins of Sufism to the concept of
Ma'rifah (knowledge), from the psychology of Wajd (spiritual ecstasy) to
contemporary problems facing Sufism, the quality of his scholarship is
outstanding (Gungör 1987). İslam'm Bugünkü Meseleleri (Contemporary
Problems for Islam) is another masterpiece in which Güngör eloquently and
deeply engages in analytical debates surrounding Islamic history, philosophy,
worldview, modernity and Muslim society. Islamic law, and politics (Güngör
1987). Today, these books are included in the lists of required readings for
students of faculties of divinity.
Perhaps it is best to conclude this section with a brief but necessary mention of
The TDV Encyclopaedia of Islam, one of the most important publications
financed by the Turkish Religious Foundation (T“rkiʼe Diʼanet Vakfı, TDV). Ten
years after it was initiated in 1983 under the Directorate of Encyclopaedia, the
work was administratively transferred to the Centre for Islamic Studies (İslam
Araştırmaları Merkezi, TDV) in 1993. This Centre for Islamic Studies continues
with this work of the publication of the Encyclopaedia of Islam which currently
has published more than 40th volume (Tevekkul-Tusteri). The TDV
Encyclopaedia of Islam is in Turkish and consists of completely original articles,
of which there will be at least 20,000 when completed. Under the supervision of
various committees in specialist areas Tafsîr (Exegesis) to Fıqh (Islamic
Jurisprudence), from Islamic history and civilization to the history of religions,
and from Islamic arts to Arabic literature, the Encyclopaedia provides rich
academic articles with reliable up-to-date sources. So far contributions have
been received from over 900 Turkish and foreign scholars. Faculties of
Theology have always been the main source of academic support to this project
in Turkey. It is expected that the TDV Encyclopaedia of Islam will be one of the
most significant contributions of Turkish scholarship in Islamic and religious
studies, when completed and (it is hoped) translated into various languages.
Conclusion
Cultural experience is always experience of the others: the others, the real
others, are the indispensable transformational objects in historical change.
History is created out of cultures in relation and reaction. This, it is hoped,
means that a non-European contribution to the study of religion, as well as in
other areas, can play a critical-constructive role in "re-historicizing" European
36
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
academic and social culture. It affords the possibility to expose the whole range
of European experiences, in depth, to other norms, other values, and perhaps
other categories. It is from the perspective of this vision that this article has
surveyed the academic history and context of the study of religion in Turkey.
There is considerable hope that general Islamic studies in faculties of theology
in Turkish universities will be more open to recognizing that the broad
objectives of history of religions, i.e., arriving at an understanding of religious
phenomena qua "religious," dovetails with the concerns of those studying the
tradition and forms of Islamic religiousness. Perspectives should be freed from
the limitation of two ways of looking at and thinking about the world, namely,
the effects of the "post-modern condition" on the one hand, and the use of
criteria, definitions, and values inherited from the Enlightenment tradition to
analyze all other cultures and societies on the other (Arkoun 1987: 340). What
needs to be done is to work towards reflexive and multicultural (con)
textualizations in religious studies. Only openness to such an orientation will
allow for the generation of comprehensive answers that also derive
dynamically from within the methodological approaches of religious traditions
themselves.
As Russell McCutcheon has argued, the role of the scholar of religion involves
giving up the claim that "religion" has an autonomous essence and "developing
interdisciplinary connections with their colleagues in the social sciences,
investigating the theoretical basis for their scholarly interests, and
communicating to their undergraduate and graduate students the situated,
polymethodic, poly theoretical nature of scholarly discourses" (McCutcheon
1997: 210). This approach, however, should provide a suitable perspective
through which Islamic phenomena could be studied, not only as a set of
abstract categories but a tradition that lives in history and society, and is
espoused, in one way or another, by nearly a billion people on the face of the
earth.
In terms of the relation between religious studies and Islamic studies, the
ground has now shifted, and old debates and antagonisms between religious
studies and theology as such have been or, in fact, should be superseded by
fresh debates in the wider academy. Although they have different histories and
approaches, both religious studies and Islamic studies are kinds of "writings
about religion," with convergence and divergence, and both arise from the
practice of "rational" methods. If there is an essential difference between the
two, this is the difference of language. Whereas religious studies is a kind of
writing about religion in which there is a clear separation between the dis37
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
course and the object of the discourse, Islamic studies, on this view, is a kind of
writing about religion in which there is no separation between the discourse
and its object. The language of Islamic studies is a language which expresses
religion whereas the language of religious studies is a language about religion.
The issue of the distinction between religious studies and Islamic studies as a
category of "theological" studies is, therefore, about different kinds of discourse
and about the kind of the language they employ. This point allows us to
conclude that there is no reason why Islamic studies in general cannot use or
incorporate the data as well as methodological approaches of religious studies
in a reflexive way.
Today it is difficult for Islamic scholars to ignore the work of religious studies
scholars. In this article it has been possible to consider only a few figures and
works in the Turkish tradition of the study of religion. Islamic studies in Turkey
can scarcely function without some awareness of the contribution of the study
of religion outside the Islamic circle. It would be misleading to give the
impression that the contemporary enterprise of religious studies is nothing
other than old-style history of religions (historical, philological, philosophical)
forced into an administrative (and secular) marriage of convenience with the
social sciences. What is suggested here is that the re-entry of theology into
contemporary discourse can bring new intellectual opportunities. Theology
(and here it is worth noting that there are Jewish, Muslim, and Hindû theologies
as well as the Christian varieties dominant in Europe and North America) in
principle elucidates, not human behaviour, but divine revelation as mediated by
figures like prophets, lawgivers, seers or saviours, communicated along a line of
authoritative tradition. What has been attempted here is to remind ourselves
that knowledge of where we have been may at least convey a sense of
proportion, and can communicate a sense of the lasting importance of a broad
aГГrВach ЗВ Зhe sЗИdМ Вf religiВБ aБd religiВБs. )Б ВИr view, as lВБg as ЗheВlВgМ
can become and remain pluralistic (acknowledging a diversity of contexts),
applied, rooted, critical, constructive and imaginative (as its object, belief in
God cannot be objectified), then the study of religion in general is still in need of
it. It must approach its tasks and responsibilities with sensitivity and openness,
not prejudice and presumption.
In ending this overview of the study of religion, the history of religions and
Islamic studies in Turkey, I would like to summarise my point in Frank
WhaliБg s wВrds:
[t]here is the potential problem of religious studies being reduced to
theology, just as there is the potential problem of religious studies being
redИced ЗВ ГsМchВlВgМ, sВciВlВgМ, hisЗВrМ, aБd sВ ВБ… The develВГiБg
38
ŞeБaМ, ReligiВИs SЗИdies aБd Зhe SЗИdМ Вf )slam iБ MВderБ TИrkish Academia
global situation, with its ecological, humane, and moral/transcendental
problems and opportunities, demands an input from religious studies and
theology that neither can offer separately (Whaling 1999: 256-7).
Study is something we do on a basis of the images and impressions we have
formed in interplay with the values we hold. By the time these reach us, they
will have passed through many minds and along chains of tradition, some of
them shaped by the sanctuary and others by the academy, while others remain
ГracЗicallМ ИБclassifiable. WheЗher we call Зhe eБЗerГrise religiВИs sЗИdies , Зhe
hisЗВrМ Вf religiВБs Вr Зhe sЗИdМ Вf religiВБ , has liЗЗle beariБg ВБ Зhese
conditions. In every case we are confronted both by our presuppositions and
those of the societies, communities and cultures to which we belong. We need
to be modest enough to acknowledge that to listen others is an art; to grasp
what they are saying involves both a craft and a science.
In conclusion, one might quote a beautiful illustration from Ibn Arabî, one of the
famous Sûfî masters. He says that:
[w]hen we look at a jewel which has been set in a ring, we first think
that this jewel was made for the ring. But if we think deeply in the
matter we realize that it is the ring which has been made in such a way
as to enable us to set the jewel in it and was made for the jewel, not the
jewel for the ring. Similar is the case with the human receptacle and
divine revelation (S.H. Nasr 1997: 101).
If the subject matter of religious studies is, in this sense, the relationship
between the human receptacle and divine revelation, then the final point may
be that a universal approach of religious studies is still in the making with the
contribution of the Other. From this perspective, religion is not fully
translatable into religious studies, and this is an analytical and interpretative
truth. Within the borders of intellectual standards and academic rigour, the
study of religion can even be a critique of everything in the light of the
sharpened awareness of the Real. This is a critical awareness to which Turkish
scholarship in the field of the study of religion and Islamic studies in Turkey is
open.
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THE CONCEPT OF THE SOUL (NAFS) IN THE EARLY SUFISM
ACCORDING TO AL-QUS(AYRĪ S RİSĀLA AL-QUS(AYRĪYA AND
AL-(UJWĪRĪ S KASHF AL-MA(JŪB
Yuri ISHIDA, M.A.*
E-mail: [email protected]
Citation/©: Ishida, Y., (2012). The Concept of the Soul (Nafs) in
the Early Sufism according to Al-QИshaМrб s Risāla al-QИshaМrбМa
and al-(Иjwбrб s Kashf Al-Mahj”b, Journal of Intercultural and
Religious Studies. (2), 45-57.
ABSTRACT
This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the body and the soul in
the early Sufism based on the concept of the soul of al-QИshaМrб s Risāla and
al-(Иjwбrб s Kashf al-maḥj”b. These two books are important for theorization
of Sufism in the end of the eleventh century. Sufism introduces the concept of
substance and attribute and then it is possible to explain why physical
training works on the soul. Because the attribute of the soul is the passion
that desires the sense and the sense is the attribute of the body, there is a
logical conjuncture between the bodily action and the inner soul.
Keywords: Religion, Sufism, Nafs, al-Qushayri, al-Hujwiri
* Islamic philosophy major Ph. D. Student at Kyoto University, Japan.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
1. Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of the soul (nafs) in the early
Sufism. Based on Sufi theory, it can be explained the relation between the
suppression of the soul and physical training. In other words, the mind-body
problem in Sufism in the late eleventh century is the subject of this paper.
Sufism has played a role of mysticism in Islam. It is said that Sufism has
developed from the ascetic movement in Basra and Baghdad in the eighth
century. Although the accepted notion about its beginning and process has not
been established, we know its expansion by a number of theory books on
Sufism in the tenth century. Many of the authors of these books were born in
KhИrāsāБ regiВБ Вr TraБsВxaБia regiВБ where are far awaМ frВm )raq
(Karamustafa, 2007,83). According to Böwering (1980, 19-20), Sufi theory
books can be divided into three categories: the Sufi treatise, the Sufi
hagiography and the Sufi manual. The Sufi manual is a combination of the
former two. Examples of the Sufi treatise are Kitāb al-luma of al-Sarrāj d.
,
Kitāb al-ta arruf of al-Kalābādhб (d. 990?) and Q”t al-qul”b of al-Makkб d.
.
The Sufi hagiographies are Ṭabaqāt al-ṣ”fīʼa of al-SИlamб d.
aБd Ḥilya alawliʼā Вf Ab” NИ aim al-IṣfahāБб d.
. The reГreseБЗaЗives Вf Зhe SИfi
manual are al-Risāla al-Qushaʼrīʼa of al-Qushayrб d.
aБd Kashf almaḥj”b of al-(Иjwбrб d.
? . This ГaГer will fВcИs ВБ bВЗh Вf ЗwВ.
Al-QИshaМrб is frВm UsЗИwā Q”chāБ, БВw ВБ Зhe bВrder beЗweeБ )raБ aБd
TИrkmeБisЗaБ . (e belВБgs ЗВ Shāfi б-Ash arб grВИГ aБd he wriЗes his bВВks iБ
Arabic. On the other hand, al-(Иjwбrб s ВrigiБ is AfghaБisЗaБ iБ Зhe ГreseБЗ daМ.
(e belВБgs ЗВ (aБafб schВВl aБd wriЗes iБ PersiaБ. There are Зhese differeБces
but Al-QИshaМrб aБd al-(Иjwбrб lives iБ Зhe same ГeriВd. TВ a cВmГreheБsive
understanding of the concept of the soul in the last eleventh century, we need
to see the description of the two. In addition, as we will see below in this paper,
there are some compensations for the missing part of the sentences of one
another. Based on the descriptions of both, this paper will analyze the concept
of the soul in Sufism at the end of the eleventh century.
2. The Psychology in Early Sufism
This section aims to outline the position of the soul in Sufism. First, the soul is
assumed to be separated from the body at the death in the Quran: angels
demaБd dМiБg ГrВГheЗ ГreЗeБder s sВИls [Q : ]. OБ Зhe cВБЗrasЗ, Зhe (adiЗhs
46
Ishida, The Concept of the Soul (Nafs) in the Early Sufism
says that angels pick up the spirit (r”ḥ) when a man dies (Khan, 1997, 413).
The soul and the spirit are interchangeable often and thus the general Muslims
do not distinguish between them (Calverley, 1993, 151-162). However, Sufism
has a clear distinction between the two because it assumes a hierarchical
sЗrИcЗИre called Зhe sИbЗles laṭā if iБ Зhe ГsМchВlВgМ. Each Вf Зhe sВИl aБd Зhe
spirit is the subtle (laṭīf) and layers of these subtles form a hierarchy. We would
like to take a look at some Sufi psychologies according to Schimmel (1975, 187193).
Ja ̒far al-Ṣādiq d.
assИmes a Зree sЗage: Зhe sВИl, Зhe hearЗ qalb) and the
spirit. The intellect ( aql) plays a role of barrier between the soul and the heart.
Al-Basṭāmб d.
/
, al-Ḥakбm al-Tirmidhб d.
-910), al-Junayd (d. 910)
follow his thought. Al-KharrāН d.
reГlaced Зhe iБЗellecЗ wiЗh Зhe БaЗИre
(ṭab ̒). However, al-Tirmidhб has another idea in his book, Baʼān al-farq bayn alṣadr wa al-qalb wa al-fuʾād wa al-lubb. He thinks the heart itself has four
concentric spheres: the breast (ṣadr), the heart, the inner-hear (fuʾād) and the
kernel (lubb). The outermost is the breast and the innermost is the kernel
(Heer, 2003, 1-81). The psychology of al-N”rб d.
- alsВ has Зhis Вrder. Ab”
Ṭālib al-Makkб d.
is Зhe ЗheВrisЗ whВ iБЗrВdИces cВБceБЗric circles
structure but his order is the soul, the heart, the spirit and the secret (sirr)
(1956-57, 399).
Other previous studies have revealed that al-Muḥāsibб d.
, Зhe masЗer Вf
al-Junayd, thinks another order: the soul, the spirit and the secret (Izutsu,
2005). Al-TИsЗarб d.
sВmeЗimes divides iБЗВ ЗwВ: Зhe sВИl aБd Зhe hearЗ,
but other times adds the nature to the soul and does the spirit and the intellect
to the heart (Böwering, 2011, xxxviii-xlix).
These are the psychologies in early Sufism. We can find that there are
differences in the number of the stages and the order. However, in most of all
cases the soul is positioned in the lowest stage. In fact, the Sufis attributes the
evil of human beings to the soul and proposed to improve the soul gradually by
physical practices. The idea of gradual improvement would came from the
1
Quran because it refers the three stages of the soul. Moreover, the blaming
people (al-Malāmatīʼa , ЗheМ lives iБ Зhe regiВБ Вf KИrāsāБ iБ Зhis age, alsВ
seem that the confrontation with the soul is their mission.
Now, I would like to present the question of this paper. The soul is a major
problem in the early Sufism as we see above. Then, why the Sufis think that the
1
Evil-inciting self (al-nafs al-ammāra bi al-s” )[12: 53], blaming self (al-nafs allawwāma [ : ], self aЗ Гeace al-nafs al-muṭma inna)[89: 27].
47
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
soul will be influenced by the physical training? According to the traditional
Islam, the soul is regarded as a material thing. Macdonald clarifies that the early
Sufism also regards the soul as a material because the spirit is a creature and it
is not eternal (Macdonald, 1931, 307-351). Due to the fact, the soul is to be a
material as well as the soul without any suspect. The descriptions of AlQИshaМrб s Risāla and al-(Иjwбrб s Kashf al-maḥj”b are basis Вf MacdВБald s
affirmation. Actually, Al-QИshaМrб saМs ЗhaЗ Зhe sГiriЗ aБd Зhe sВИl are sИbЗle
sИbsЗaБces residiБg iБ a cerЗaiБ fВrm…. KБМsh,
,
. (Вwever, a
creature and not eternal meaБs Зhe maЗerialiЗМ iБ Зhe cВmГarisВБ wiЗh Ab”
Ḥāmid al-GhaНālб d.
whВ harmВБiНes SИfism wiЗh Greek ГhilВsВГhМ aБd
ЗhВИghЗs Зhe sГiriЗ is eЗerБal becaИse iЗ is blВwБ iБЗВ Зhe hИmaБ beiБg bМ GВd s
breath. Furthermore, we have to consider the meaning of the material in Sufism
with comparing to Islamic theology and our modern sense.
3. The meaning of the soul in Sufism
Based on the description of Al-QИshaМrб s Risāla and al-(Иjwбrб s Kashf al2
maḥj”b, this section will organize the concept of the soul in Sufim. Al-QИshaМrб
and al-(Иjwбrб ГВiБЗ ЗhaЗ Зhe Зerm Вf Зhe sГiriЗ ВrigiБallМ meaБs iЗs exisЗeБce
bИЗ SИfis Иse Зhis Зerm fВr hИmaБ s bad БaЗИre aБd wrВБg acЗiВБ. BВЗh Вf Зhem
agree there are two kinds of the soul. In the words of al-QИshaМrб, Зhe
deficieБcies Вf ВБe s characЗer ЗraiЗs fall iБЗВ ЗwВ caЗegВries: firsЗ, ЗhВse which
one acquires by oneself – БamelМ, ВБe s acЗs Вf disВbedieБce aБd ВБe s siБs;
secВБd, ВБe s [iБhereБЗ] base mВrals. TheМ are blamewВrЗhМ iБ aБd Вf
Зhemselves. Al-Qushayri, Risala, 305; Knysh, 2007, 109) The examples of the
second base morals are pride, anger, envy and such negative feelings.
2
The basic text for Al-QИshaМrб s Risāla is Abd al-Ḥalбm Maḥm”d & Maḥm”d b. al-Sharбf
(eds.). (1995). al-Risāla al-Qushaʼrīʼa, CairВ: Dār al-Ma ārif. KБМsh s EБglish ЗraБslation
(Knysh. (tr.). Al-Qushaʼri s Epistle is Иsed fВr ciЗaЗiВБs iБ Зhis ГaГer bИЗ Gramlich s
German translation (Gramlich, R. (tr.). (1989). Das Sendshreiben al-Qušaʼrīs “ber das
Sufitum. SЗИЗЗgarЗ: FraБН SЗeiБer WiesbadeБ aБd Sell s EБglish ЗraБslaЗiВБ (Sell, M. A.
(tr.). (1996).Earlʼ )slamic Mʼsticism: Sufi, Qur an, Mi raj, Poetic and Theological Writings.
New York: Paulist Press) are also consulted.
The basic text for al-(Иjwбrб s Kashf al-maḥj”b is Zhukovsky. (ed.). Kashf al-maḥj”b.
NichВlsВБ s EБglish translation (Nicholson, R. A. (tr.). (1936). The Kashf al-Maḥj”b: The
Oldest Persian Treatise on Ṣ”fism (new ed.). London: Luzac) is used for citations in this
ГaГer bИЗ RabbaБi s EБglish ЗraБslaЗiВБ wiЗh cВmmeБЗarМ MaИlaБa Wahid Bakhsh
Rabbani. (tr. with commentary). (2001). The Kashf al-Maḥj”b: Unveiling the Veiled, the
Earliest Persian Treatise on Ṣ”fism. Lahore: Al-Faisal aБd MВrЗaНavi s FreБch ЗraБslaЗiВБ
(Mortazavi, D. (tr.). (1988). Somme spirituelle: Kashf al-Mahjǔb li-Arbâb al-Qulǔb. Paris:
Sindbad) are also consulted.
48
Ishida, The Concept of the Soul (Nafs) in the Early Sufism
The soul is regarded as the source of evil. Al-QИshaМrб aБd al-(Иjwбrб saМ ЗhaЗ
we could break the soul. Al-QИshaМrб Вffers cВБcreЗe meЗhВds ЗВ dВ iЗ: The besЗ
way to do this is to have recourse to the strictures of hunger, thirst, night vigil
and other types of self-exerЗiВБ ЗhaЗ lead ЗВ Зhe weakeБiБg Вf [Зhe sВИl s]
ГВwer. Al-Qushayri, Risala, 306; Knysh, 2007, 109) He thinks the physical
training is valid of the soul. Al-(Иjwбrб exГlaiБs Зhe reasВБ whМ ГhМsical
training as outer action works on the soul as inner evil character.
These qИaliЗies caБ be remВved bМ disciГliБe riʼāz̤ at): e.g., sins are removed
by repentance. Sins belong to the class of external attributes, whereas the
qualities above mentioned belong to the class of internal attributes. Similarly,
discipline is an external act, and repentance is an internal attribute. A base
quality that appears within is purged by excellent outward attributes, and one
ЗhaЗ aГГears wiЗhВИЗ is ГИrged bМ laИdable iБward aЗЗribИЗes. Al-(Иjwбrб.
Kashf al-maḥj”b, 246; Nicholson, 1936, 196)
Al-(Иjwбrб acceГЗs ЗhaЗ disciГliБe as ВИЗer acЗiВБ wВrks ВБ Зhe sВИl as iББer evil
character. Repentance as inner character can work on the sin as outer
character. In other words, the interaction between outer and inner has been
observed. It is confirmed that physical training is valid for the soul but we need
more explanation about the relation between outer action and inner character.
It could be said that they are not interested in the effect which is caused by
actions on the mind in the modern sense. However, this paper tries to know
how the Sufis think about the body-mind relationship in the end of the eleventh
century. Al-(Иjwбrб sЗaЗes ЗhaЗ: NВw, everМ aЗЗribИЗe Бeeds aБ ВbjecЗ wherebМ
it subsists, and knowledge of that attribute, namely, the soul, is not attained
save by knowledge of the whole body, which knowledge in turn demands an
explanation of the qualities of human nature (insānīʼat) and the mystery
ЗhereВf… Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 247; Nicholson, 1936, 197)
The next section will follow how the Sufis think about the human beings for
comprehending the relationship between the body and the soul.
4. The definition of human beings in Kashf al-maḥjūb
In this section, we would like to see the details of the definition of human
beings Kashf al-maḥj”b of al-(Иjwбrб. Al-(Иjwбrб iБЗrВdИces variВИs ГВsiЗiВБs
cВБcerБiБg Зhe Зerm Вf hИmaБ beiБgs. (e accounts five groups: three groups
frВm Зhe ГeВГle Вf Зhe Qibra, БamelМ MИslims, a SИfi ГreЗeБders grВИГ, aБd a
group from the people of the Sunna. Al-(Иjwбrб aГГrВves Зhe viewГВiБЗ Вf Зhe
last group. Since he does not give the exact names of these five groups, I named
49
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
them (i) Muslim Group A, (ii) Muslim Group B, (iii) Muslim group C, (iv) Sufi
pretenders, and (v) Certain Sunnis for convenience to discover details.
(i) The Opinion of Muslim Group A
The firsЗ ВГiБiВБ ЗВ cВБsider is as fВllВws: sВme MВslems assert that Man is
nothing but spirit (r”ḥ), of which this body is the cuirass and temple and
residence, in order to preserve it from being injured by the natural humors
(ṭabāʼi , aБd Вf which Зhe aЗЗribИЗes are seБsaЗiВБ aБd iБЗelligeБce. Al(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 248; Nicholson, 1936, 197) In short, a man is a spirit
and his body is its fence.
Al-(Иjwбrб cВБЗeБds, This view is false becaИse a bВdМ frВm which Зhe aБima
3
(jān) has deГarЗed is sЗill called a hИmaБ beiБg insān); if the anima is joined
wiЗh iЗ, iЗ is a live hИmaБ beiБg, aБd if Зhe aБima is gВБe, iЗ is a dead hИmaБ
beiБg. MВreВver, aБ aБima is lВcaЗed iБ Зhe bВdies Вf aБimals, МeЗ ЗheМ are БВЗ
called hИmaБ beiБgs. Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 248; Nicholson, 1936, 197)
We caБ call a hИmaБ bВdМ a hИmaБ beiБg wheЗher he is alive or not. However,
we caББВЗ call aБ aБimal bВdМ a hИmaБ beiБg eveБ if iЗ has a sГiriЗ. This is
becaИse )f Зhe sГiriЗ r”ḥ) were the cause of human nature, it would follow that
the principle of human nature must exist in every creature possessed of an
anima (jān-dārī Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 248; Nicholson, 1936, 197-198)
From the perspective of al-(Иjwбrб, Зhe ГreseБce Вf Зhe sГiriЗ Вr Зhe aБima is БВЗ
itself a criterion for being a human being.
(ii) The Opinion of Muslim Group B
The secВБd ВГiБiВБ is ЗhaЗ ВЗhers, agaiБ, have sЗaЗed ЗhaЗ Зhe Зerm hИmaБ
БaЗИre is aГГlicable ЗВ Зhe sГiriЗ aБd Зhe bВdМ ЗВgeЗher, aБd ЗhaЗ is БВ lВБger
aГГlies wheБ ВБe is seГaraЗed frВm Зhe ВЗher. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”,
248; Nicholson, 1936, 198) This meaБs ЗhaЗ we caБ ВБlМ call a maБ a hИmaБ
beiБg wheБ he has a sГiriЗ aБd bВdМ; we caББВЗ call a dead maБ s bВdМ a
hИmaБ beiБg, iБ cВБЗrasЗ ЗВ fВrmer ВГiБiВБs.
A parable of colours has been used to explain this concept and it explains that
wheБ ЗwВ colours, black and white, are combined on a horse, it is called
3
The ВrigiБal ЗraБslaЗiВБ Вf NichВlsВБ Иses Зhe wВrd, Зhe sВИl jāБ ; hВwever, )
reГlaced all sИch refereБces wiЗh Зhe aБima. )З aГГears ЗhaЗ r”ḥ aБd jāБ are
interchangeable in al-(Иjwбrб s wriЗiБg.
50
Ishida, The Concept of the Soul (Nafs) in the Early Sufism
Гiebald ablaq) , whereas the same colours, apart from each other, are called
black aБd whiЗe. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 248; Nicholson, 1936, 198) A
hВrse ЗhaЗ has whiЗe hair is called a whiЗe hВrse, aБd a hВrse ЗhaЗ has black
hair is called a black hВrse, bИЗ a hВrse ЗhaЗ has whiЗe aБd black hair is called
a Гiebald hВrse. SimilarlМ, a maБ whВ has a sГiriЗ ВБlМ is called Зhe sГiriЗ,
aБd a maБ whВ has a bВdМ ВБlМ is called Зhe bВdМ, bИЗ a maБ whВ has a sГiriЗ
aБd bВdМ is called a hИmaБ beiБg.
Al-(Иjwбrб ВbjecЗs ЗВ Зhis ВГiБiВБ frВm Зhe MВslem dВcЗriБe aБd saМs, This ЗВВ
is false, in accВrdaБce wiЗh GВd s wВrd: Did there not come over Man a space of
time during which he was not a thing worthʼ of mention? [76: 1]: in this verse
MaБ s claМ, wiЗhВИЗ aБima―fВr Зhe aБima had БВЗ МeЗ beeБ jВiБed ЗВ his
bВdМ―is called MaБ. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 248; Nicholson, 1936, 198)
God shaped the human body from clay and then blew the spirit into it [15: 29;
32:9; 38: 72], after that, the human is alive. Consistently, al-(Иjwбrб cВБЗeБds
ЗhaЗ we caБ call hИmaБ bВdМ a hИmaБ beiБg wheЗher Вr not it has a spirit or
anima.
(iii) The Opinion of Muslim Group C
The Зhird ВГiБiВБ is ЗhaЗ ВЗhers aver ЗhaЗ MaБ is aБ aЗВm, ceБЗred iБ Зhe hearЗ,
which is Зhe ГriБciГle Вf all hИmaБ aЗЗribИЗes. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 248;
Nicholson, 1936, 198). According to proponents of this argument, the heart
determines human nature.
Al-(Иjwбrб rejecЗs Зhis ВГiБiВБ, ЗВВ, saМiБg, This alsВ is absИrd, fВr if aБМВБe is
killed aБd his hearЗ is ЗakeБ ВИЗ Вf his bВdМ he dВes БВЗ lВse Зhe Бame Вf hИmaБ
beiБg. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 248-249; Nicholson, 1936, 198) He claims
that one physical organ, such as the heart, can never define the entire human
beiБg. We caББВЗ call a ГarЗ Вf Зhe hИmaБ bВdМ a hИmaБ beiБg, eveБ if iЗ is
important for life support. Here again, al-(Иjwбrб s criЗeria fВr a hИmaБ beiБg
exЗeБd ЗВ ЗhВse dead Вr alive.
(iv) The Opinion of Sufi Pretenders
The fВИrЗh ВГiБiВБ is frВm SИfi ГreЗeБders: TheМ declare ЗhaЗ MaБ is БВЗ ЗhaЗ
which eats and drinks and suffers decay, but a Divine mystery, of which this
body is the vesture, situated in the interfusion of the natural humours (imtizāj-i
ṭab ) and in the union (ittiḥād Вf bВdМ aБd sГiriЗ. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”,
51
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
249; Nicholson, 1936, 198) In brief, only God can creates a human being
through His secret knowledge.
Al-(Иjwбrб alsВ ВГГВses Зhis ВГiБiВБ, saМiБg, Зhe Бame Вf hИmaБ beiБg
belongs to sane men and mad, and to infidels and immoral and ignorant
ГersВБs, iБ whВm Зhere is БВ sИch mМsЗerМ aБd whВ sИffer decaМ aБd eaЗ aБd
driБk. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 249; Nicholson, 1936, 198) Al-(Иjwбrб saМs
ЗhaЗ DiviБe mМsЗerМ is aГГrВГriaЗe fВr wise ГeВГle. (e cВБЗiБИes, aБd saМs, aБd
ЗhaЗ Зhere is БВЗ aБМЗhiБg called MaБ iБ Зhe bВdМ, eiЗher while iЗ exisЗs Вr afЗer
it has ceased ЗВ exisЗ. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 249; Nicholson, 1936, 198)
Here again, his two basic conceptions of human nature have not changed; (1)
we caБ call a hИmaБ bВdМ a hИmaБ beiБg wheЗher iЗ is liviБg Вr dead;
however, (2) there is no physical organ ЗhaЗ iЗself deЗermiБes a hИmaБ beiБg.
The laЗЗer is emГhasiНed bМ Зhe fВllВwiБg, which sЗaЗes, GВd AlmighЗМ has
4
giveБ Зhe Бame Вf MaБ ЗВ Зhe sИm Вf Зhe sИbsЗaБces which he compounded in
us, excluding those things which are not to be found in some humaБ beiБgs.
5
(Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 249; Nicholson, 1936, 198) After citing the Koran,
al-(Иjwбrб cВБclИdes, Зhis ГarЗicИlar fВrm, wiЗh all iЗs iБgredieБЗs aБd wiЗh all
Зhe chaБges which iЗ ИБdergВes, is MaБ. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 249;
Nicholson, 1936, 198-199)
(v) The Opinion of Certain Sunnis
The lasЗ ВГiБiВБ ЗВ address is ЗhaЗ belВБgs ЗВ cerЗaiБ SИББis , which ГВsiЗs MaБ
is a living creature whose form has these characteristics, and that death does
not deprive him of his name, and that he is endowed with a definite
physiognomy (ṣ”rat-i ma h”d) and a distinct organ (ālat-i maws”m) both
exЗerБallМ aБd iБЗerБallМ. (Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 249; Nicholson, 1936,
199)
This time al-(Иjwбrб dВes БВЗ refИЗe Зhe sЗaБce, bИЗ iЗ is difficИlЗ ЗВ gИess his
miБdseЗ frВm Зhese aБalВgies: BМ a defiБiЗe ГhМsiВgБВmМ ЗheМ meaБ ЗhaЗ he
has eiЗher gВВd Вr ill healЗh, aБd bМ a disЗiБcЗ ВrgaБ ЗhaЗ he is eiЗher mad Вr
4
The original Persian texЗ saМs, jИmle mā-yi-hā. There are ЗwВ differeБЗ
iБЗerГreЗaЗiВБs fВr Зhis: Зhe sИm Вf Иs aБd Зhe sИm Вf ЗhiБgs.
5
AБd We have creaЗed MaБ Вf Зhe chВicesЗ claМ, ЗheБ We Гlaced him as a drВГ Вf sГerm
in a safe lodging, then We made the sperm into a clot, then We made the clot a lump of
flesh, then We made in the lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh,
then We caused it to grow into another creation, so blessed be Allah, the Best of
creaЗВrs KВr. xxiii, - 14).
52
Ishida, The Concept of the Soul (Nafs) in the Early Sufism
saБe. Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 249; Nicholson, 1936, 199) As mentioned
earlier, al-(Иjwбrб calls a hИmaБ bВdМ a hИmaБ beiБg, regardless Вf wheЗher iЗ
is living or dead. These sentences indicate that, externally, a human body has a
particular apparent shape and specific organs. On the other hand, the internal
meaning of these sentences, as al-(Иjwбrб exГlaiБs, is ЗhaЗ we caБ call a maБ a
hИmaБ beiБg wheЗher he is healЗhМ aБd iБЗelligeБЗ Вr БВЗ.
(iЗherЗВ, Зhis ГaГer discИssed Зhe five ВГiБiВБs cВБcerБiБg Зhe hИmaБ beiБg
that were introduced by al-(Иjwбrб. There is a raБge Вf cВБdiЗiВБs ЗhaЗ aГГlМ
wheБ we Иse Зhe Зerm hИmaБ beiБg. (Вwever, al-(Иjwбrб s sЗaБdard is simГle.
(e cВБЗeБds ЗhaЗ a hИmaБ beiБg refers ЗВ Зhe eБЗire hИmaБ bВdМ aБd, eveБ
afЗer deaЗh, Зhe hИmaБ bВdМ is called a hИmaБ beiБg. FiБallМ he clarifies Зhe
Sufi opinion as follows:
YВИ mИsЗ kБВw, ЗheБ, Зhat in the opinion of mystics the most perfect
cВmГВsiЗiВБ Вf MaБ iБclИdes Зhree elemeБЗs, viН. sГiriЗ, sВИl, aБd bВdМ. Al(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 249-250; Nicholson, 1936, 199)
FВr Зhis reasВБ, he ВbjecЗed giviБg Зhe Бame hИmaБ beiБg ЗВ merelМ Зhe sГirit
Вr a ГarЗ Вf Зhe bВdМ. Besides, he affirmed ЗhaЗ each Вf Зhese has aБ aЗЗribИЗe
which subsists therein, the attribute of spirit being intelligence, of soul, passion,
aБd Вf bВdМ, seБsaЗiВБ. Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 250; Nicholson, 1936, 199)
These three attributes are functions of fundamental human activities. Since the
hИmaБ bВdМ is a Гlace whereiБ aЗЗribИЗes dwell, iЗ qИalifies beiБg called a
hИmaБ beiБg, wheЗher iЗ is liviБg Вr БВЗ. CВБcerБiБg Зhe relaЗiВБshiГ beЗweeБ
the body and the soul, it is clarified that both of them are the substances which
have their attributes.
DiscИssiВБ Вf Зhe cВБceГЗ Вf a hИmaБ beiБg leads ЗВ a cВsmВlВgМ. Al-(Иjwбrб
sЗaЗes, MaБ is a ЗМГe Вf Зhe whВle ИБiverse. The ИБiverse is Зhe Бame Вf Зhe ЗwВ
wВrlds, aБd iБ MaБ Зhere is a vesЗige Вf bВЗh. Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 250;
Nicholson, 1936, 199) The two worlds include the present world and the
hereafЗer. FВr he is cВmГВsed Вf Гhlegm, blВВd, bile aБd melaБchВlМ, which
four humours correspond to the four elements of this world, viz. water, earth,
6
air, aБd fire, Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 250; Nicholson, 1936, 199) he
continues. Based on the science of the time, al-(Иjwбrб ГВsiЗs ЗhaЗ Зhe wВrld
consists of four elements and finds these in the human body as well.
6
Zhukovsky thinks that counterpart of phlegm is air and that of bile is water.
53
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
7
(Вwever, he describes Зhe БexЗ wВrld as a realm where his sГiriЗ, his sВИl, and
his body correspond to Paradise, Hell, and the place of Resurrection. Paradise is
Зhe effecЗ Вf GВd s saЗisfacЗiВБ aБd (ell is Зhe resИlЗ Вf (is aБger. Al-(Иjwбrб.
Kashf al-maḥj”, 250; Nicholson, 1936, 199) This implies that three human
cВmГВБeБЗs―Зhe sГiriЗ, sВИl, aБd bВdМ―belВБg ЗВ Зhe afЗerlife. (Вwever, we
have seen that a human being is endowed with these components during life.
Should we assume that these three do not consist of the four elements of the
world? According to the Koran, the spirit comes from God and it is easy to
discern that the spirit was not made in this world. However, a problem exists
when it comes to the body, which God created using the earth. Is a human being
a bridge between the physical and spiritual world? If so, then what does this
mean for the soul? Is it a mixture of the two worlds?
Al-(Иjwбrб fИrЗher exГlaiБs, )Б shВrЗ, Зhe believer s sГiriЗ calls him ЗВ Paradise,
of which it is a type in his world, and his lower soul calls him to Hell, of which it
is a type in this world. Therefore it behoves those who seek God never to relax
their resistance to the lower soul, in order that thereby they may reinforce the
sГiriЗ aБd Зhe iБЗelligeБce, which are Зhe hВme Вf DiviБe mМsЗerМ. Al-(Иjwбrб.
Kashf al-maḥj”, 250; Nicholson, 1936, 199-200)
This conflict between the spirit and soul is also foИБd elsewhere: BВЗh Зhe
lower soul and the spirit are subtle things (laṭā if) existing in the body, just as
devils and angels and Paradise and Hell exist in the universe; but the one is the
seaЗ Вf gВВd, while Зhe ВЗher is Зhe seaЗ Вf evil. Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”,
245; Nicholson, 1936, 196)
From the above, we can conclude that the spirit is the symbol of virtue and the
soul that of evil. Ultimately, we see that the body itself exists neutrally. It serves
as the battlefield for good and evil.
5. The substance and the attribute
The section four has examined the concept of human nature on the basis of the
discussion in al-(Иjwбrб s Unveiling the Veiled. Al-(Иjwбrб cВБsisЗeБЗlМ claims
ЗhaЗ Зhe Бame hИmaБ beiБg ГrВГerlМ aГГlies ЗВ Зhe whВle bВdМ. (e sЗrongly
opposes the idea that the human being may be represented by only part of the
body and he never distinguishes between whether a body is alive or dead. Islam
teaches that dead bodies revive, as the condition of death: therefore, al-(Иjwбrб
sees a human being as a whole that continues to exist even in the afterlife. It
7
NicВlsВБ s ВrigiБal ЗraБslaЗiВБ is his sВИl jān), his lower soul (nafs .
54
Ishida, The Concept of the Soul (Nafs) in the Early Sufism
would be useless if we regained only a physical heart. Al-QИshaМrб alsВ saМs
ЗhaЗ: resИrrecЗiВБ will haГГeБ ЗВ Зhis whВle, aБd sВ will reward aБd
ГИБishmeБЗ. Al-QИshaМrб. Risāla. 308; Knysh, 2007, 110) The spirit (or the
soul) which is apart when he dies will return the time of resurrection. A human
being is the whole combination of the body, the soul, and the spirit.
Instead, al-(Иjwбrб is iБЗeresЗed iБ Зhe hИmaБ bВdМ aБd iЗs elemeБЗs in this
discussion. He has even said that he excludes health and wisdom when he
besЗВws Зhe Бame hИmaБ beiБg ВБ sВme ВБe. )З is ГВssible ЗВ saМ ЗhaЗ his
perspective is drawn from his view of the body. The body itself does not have
any value. What bring it values are the spirit and soul. Al-QИshaМrб agrees fВr
Зhis ГВsiЗiВБ aБd saМs: hВwever, Зhe sВИl maМ alsВ meaБ a sИbЗle sИbsЗaБce
placed in the [human] body, which is the repository of blameworthy character
traits in the same way as the spirit is a subtle substance placed in the [human]
body, which is the repository of praiseworthy character traits. All these
elements are subjugated to one another and their sum total constitutes a
hИmaБ beiБg. Al-QИshaМrб. Risāla. 306; Knysh, 2007, 109) A human being has
a cerЗaiБ fВrm which is defereБЗ frВm aБimals fВrm aБd Зhis fВrm qИalifies Зhe
Бame Вf hИmaБ. (is mВrals aБd ЗaleБЗs are БВЗ demaБded. A hИmaБ beiБg has
three substances: the body, the soul, and the spirit. The soul is the evil attribute
and the spirit is good attribute.
As we see above, al-(Иjwбrб saМs ЗhaЗ Зhe aЗЗribИЗe Вf Зhe bВdМ is Зhe seБse.
There is no difference with al-QИshaМrб iБ Зhis ГВiБЗ. FrВm Зhe descriГЗiВБ iБ
Risāla, Зhis is alsВ Зhe case wiЗh visiВБ beiБg Зhe reГВsiЗВrМ Вf seeiБg, Зhe ear
being the repository of hearing, the nose being the repository of smelling, and
the mouth being the repository of tasting. The entity that hears, sees, smells, or
ЗasЗes cВБsЗiЗИЗes a whВle, which is a hИmaБ beiБg. Al-QИshaМrб. Risāla. 306307; Knysh, 2007, 109) That is to say, physical organs in the body have the
senses as its attribute. However, the subject that controls these senses is not a
part of the body but a whole human being.
The attribute of the soul is the passion according to al-(Иjwбrб. (e exГlaiБs:
The mВst manifest attribute of the lower soul is lust (shahwat). Lust is a thing
that is dispersed in different parts of the human body, and is served by the
sense. Man is bound to guard all his members from it, and he shall be
questioned concerning the acts of each. The lust of the eye is sight, that of the
ear is hearing, that of the nose is smell, that of the tongue is speech, that of the
palate is taste, that of the body (jasad) is touch, and that of the mind is though
(andīshīdan . Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”, 263; Nicholson, 1936, 208-209) At
firsЗ glaБce, Зhe sВИl s aЗЗribИЗe maЗches Зhe bВdМ s aЗЗribИЗe. (Вwever, Зhe
55
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
sВИl s aЗЗribИЗe is БВЗ Зhe seБse bИЗ Зhe ГassiВБ ЗВ desire Зhe seБses. The
passion is the evil character that could be vanished by outer action and is
blameworthy character that dwells in the soul. To quit desire the senses is the
goal of physical training as al-(Иjwбrб s accВИБЗ: WheБ МВИ have ВbЗaiБed
knowledge of it [the soul] you recognize that it can be mastered by discipline,
bИЗ ЗhaЗ iЗs esseБce aБd sИbsЗaБce dВ БВЗ Гerish. Al-(Иjwбrб. Kashf al-maḥj”,
260; Nicholson, 1936, 206).
From above, we can conclude that action of the body, its attribute is the sense
ЗhaЗ is Зhe ЗargeЗ Вf Зhe sВИl s Гassion, is needed to control the passion. This is
the relationship between the body and the soul.
Conclusion
This paper clarified the concept of the soul based on the descriptions of alQИshaМrб s Risāla and al-(Иjwбrб s Kashf al-maḥj”b. First, Sufis have the unique
usage of the term of the soul. Second, the target of Sufi physical training is not
the body but the soul. Third, the body and the soul are substances and each of
them has an attribute. The attribute of the body is the sense and the attribute of
the soul is the passion to desire the sense. Sufi physical training aims to clear
Зhe ГassiВБ becaИse Зhe sВИrce Вf Зhe evil is Зhe sВИl s aЗЗribИЗe aБd Зhe sВИl
itself is necessity as a component of the human beings.
We have been a closer look at the discussion of the definition of human beings
in al-(Иjwбrб s Kashf al-maḥj”b. Al-(Иjwбrб ЗhiБks Зhe sГecial fВrm Вf hИmaБ is
the criteria of the definition and the body and the soul are not opposite nor
belong to entirely different category. He emphasizes a sum of the body and the
soul (we may add the spirit to them) is the human beings. The body and the
subtles are substances and a substance has its attribute. The attribute of the
soul is the passion that desires the attribute of the body. From this relation, Sufi
practice must use the body that is the location of the sense to eliminate the soul.
Fasting and the recollection of God (zikr) is unique Sufi practice. Fasting can
control the passion to desire taste because fasting restricts the sense of tasting
by physical action. Similarly, the recollection of God is valid for control the
passion to require speaking because the tongue is engaged in repeat the words
for praising God. Here we can find the relationship between the body action and
the soul. Introducing the theory of jurisprudence and theology enables Sufism
to logically explain their discipline.
56
Ishida, The Concept of the Soul (Nafs) in the Early Sufism
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57
NEW APPROACHES IN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE
PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION: THE BUNCH MODEL, OR
THE TECHNIQUE OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL READING
Hamit ER, Ph.D* - Sevket YAVUZ, Ph.D**
Citation/©: Er, (., YavИН, Ş., (2012). New Approaches in Religious
Education in the Process of Globalization: the Bunch Model, or the
Technique of Phenomenological Reading, Journal of Intercultural
and Religious Studies. (2), 59-66.
ABSTRACT
This article presents a brief history of the study of religion and the history of
religion as academic disciplines in the faculties of theology/divinity/ilahiyat in
Turkish universities. It presents a descriptive and analytical survey of theoretical
and critical approaches and trends in the study of religion and Islamic studies in
Turkey, including reference to a few leading scholars alongside a selected leading
bibliography on the topic. Faculties of theology in Turkey are called Ilahiyat
Faculties. Ilahiyat means divinity/theology. Divinity / Theology / Ilahiyat studies
combine the study of religion with Islamic studies. It is impossible to give a
detailed picture of the many subjects, studies, and trends that are in some way
related to the study of religion in the whole of Turkish faculties of theology
without locating the topic within a general religio-historical context.
Keywords: Religion, Education, Religious Education, Globalization, Model.
* Prof. Dr., Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Theology, Çanakkale, Turkey.
** Assoc. Prof., Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Theology, Çanakkale,
Turkey.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
I. PROLOGUE: GENERAL CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK & POSTULATES
Unprecedented progresses in sciences and technology and the development
and spread of sportive and artistic activities that eradicate the traditional
frames of time and space, etc. lead humanity to the point, where both
traditional time and space conceptions are dissolved and thence reconstructed
anew, and erstwhile spatial conceptions are disjointed from their time-worn
roots and re-encoded again. Despite these dissolutions and disjointings, the
question of why the processes of Globalism--though a far cry from being a
philosophy and way of life--do not able to deconstruct the categories of
"otherizations" and prejudices in terms of human existence and epistême is
facing us radically and awaits answers.
In spite of convolutions in time and space especially in the processes of
Globalism, the most salient causes of why human existence and epistême have
not been able to formatted, or constructed in accord with the existential
mutuality and cooperation principle (the Qur'ânic ta 'âruf) are embedded
within the nature, mode, and manifestations of religion--which is tacit, invisible
determinant of the collective subconscious of cultures and civilizations, even of
the most secular ones--, and religious education. Religion--as an existential and
historical phenomenon which is a means of epistême (understanding, giving
meaning, and imparting meaning) of life-- is cipher of personal and cultural
identity. In the aim to solve and reintegrate individuals both to her /his
community and to global human society via eschewing to maim one's respected
affiliations, a new-but-globally encompassing methodology is needed. Namely,
in our world--which has well then become "Global Village"--, there is a need of
new methodology in terms both of religious education in particular, and of the
teaching of religions, and their histories. (Robetson, 2000, 113). This
methodology is centered on the Bunch Model, or the Technique of
Phenomenological Reading. This methodology connects the journey of human
epistême and the codes (i.e., values; aesthetics, ethics, soteriology, law) of this
journey to tatters (çitim || harth [material outputs], 'umrân [civic outputs], and
creed pot), and these tatters to the universal "bunch" as existential and
historical axles. Each harth -'umrân-creed pot has one tattered flavor within its
own revered "meaning" subtext, and is meaningful within its historical and
theological context. The hermeneutics of this "meaning" can be made via the
following four modus (ESEA): (a) Epoché ('suspending' all prejudices to
understand); (b) Sieving; (c) Empathy; (d) Actualization.
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Er, Yavuz, New Approaches in Religious Education in the Process of Globalization
By virtue of these general remarks, the thesis of this study can be adduced as
follows: In our hoary world--well then a Global Village--the solution for all
types of otherizations with reference to the pots of harth-'umrân-creed comes
with the acceptance of these premises: These existential humane pots have
special, and unique "meanings"; and the bunches comprised of these pots are
the collective "bunch" of the universal human inquiry of epistême as a whole.
II. THE BUNCH MODEL, OR THE TECHNIQUE OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL
READING
A. The Rationale of the Model: Possibility, Promise, and Predicament
Due to technological advancements and communicative disseminations that
took place in the second half of the 20th century, humankind has experienced
great changes in its way of life, lifestyle, and mode of conduct, etc. on the one
hand, and in its mode of community, communication, and of cooperation.
Hence, s/he may never live, or suppose to live in a great isolation, or seclusion
that had been possible in previous centuries. With the beginning of the 21st
century, the process of interrelation, interconnection, and interdependence
become more and more vibrant, connecting humans and their works intensely,
and demanding. Rightly, or wrongly the process is labeled as "Globalization", by
which the developed, or the core is more interconnected and interrelated to the
less-developed, or the periphery. In such a juncture, the following questions can
be posed: Can still humanity make use of previous techniques of education and
communication in both national and international levels? To what extent can
the previous "tightly wrapped" models of teaching, engaging, and relating be
rationally, and practically usable? Or how do we live in "our isolated and
elevated islands" peacefully, and without a hitch?
These questions may bring us to the point: Neither time and space, nor the self,
the world, and human community are in tightly-separated compartments;
rather they are interconnected, interdependent, and interrelated with each
other. Nevertheless, in such an ethos that has been shaped by the processes,
modalities, and convolutions of Globalization, it would seem, no power,
including that of the core countries in the Modern World System, can be
immune from these existential and practical manifestations. What is more, no
power, be it hegemonic, or dependent one, can invade the sphere, space, and
sovereignty of other "in silence". Thus, just as nothing was new and nascent
under the sun in the previous times, now nothing can be hidden from the sights
of Global suzerainty that humanity has shaped willy-nilly so far.
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
At this juncture, the Bunch Model reveals its possibility. The model with its four
modus (epoché, sieving, empathy, actualization) may provide a rational and
practical starting point in such a Global/ized ethos. In our "newly-wrapped"
world, individuals, communities, nationalities, etc. the point de départ would
start with the first modus, namely epoché by suspending all of one's prejudices,
prejudgments, biases, and the like. These pre-formed judgments and views are
the biggest obstacle to establish feasible and easy communications,
connections, and relations with others. These prejudgments are, in fact, images
that blur and hinder any real and existential engagement in the world of
communication and cooperation. Images work something like archetypes,
devalues the existential aura of the "other", squeezes multiplicity and
heterogeneity of the collocutor/s into a single, pre-shaped category through
which the "other" is easily classified and co-modified; thence, the discoursing
and constructing subject is no longer in need of understanding alterities before
her/him. To illustrate this modus:
The image of the Arab in the sixties was that of the camel driver,
in the seventies the oil sheikh, in the eighties the terrorist bomber,
in the nineties the enemy and nowadays he is the embodiment of
evil. An enemy you fight, but at least you can reach a peace
settlement with him. Evil is without end. Is it the mission of the
West to conquer Evil? Will we create moderate Muslims by
exterminating them? By incarcerating them in concentration
camps? By driving them out into one big nation of waste land? By
converting them? (Haddad, 2003, 20)
By virtue of these explanations, the modus of epoché might be the first phase to
understand the "other" / the collocutor. By the process of epoché, the subject is
not obliged to forget, give up, or completely erase of what s/he got before via
education, cultural engagements, individual or collective experiences, and so
on. Through this process, the subject is able to "recognize" the individuality,
alterity, and difference of one's interlocutor/s; thus, s/he may no longer see and
construct the self via pre-held images, biases, and imageries. Suspending
judgments set the stage for human being a new modus of existential
engagement, communication, and recognition. From this phase, one can pass to
other phase, namely, the phase of sieving. By this process, the constructing
subject may able to sieve of what is good, bona fide, right, and proper for the
interlocutor/s from wrongly and erroneously established ideas, notions, and
pre/conceptions. The sieving process is like a process that a police inspector
assorts evidences by sieving through other unrelated things. This is the second
phase in the aim to "understand" and "recognize" the other.
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Er, Yavuz, New Approaches in Religious Education in the Process of Globalization
As for the process and practice of empathy, it is one of the most salient aspects
of understanding the other in order to establish bridges between one student
and other, between one individual and others, and between one culturecivilization, and other aura of culture-civilization. The process of empathy may
able to provide for the constructing subject a psychic and emotive leverage in
the aim to "understand" the cultural and civilizational aura of the self, of the
others. Without empathy, an individual may not able to truly understand the
individual, collective, and communicative spheres of the interlocutor/s. This
process represents the inner aspect of the whole versthen telos. Both epoché
and sieving processes are comparatively external actions and procedures;
whereas empathy is more inner and emotive modus in the Bunch Model. The
communicative subject may, by and large, able to situate the historical function
and position of the other in certain episodes, events, and situations without
applying the modus of empathy. (Lange, 2003, 65). Practicing empathy is, in
fact, making the inner logic and rationale of the interlocutor/s our own. Thence,
briefly, one can claim, in order to understand the "other", and thus "recognize"
other, it is necessary for the subject to practice empathy with the inner
individuality of the collocutor/s; hence, a rational, feasible, and humane
communication, cooperation, and correlation become possible. To give an
example for this ethos:
(T)ruth will no longer be identified by its ability of exclude and
absorb others. Rather, what is true will reveal itself mainly by its
ability to relate to other expressions of truth and to grow through
these relationships: truth defined not by exclusion but by relation.
The new model reflects what our pluralistic world is discovering:
no truth can stand alone; no truth can be totally unchangeable.
Truth, by its very nature, needs other truth. (Knitter, 1984, 219).
Lastly, the process of actualization is needed in order to complete the previous
required processes. Actualization is a form of ethics, as well. The previous three
phases are, to some extent, a prologue to this last phase. This process implies
both realization of suspending, sieving, and practicing empathy, and recreation
of new values (axiology) cyclically in the aura of co-actuality. Student,
individual, community, and the like is expected to get accustomed to practicing
epoché, sieving, and empathy, and most importantly to actualizing of what is
right, true, bona fide, just, etc.
With these four phases, this Bunch Model promises understanding, recognizing,
and communicating with the "other". This promise is, to a great extent, felt
deeply especially during the process of Globalization; and is necessitated due to
local, regional, and international war inclinations and / or phenomena.
63
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
Understanding the other,, in fact, understands the humane, and existential
features of other beings (Sanderson, 2004, 1-20). What is more, understanding
is a cyclical process, expanding gradually from the self, other, animal,
environment, the uБiverse, aБd Зhe CreaЗВr .
On the other hand, we can ask these questions as well: Are there any
predicaments regarding this model. One can give answers to these questions
both affirmatively, and negatively. It may pose predicament in the connection of
Global capitalism, if one forms this model just for the discoursed subjects /
periphery countries, conniving, or overlooking Global injustices, prejudices, and
inequalities. Nevertheless, in the aim to create a just, well-balanced, fair world
system, it is quintessentially important that humankind, firstly and foremostly,
should understand one another, construct on a equal and unbiased font with
each other, and recognize each other as free, valuable, honorable, and equal
human beings.
B. Existential Ramifications of the Model: From Walled Classes to
Unwalled Classes: Global Conjuncture and Existential Engagement in
Education
The Bunch Model with its telos of understanding, recongizing, and mutual
communication (ta 'âruf) provides an egalitarian educational modus in our
"unwalled classes". Through the processes of Globalization (political and
economic wrapping of the world) and of Post/modernity (cultural and
epistemic wrapping of the non-material world, our isolated "walled
classrooms" has turned into "unwalled classes". Thence, new models are
needed for these kinds of spatial and cognitive reorientations in such a context.
Hence, the rationale of the Bunch Model. Via (a) suspending all prejudices,
biases, imageries, etc.; (b) sieving good, rational, beneficial, etc. from what bad,
irrational, baneful, and the like; (c) practicing empathy in historical, cultural,
civilizational contexts, and lastly (d) actualizing universal human values, codes,
and ethos, the Bunch Model seeks and locates unique, bona fide, constructive,
and encoding "meanings" in all cultural and civic auras. Each "meaning" forms a
"tatter" within the universal human "meaning bunch". This "bunch" with its
tattered elements that each has its own special, unique, constitutive role
represents the universal heritage of humankind. Is humanity ready to see other
cultural forms and manifestations on equal footings? This question justifies and
rationalizes the formation of this model. Leaving aside the mentality of seeing
the world and the selves from the vintage point of "up-down existence",
humanity may able to come to the point that each cultural heritage has its own
64
Er, Yavuz, New Approaches in Religious Education in the Process of Globalization
flavor, favor, and flower; hence, each constitutes of a unique tatter in such a
universal human heritage, namely, the Bunch.
For the sake of brevity, the educational programs of the new Globalized
ИБwalledclasses" are ЗВ be iБ accВrd wiЗh Зhe maЗerial, ЗechБВlВgical, aБd
cultural developments of the world. While time and space are wrapped rapidly
through the towering breakthroughs of civilizational, educational spaces and
selves are to be so, too. Yet, this convolution process is to be in accordance with
our humane values and epistême. This is possible via the Bunch Model. In other
words, the technique of phenomenological reading of existence, being, selves,
and the cosmos are to be put into practice in order to understand, recognize,
and communicate with the "other".
III. Epilogue
)БcreasiБg develВГmeБЗs iБ Зhe areas Вf ЗechБê skill , arЗ , iББer fire iБ
humankind), of its logical expression, i.e., technology, and of its ramifications
(communication, health and sportive activities, touristic engagements, etc.)
convoluted traditional modalities and forms of time, space, the self,
eБvirВБmeБЗ, aБd Зhe cВsmВs. NВw, iБ Зhe БasceБЗ GlВbal/iНed Village maБМ
borders, well-Гreserved ГreciБcЗs, aБd sГheres have becВme blИrred bВЗh Зhe
new modus of epistême, and of technê. In such an aura, human being needs a
new model of understanding, communication, and recognition that can be
widely usable iБ edИcaЗiВБal ГrВgrams. This Бew mВdel is called Зhe BИБch
MВdel , accВrdiБg ЗВ which all hИmaБ eБdeavВrs, ВИЗГИЗs, aБd wВrks, be iЗ
material, or spiritual, are laden with unique, bona fide, and constructive
meaБiБgs . This meaБiБg fВrm a hИmaБe ЗaЗЗer cВББecЗed ЗВ Зhe ИБiversal
human values, called the Bunch, hence from this the lable Bunch Model arises.
With this firstly, and fore mostly, new generations may be brought up; thus
ЗheМ maМ ИБdersЗaБd ЗhВse ВИЗside Зhemselves recВgБiНe Зheir valИe and
hВБВr, cВmmИБicaЗe wiЗh Зheir resГecЗed heriЗages, ВИЗГИЗs, aБd gВВds.
UБdersЗaБdiБg is a mВde Вf cВmmИБicaЗive eГisЗême Зa РrИf iБ edИcaЗiВБal
sГhere. )Б ВЗher wВrds, bМ ИБdersЗaБdiБg hИmaБs caБ able ЗВ eБЗer ЗВ Зhe
inner realm of the interlocutor/s.
Namely:
1. OБlМ if we seek ЗВ ИБdersЗaБd ВЗhers —ВИr БeighbВrs —beliefs
and values, rites and symbols, can we truly understand people.
65
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
2.
OБlМ if we seek ЗВ ИБdersЗaБd ВЗhers faiЗh caБ we reallМ
understand our own: its strengths and weaknesses, its constants
and variables.
3.
OБlМ if we seek ЗВ ИБdersЗaБd ВЗhers faiЗh caБ we discВver
that common ground which, despite all differences, can become
the basis for a peaceful life in this world together.1
TВ ИБdersЗaБd , recВgБiНe , aБd cВmmИБicaЗe wiЗh ВЗher human beings,
students, individuals, etc. on the micro level, societies, nations, communities on
the macro level may resort to the phenomenological reading techniques
explained in details above through suspending all accrued prejudices, sieving
all the good and beneficial from the bad and baneful, putting empathy into
ГracЗice iБ exГerieБce wiЗh Зhe ВЗher , aБd lasЗlМ ГracЗiciБg whaЗ is valИed,
honored, and respected.
References
(addad, YvВББe Yasbeck,
, MИslims iБ Зhe UБiЗed SЗaЗes TВdaМ , LecЗure for the
UCSIA Dialogue Trilogy – Series. November.
Knitter, Paul, (1984), No Other Name?, New York: Orbis.
Lange, Dale L., (2003), Culture As The Core, USA.
Robetson, Roland, (2000), Social Theory and Global Culture, London.
SaБdersВБ, GaviБ,
ExisЗeБЗialism GlВbalisaЗiВБ aБd Зhe CИlЗИral OЗher ,
International Education Journal, V. 4, No 4.
1 ExcerГЗed frВm KИrЗ RИdВlГh, The FВИБd GaviБ SaБdersВБ, ExisЗeБЗialism
GlВbalisaЗiВБ aБd The CИlЗИral OЗher , International Education Journal, V. 4, No 4, 2004,
pp 1-20.dations of the HistorМ Вf ReligiВБs aБd )Зs FИЗИre Task , iБ M. KiЗagawa ediЗВr ,
The History of Religions, 115. See on this W. G. Oxtoby, The Meaning of Other Faiths
(Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983).
66
BALKAN
ÜLKELERİNDEKİ
DEVLET
OKULLAR)NDA
DİN
DERSLERİ
Dr. AМşe ZişaБ FURAT*
E-mail: [email protected]
Citation/©: Furat, A. Z., (2012). Balkan Ülkelerindeki Devlet
Okullarдnda Din Dersleri, Journal of Intercultural and Religious
Studies. (2), 67-109.
ABSTRACT
Religious Classes in the Public Schools in the Balkans
After the withdrawal of Ottoman Empire from the area since the beginning of
20th century Balkans divided into pieces and many different size states emerged.
Whilst wars were the main factors changing the map of the territory; social life
and as a natural consequence of this religious life have been largely affected by
the instability in administrations. Especially oppressions on the religious groups
throughout the socialist period had caused visible restrictions in their activities
more or less in every Balkan country. However, in the beginning of the nineties,
with the fall of the previous regimes in the Balkans, most of the scholarly works
started to identify new problem areas in revival of religion. Religious education
and especially religious instruction in the public schools became one of the most
fierce discussion topics. Even though the discussions which are particularly
subjected to model, content and approaches used in religious classes are still
dynamic in almost every Balkan country, it provides a very interesting example
for comparative religious education studies.
Many different factors such as historical background and socio-cultural fabric of
the society, relations between state and religion and prevailing educational
approaches play effective roles in shaping different practices of religious classes
in the schools. Giving a special emphasis on the official basis of the practices in
different Balkan countries, this paper aims to introduce and compare
contemporary models in religious education used in the area. Therefore, firstly a
general framework on religion-state relations as well as the statue of religious
groups will be presented and approach used in the religious classes will be
discussed for every country. After introducing the situation in all countries a
detailed comparison between the prevailing approaches in religious classes will
be provided.
Keywords: Religious Education, Comparative Religious Education, Balkans,
Public Schools, Religious Instruction
* Yrd. DВç. Dr., İsЗaБbИl ÜБiversiЗesi, İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
Giriş
Farklд “lkelerdeki eğiЗim faaliМeЗleri hakkдБda bilgi sahibi Вlmak, eğiЗim
sisЗemleriБi gelişЗirebilmek amacдМla gelişmeleri ЗakiГ edebilmek ve haЗЗa
mevcИЗ sВrИБlarд çчНebilmek amacдМla чrБek mВdelleri iБcelemek gibi pek çok
amaç dВğrИlЗИsИБda МaГдlaБ karşдlaşЗдrmalд eğiЗim çalдşmalarд, ileЗişim
imkРБlarдБдБ kaНaБdдğд bВМИЗla da МakдБdaБ ilişkili Вlarak, g“Б“m“Нde Гek çВk
akademik çalдşmaМa kВБИ ВlaБ bir alaБ haliБe gelmişЗir Erg“Б,
, -3).
Ülkemizde ise özellikle farklд “lkeleriБ eğiЗim sisЗemleriБiБ karşдlaşЗдrдlmasд
“НeriБe МВğИБlaşaБ karşдlaşЗдrmalд eğiЗim çalдşmalarд, diБ eğiЗimi alaБдБdaki
araşЗдrmacдlarдБ giderek daha da faНla ilgisiБi çekmekЗedir.
ÜlkemiН diБ eğiЗimi liЗeraЗ“r“ iБceleБdiğiБde, karşдlaşЗдrmalд eğiЗim
çerçevesiБde değerleБdirilebilecek çalдşmalarдБ geБellikle AvrИГa –ve hatta
AvrИГa Birliği “lkeleri– ile Amerika “НeriБe МВğИБlaşЗдğд gчr“lmekЗedir AМdдБ,
2002, 80-92; Köylü, 2012, 83. BИ çalдşmalar, g“Б“m“Нde AvrИГa Birliği Бe
kabul süreciБde bИlИБaБ “lkemiНdeki diБ eğiЗimi ГВliЗikalarдБдБ gelişЗirilmesi
ve şekilleБdirilmesi açдsдБdaБ чБemli birer kaМБak БiЗeliğiБdedir. BИБИБla
beraber, Бe МaНдk ki, Зarihi, diБi ve k“lЗ“rel aБlamda çВk geБiş bir ВrЗak geçmişi
ГaМlaşЗдğдmдН BalkaБ “lkeleriБdeki diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleri ile ilgili çalдşmalar
1
kдsдЗlд saМдdadдr. OМsa, М“НМдllar bВМИБca OsmaБlд idaresi alЗдБda kalaБ bИ
ЗВГraklarдБ b“М“k bir bчl“m“, “lkemiН ile sВsМВ-k“lЗ“rel bağlarдБд haleБ
s“rd“rmekЗedir. BИБИБ чЗesiБde, bчlge чНellikle diБ eğiЗimi açдsдБdaБ AvrИГa
ve Amerika чrБekleriБdeБ çВk farklд bir Зakдm Зecr“belere sahiГ Вlmasд
БedeБiМle de aМrд bir чБemi hak eЗmekЗedir.
BiliБdiği “Нere, OsmaБlд БдБ X)X. М“НМдlдБ başдБdaБ iЗibareБ bчlgede meМdaБa
geleБ isМaБlar, savaşlar ve bИБlar sВБИcИБda imНalaБaБ aБЗlaşmalar
БeЗicesiБde bчlgedeБ çekilmeМe başlamasдМla, BalkaБlarda Гek çВk irili Иfaklд
devleЗ ВrЗaМa çдkmдşЗдr. BИ devleЗleriБ b“М“k bir bчl“m“ чБcelikle
чНerklikleriБi kaНaБmдşlar ve ardдБdaБ OsmaБlд daБ Зam bağдmsдН hale
gelmişlerdir чrБ.
YИБaБisЗaБ,
SдrbisЗaБ,
BИlgarisЗaБ,
Bosna-(ersek . BiriБci D“БМa Savaşд БдБ ardдБdaБ bчlgeБiБ kИНeМ baЗдsдБda
SдrГ, (дrvaЗ ve SlВveБ Krallдğд kИrИlmИş, bИ devleЗ daha sВБra YИgВslav
Krallдğд Бa dчБ“şm“şЗ“r. İkiБci D“БМa Savaşд БдБ ardдБdaБ ise bчlgedeki “lkeler
1
BИ çalдşmalar arasдБda чНellikle Ömer TИraБ дБ kВБИ “НeriБe МaНmдş ВldИğИ Зebliğ
metni zikredilmelidir (Turan, 1999, 133. AМrдca M“sl“maБ çВğИБlИğИБ Мaşadдklarд
bчlgelerdeki diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleri ile ilgili çalдşmalarda da bчlgede bИlИБaБ “lkeler ele
alдБmakЗadдr. BИ çalдşmalar arasдБda Teaching for Tolerance in Muslim Majority Societies
ed. ReceГ KaМmakcaБ, OddbjВrБ Leirvik,
ve D“БМada Bir Mesele Olarak İslam
DiБ EğiЗimi ZeБgiБ,
, чБ ГlaБa çдkmakЗadдr.
68
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
sВsМalisЗ rejimleriБ idaresi alЗдБa girmiş ve bИ rejimleriБ çчН“lmesi aБcak
lд
Мдllarda gerçekleşmişЗir. BчlgeБiБ idari hariЗasдБдБ şekilleБmesiБe МВl açaБ sВБ
Зarihi ВlaМ, YИgВslavМa БдБ ГarçalaБmasдdдr.
МдlдБda SlВveБМa БдБ
bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБд ile başlaМaБ ГarçalaБma s“reci,
МдlдБda KВsВva БдБ
bağдmsдНlдğд ile sВБ bИlmИşЗИr BkН. KИЗlИ,
; GleББМ,
; BideleИx,
Jeffries, 2007).
BalkaБ “lkeleriБiБ sВБ М“НМдlda Мaşadдklarд idari değişimler, bИ bчlgede
М“НМдllar bВМИБca haМaЗlarдБд bir arada geçireБ diБi ve eЗБik grИГlarд, bИБlar
arasдБda eБ çВk da НamaБ içerisiБde bir aНдБlдk haliБe geleБ M“sl“maБlarд
eЗkilemişЗir. PВliЗik МaГдda meМdaБa geleБ kдsa s“reli değişimler ve bИБlarдБ
ВlИşЗИrdИğИ çalkaБЗдlar, bИБИБla birlikЗe, diБ ve devleЗ ilişkileriБe ve bИ
dИrИmИБ dВğal bir sВБИcИ Вlarak da diБ eğiЗimi alaБдБa МaБsдmдşЗдr.
SВsМal ve idari haМaЗla МakдБdaБ ilişkili ВlaБ diБ eğiЗimi kВБИsИ, чНellikle diБ
Зemelli çaЗдşmalarдБ МВğИБ bir şekilde gчr“ld“ğ“ bчlgede, МИkarдda da
belirЗЗiğimiН “Нere, g“Б“m“Нde чБemiБi МiЗirmedeБ ЗarЗдşдlaБ kВБИlardaБ bir
ЗaБesidir. SчН kВБИsИ “lkeler her Бe kadar beБНer Зarihi alЗМaГдlara sahiГlerse
de kendilerine has sosyo-k“lЗ“rel МaГдlarд ВБlarд kВБИ hakkдБda farklд
2
ГВliЗikalar gelişЗirmeМe НВrlamдşЗдr. BИ БedeБdeБ чЗ“r“, diБ eğiЗimi kВБИsИБda
bчlgede bИlИБaБ her bir “lkede sВБ М“НМдlda meМdaБa geleБ gelişmeleri ele
almak başlд başдБa birer çalдşma kВБИsИdИr. KИşkИsИН, karşдlaşЗдrmalд eğiЗim
çalдşmalarд açдsдБdaБ da, birbirleriБe hem çВk МakдБ hem de çВk ИНak ВlaБ bИ
“lkeler deЗaМlд aБaliНleri bekleМeБ ilgi çekici bir чrБek Зeşkil eЗmekЗedir.
BИ БВkЗadaБ harekeЗle kВБИМИ ele alaБ çalдşmamдНda, BalkaБ “lkeleriБdeki
devleЗ ВkИllarдБda verileБ diБ dersleri kВБИsИБdaki ИМgИlamalarдБ ЗaБдЗдlmasд
hedefleБmekЗedir. BiliБdiği “Нere g“Б“m“Нde diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleri Гek çВk
farklд ВrЗamda s“rd“r“lmekЗedir. DevleЗ ВkИllarдБda verileБ diБ dersleri, diБ
eğiЗimi amaçlд Вlarak açдlmдş ВkИllarda ve ВkИl dдşдБdaki mekРБlarda
s“rd“r“leБ diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleri bИБlardaБ bir kaçдdдr. Verildikleri Мer,
kИllaБдlaБ МчБЗemler, чlçme-değerleБdirme sisЗemleriБdeki farklдlдklar gibi Гek
çВk hИsИs dikkaЗe alдБarak fВrmal, БВБ-fВrmal ve iБfВrmal Вlarak adlaБdдrдlaБ
bИ farklд diБ eğiЗimi ИМgИlamalarдБд Зek bir makale çaЗдsдБda ele almak ВldИkça
güçtür (Furat, 2009, 32. Bчlgesel farklдlдklarд gчН чБ“Бde ЗИЗarak diБ
eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleri arasдБda geБel de Вlsa bir karşдlaşЗдrma МaГmaМд hedefleМeБ
2
BИ çalдşmalar arasдБda AvrИГa “lkeleriБdeki diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleri ile ilgili bilgi
verirkeБ BalkaБ “lkeleriБe de Мer vereБ “ç çalдşma чБ ГlaБa çдkmakЗadдr. BИБlar; Islamic
Education in Europe (2009), Islamic Textbooks and Curricula in Europe (2011), Yearbook
of Muslims in Europe, vol. 2, (2010) ve Religion and Pluralism in Education, Comparative
Approaches in the Western Balkans dдr
.
69
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
bИ makale çalдşmasдБda ise, m“mk“Б değildir. BИ БedeБdeБ dВlaМд
çalдşmamдНda sadece sчН kВБИsИ “lkeleriБ ilk ve ВrЗa чğreЗim seviМesiБdeki
devleЗ ВkИllarдБda verileБ diБ dersleri “НeriБde dИrИlacakЗдr. DiБ eğiЗimi amaçlд
kИrИlaБ ВkИllarda s“rd“r“leБ eğiЗim faaliМeЗleri ile М“ksek diБ чğreЗimi
kВБИlarдБдБ ise ilerleМeБ çalдşmalarda ele alдБmasд ГlaБlaБmakЗadдr.
Diğer bir hИsИs, “lkelere has diБ eğiЗimi ИМgИlamalarдБдБ ve bИ ИМgИlamalarдБ
arkasдБdaki hРkim ИБsИr ВlaБ diБ eğiЗimi ГВliЗikalarдБдБ şekilleБmesiБde Гek
çВk fakЗчr“Б rВl ВМБamasдdдr. BИ fakЗчrler bir ЗarafЗaБ karşдlaşЗдrmalд eğiЗim ve
dВlaМдsдМla da diБ eğiЗimi araşЗдrmalarдБдБ sдБдr ve içerikleriБiБ belirleБmesiБde
eЗkili ВlИrkeБ diğer ЗarafЗaБ da МaГдlaБ araşЗдrmalar bИ fakЗчrleriБ her biriБiБ
aБlam ve чБemiБi aБlaМabilmeМi sağlamakЗadдr.
Bahsedilen faktörler din eğiЗimcileri ЗarafдБdaБ, beБimsedikleri Мaklaşдmlarla
da ilişkili Вlarak, farklд şekillerde sдБдflaБdдrдlmдşЗдr. ÖrБeğiБ “Бl“ diБ eğiЗimcisi
(Иll a gчre; ЗВГlИmlarдБ diБ eğiЗimi mВdelleriБiБ ВlИşЗИrИlmasдБda eЗkili ВlaБ
fakЗчrler
diБi demВgrafik МaГд,
diБi ve sek“ler ИБsИrlar arasдБdaki
ilişkiler,
Зarihi geleБekler,
devleЗ ВkИllarдБda verileБ diБ eğiЗimiБiБ
МaГдsд ve amacдdдr (Иll,
. GlВballeşme ve karşдlaşЗдrmalд diБ eğiЗimi
çalдşmalarдМla ЗaБдБaБ DaИБ
,
ise, glВballeşme чБcesinde din
eğiЗimiБiБ iki Зemel fakЗчr ЗarafдБdaБ şekilleБdiğiБi ifade eЗmekЗedir:
TВГlИmlarдБ k“lЗ“rel karakЗerisЗikleri ve DiБ-devleЗ arasдБdaki ilişkiler. YiБe,
karşдlaşЗдrmalд diБ eğiЗimi çalдşmalarд ile “Б kaНaБaБ diğer bir diБ eğiЗimcisi
Peter SchreiБer
;
“lkeБiБ diБi cВğrafМasдБд,
diБiБ ЗВГlИmdaki rВl
ve değeriБi,
eğiЗim sisЗemiБiБ МaГдsдБд, ЗarihçesiБi ve ГВliЗikasдБд
AvrИГa daki diБ eğiЗimiБi şekilleБdireБ Зemel fakЗчrler Вlarak ЗaБдmlamakЗadдr.
DiБ eğiЗimi gibi ilahiМaЗ bilimlerinden toplum bilimlerine, hukuktan iktisadi
bilimlere kadar çВk geБiş bir akademik disiГliБler МelГaНesi ile ilişkili ВlaБ bir
alaБдБ farklд cВğrafМa ve k“lЗ“rlerde МВrИmlaБдş şekilleriБdeki farklдlaşmaМд
sadece bИ fakЗчrlerle açдklamak m“mk“Б gчr“БmemekЗedir. YaГдlaБ
araşЗдrmalar iБceleБdiğiБde –içerisiБde Гek çВk eksiklik ile gelişЗirilmeМe açдk
МчБleri barдБdдrдМВrsa da– ВrЗaМa aşağдdaki gibi ИНИБ bir lisЗe çдkmakЗadдr.
). İÇ FAKTÖRLER
1. Teolojik Unsurlar: İБaБдlaБ diБiБ МaГдsal чНellikleri
2. Pedagojik Unsurlar:
a. EğiЗim ГВliЗikasдБдБ ВlИşmasдБda eЗkili ВlaБ hИsИslar
b. EğiЗim sisЗemiБiБ МaГдsд
3. Siʼasi ve İdari Yapı:
a. Din-devleЗ ilişkisi
70
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
b. DiБi grИГlarдБ sЗaЗ“s“
c. MevcИЗ МчБeЗimiБ diБ ve eğiЗim algдsд
d. DevleЗiБ geleceğe МчБelik ВlИşЗИrdИğИ ГВliЗikalar içerisiБde
dine ve dВlaМдsдМla da diБ eğiЗimiБe М“kleБeБ aБlam
4. Tarihi ve Sosyo-K“lt“rel Yapı:
a. BчlgeБiБ demВgrafik чНellikler Б“fИsИБ diБ, eğiЗim,
ciБsiМeЗ, eğiЗim ve maddi dИrИm gibi ГarameЗrelere gчre
dağдlдmд
b. TВГlИmИБ Зarihi s“reç içerisiБde ВlИşaБ k“lЗ“rel geleБeği
c. TВГlИm içerisiБdeki grИГlar arasдБdaki ilişkiler
d. TВГlИmsal hafдНaМд ВlИşЗИraБ Зarihi Зecr“beler
)). D)Ş FAKTÖRLER
5. Uluslararası antlaşmalar ve ʼaptırımlar
6. K“reselleşme ve toplumlar “zerindeki etkileri
YИkarдda verileБ lisЗede Мer alaБ her başlдğд deЗaМlarдyla incelemek, müstakil
birer makaleБiБ kВБИsИ Вlacak geБişlikЗedir; daha чБce de belirЗildiği gibi,
karşдlaşЗдrmalд aБaliН МaГmaМд hedefleМeБ bИ makale çerçevesiБde Бe МaНдk ki
З“m bИ başlдklarдБ ele alдБmasд m“mk“Б değildir. BИ БedeБdeБ чЗ“r“
çalдşmamдНda, çВk geБel haЗlarдМla kВБИ edileБ “lkeler hakkдБda geБel bilgiler
verildikten sonra din-devleЗ ilişkileri ve diБi grИГlarдБ dИrИmИ ele alдБacakЗдr.
ArdдБdaБ, devleЗ ВkИllarдБdaki diБ dersleriБde beБimseБeБ Зemel Мaklaşдm
incelenecek ve –mevcut ise– İslam diБ dersleri “НeriБde dИrИlacakЗдr.
ÇalдşmaБдБ sВБИç bчl“m“Бde ise, “lkelerdeki ИМgИlamalar karşдlaşЗдrдlarak
mevcИЗ dИrИmИБ Зahlili МaГдlacakЗдr. Ek Вlarak sИБИlaБ hariЗa ile de kВБИБИБ
sВmИЗ bir şekilde ВrЗaМa kВБИlmasд hedefleБmekЗedir.
KВБИМa giriş mahiМeЗi ЗaşдМaБ bИ çalдşma ile ИmИd ediМВrИН ki ilerleМeБ Мдllarda
diБ eğiЗimiБiБ diБamikleri “НeriБe çalдşacak araşЗдrmacдlar içiБ AvrИГa Birliği
ve Amerika dдşдБda deЗaМlд bir şekilde iБceleБmeМi bekleМeБ ilgiБç ve bir В
kadar da Нevkli bir çalдşma alaБдБдБ bИlИБdИğИ ЗaБдЗдlabilecekЗir.
3
1. Yunanistan
X)X. М“НМдlдБ başдБdaБ iЗibareБ milliМeЗçilik fikirleriБiБ МaМgдБlaşЗдğд ve içiБde
OsmaБlд Мa karşд isМaБlarдБ başladдğд YИБaБisЗaБ, BalkaБlar da OsmaБlд daБ
3
Çalдşma esБasдБda kВБИ edileБ “lkeleriБ sдralaБmasдБda cВğrafi МakдБlдk esas Вlarak
alдБmдşЗдr. AМrдca ВrЗak geçmişleri ВlaБ “lkelerdeki ИМgИlamalar (örn. Eski Yugoslav
“lkeleri bir arada ЗaБдЗдlarak daha kВlaМ bir şekilde aБlaşдlmasд hedefleБmişЗir.
71
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
bağдmsдНlдğдБд kaНaБaБ ilk bчlge ВlmИşЗИr
–EdirБe AБЗlaşmasд KИЗlИ,
2007, 50- . G“Б“m“Нde YИБaБisЗaБ дБ bir Гarçasд ВlaБ BaЗд TrakМa bчlgesi
ise,
BalkaБ Savaşlarд Бa kadar OsmaБlд idaresi alЗдБda kalmдş, akabiБde
чБcelikle BИlgarisЗaБ a bдrakдlmдş, ). D“БМa Savaşд БдБ ardдБdaБ da kдsa s“reБ
özerk dчБemdeБ sВБra YИБaБisЗaБ idaresiБe geçmişЗir. KИrЗИlИş Savaşд БдБ
sВБИБda imНalaБaБ LВНaБ AБЗlaşmasд ise
МВğИБ T“rk Б“fИsИБ Мaşadдğд
bчlgeБiБ kaderiБi ЗamameБ değişЗirmişЗir. AБЗlaşmaБдБ şarЗlarдБa gчre Б“fИs
m“badelesiБdeБ hariç bдrakдlaБ bчlgede МaşaМaБ T“rkler aНдБlдk sЗaЗ“s“Бe
geçmişЗir.
4
Her ne kadar devlet dini veya etnik gruplara ait istatistikleri tutmuyorsa da,
g“Б“m“Нde YИБaБisЗaБ дБ eБ b“М“k aНдБlдk grИbИБИ ВlИşЗИraБ BaЗд TrakМa
bчlgesiБde МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБ Б“fИsИБ
.
ilР
.
arasдБda ВldИğИ
tahmin edilmektedir. Bu grup içerisine Müslüman Türkler, Pomaklar ve
ÇiБgeБeler dahildir. BИБlarдБ dдşдБda, YИБaБisЗaБ дБ AЗЗika bчlgesiБde ağдrlдklд
Вlarak ArБavИЗlИk, OrЗadВğИ, G“БeМ AsМa ve DВğИ Afrika daБ gчç edeБ
.
deБ faНla M“sl“maБдБ Мaşadдğд çalдşmalarda НikredilmekЗedir Greece,
5
International Religious Freedom Report, 2011).
МдlдБda YИБaБisЗaБ дБ
ЗВГlam Б“fИsИБИБ .
.
ВldИğИ d“ş“Б“ld“ğ“Бde bИ ВraБдБ Мaklaşдk %
ВldИğИ aБlaşдlmakЗadдr Monthly Statistical Bulletin, 2012, 12). Nüfusun geri
kalaБ bчl“m“ ise ağдrlдklд Вlarak ВrЗВdВks (дrisЗiМaБlardaБ ВlИşmakЗadдr.
YИБaБisЗaБ BalkaБ “lkeleriБiБ aksiБe resmi bir diБe sahiГЗir. YaГдlaБ Гek çВk
değişikliğe rağmeБ haleБ М“r“rl“kЗe ВlaБ
AБaМasasд Бa gчre DВğИ
Ortodoks iБaБcд, devleЗiБ resmi diБidir The Constitution of Greece, 1975, 28).
YИБaБ OrЗВdВks Kilisesi de, Мasal bir sЗaЗ“Мe sahiГ ВlИГ hИkИki açдdaБ З“Нel
kişilik h“km“Бdedir. AБaМasal Вlarak garaБЗi alЗдБa alдБaБ diБ чНg“rl“kleri
iБaБç ve ibadeЗ чНg“rl“ğ“ bчlgede mevcut bulunan bütün dinleri, dini
grИГlarд ve aЗeisЗ iБaБçlarд kaГsarkeБ, b“З“Б biliБeБ diБleriБ З“Нel kişiliklere
sahiГ Вlarak eşiЗ ve faaliМeЗleriБi s“rd“rmede чНg“r ВldИklarд ifade
edilmektedir (m. 13) (Bkz. Papastathis, 2008, 275-296).
Anayasada belirtilen din-devleЗ ilişkileri, dВğal Вlarak eğiЗim alaБдБda da
МaБsдmalarдБд bИlmИşЗИr. VaЗaБdaşlarдБ milli ve diБi iБaБçlarдБд
şekilleБdirmeБiБ devleЗiБ gчrevi ВldИğИБИ kabИl edeБ bir eğiЗim felsefesiБe
4
BaЗд TrakМa T“rkleriБiБ sЗaЗ“leri ve Мaşadдklarд sВrИБlarдБa ilişkiБ EreБ iБ YИБaБisЗaБBaЗд TrakМa T“rkleri
çalдşmasд ile (aЗiГВğlИ БИБ AB Üʼesi Yunanistan ın Etnik
Dokusu İçinde Batı Trakʼa T“rkleri Azınlığın Sorunlarına Tarihsel ve G“ncel Yaklaşımlar
isimli çalдşmalarдБda deЗaМlд bilgi bИlИБmakЗadдr.
5
Rakamlar resmi kaМБaklardaБ ЗemiБ edilmediğiБdeБ dВlaМд, verileБ bilgileriБ kesiБlik
içermediği ИБИЗИlmamalдdдr.
72
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
sahip olan ülkede, ilk ve orta dereceli okullarda DВğИ OrЗВdВks kilisesi geleБeği
6
ve dВgmasдБa ИМgИБ Вlarak НВrИБlИ diБ dersi verilmekЗedir m.
.
KВБfesМВБel bir МaГдМa sahiГ ВlaБ bИ dersiБ чğreЗmeБleriБiБ maaşд devleЗ
ЗarafдБdaБ verilmekЗe; m“fredaЗlarд ise OrЗВdВks Kilisesi ЗarafдБdaБ
haНдrlaБmakЗadдr. Diğer diБlere meБsИГ чğreБciler ise, diБ чНg“rl“ğ“ ilkesiБe
ИМgИБ Вlarak, bИ dersleri almak НВrИБda değillerdir PaГasЗaЗhis,
,
.
YИБaБisЗaБ da diБ eğiЗimi ile ilgili чБemli bir hИsИs da, M“sl“maБlara ilişkiБ
isЗisБai bir dИrИmИБ varlдğдdдr. BИ da, hИkИki aБlamda farklд sЗaЗ“lere sahiГ iki
M“sl“maБ grИГ ile ilgilidir. BИ grИГlardaБ biriБcisi, МИkarдda da dile geЗirildiği
“Нere, LВНaБ AБЗlaşmasд ile haklarд kВrИБaБ BaЗд TrakМa M“sl“maБlarд; ikiБcisi
ise
lд МдllardaБ iЗibareБ farklд “lkelerdeБ YИБaБisЗaБ a gчç edeБ
M“sl“maБlardдr Ziaka,
,
. BaЗд TrakМa dдşдБda МaşaМaБlar
M“sl“maБlara devleЗ ВkИllarдБda diБ eğiЗimi verilmesi ile ilgili herhaБgi bir
d“НeБleme mevcИЗ değil ise de, BaЗд TrakМa da МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБlarдБ dИrИmИ
farklдdдr. BИradaki M“sl“maБlar, ИlИslar arasд aБЗlaşmalarla haklarд kВrИБaБ
bir aНдБlдk grИbИ ВldИklarдБdaБ dВlaМд, her Бe kadar ИМgИlamada ciddi sВrИБlar
gчr“l“МВrsa da, diБ eğiЗimi T“rkçe eğiЗim ile ilişkileБdirilerek aНдБlдk haklarд
arasдБda kabИl edilmekЗedir (Eren, 1998, 220-225; Benincasa, 2004, 267).
2. Bulgaristan
1877OsmaБlд RИs Savaşд ve sВБrasдБda imНalaБaБ BerliБ AБЗlaşmasд,
BalkaБ “lkeleriБiБ b“М“k bir bчl“m“ içiБ ВldИğИ gibi BИlgarisЗaБ içiБ de adeЗa
bir milaЗ Зeşkil eЗmiş ve aБЗlaşmaБдБ h“k“mleri dВğrИlЗИsИБda bчlge чНerklik
kaНaБmдşЗдr G“БaМ,
,
. OsmaБlд БдБ BИlgarisЗaБ daБ çekilişi
sonucunda bölge hem idari hem de sosyo-k“lЗ“rel açдdaБ чБemli bir değişim
geçirmeМe başlamдşЗдr. )). D“БМa Savaşд БдБ sВБrasдБda kИrИlaБ kВm“БisЗ rejim
dчБemiБde З“m diБi grИГlar “НeriБde МВğИБ baskдlar ИМgИlaБmaМa başlaБmдş
ve bИ s“reç içerisiБde bчlgede МaşaМaБ T“rkleriБ aНдmsaБamaМacak bir
çВğИБlИğИ T“rkiМe Мe gчç eЗmek НВrИБda bдrakдlmдşЗдr Şimşir,
,
-248).
МдlдБda МaГдlaБ sВБ Б“fИs saМдmдna göre 7.364.570 olan Bulgaristan
nüfusunun %
sдБд .
.
OrЗВdВkslar ВlИşЗИrИrkeБ, bчlgede sadece
6
DiБ eğiЗimi Мдl s“reБ ilkчğreЗimiБ . sдБдfдБdaБ ВrЗaчğreЗimiБ sВБ sдБдfдБa kadar
.
sдБдf hafЗada НВrИБlИ Вlarak iki saaЗ Вlarak verilmekЗe, sВБ sдБдfЗa ise
saaЗe
d“şmekЗedir. BkН. TeachiБg aБd LearБiБg iБ PrimarМ Education, Lower Secondary
Education and General Upper Secondary Education, https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/
mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Greece:Teaching_and_Learning_in_Primary_Education (Son
erişim Зarihi: . .
73
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
% ,
.
KaЗВlik ve % ,
ВraБдБda
.
PrВЗesЗaБ Б“fИs
МaşamakЗadдr. N“fИs saМдmдБdaБ elde edileБ sВБИçlar, Б“fИsИБ % , lik
(577.139) bölüm“Б“Б M“sl“maБ ВldИğИБИ ifade eЗmekЗedir 2011 Population
Census in the Republic of Bulgaria, 3-4 . EЗБik dağдlдma ilişkiБ isЗaЗisЗikleriБ
“lkede МaşaМaБ T“rkleriБ Б“fИsИБ % iБi 588.318) ВlИşЗИrdИğИБИ gчsЗermesi,
Müslüman nüfusun çok büyük bir bölümünün T“rk ВldИğИБИ
d“ş“Бd“rmekЗedir. Bчlgedeki Б“fИs değişimleri “НeriБe МaГдlaБ çalдşmalar,
ülkeБiБ МчБeЗimiБde МaşaБaБ çalkaБЗдlar ve seБeler s“reБ gчçleriБ sВБИcИБda
bчlgedeki Б“fИs МaГдsдБдБ farklд diБlere meБsИГ kişiler ve чНellikle de T“rk
nüfus aleyhine değişЗiğiБi gчsЗermekЗedir Şimşir,
,
-416).
KВm“БisЗ rejimiБ çчkmesiБiБ ardдБdaБ kabИl edileБ ve haleБ geçerliliğiБi
kВrИМaБ
AБaМasasд, BИlgarisЗaБ daki diБ чНg“rl“kleriБi kesiБ bir şekilde
garaБЗi alЗдБa almдşЗдr m. ve
. BИ aБlamda, AБaМasa БдБ . maddesi diБdevleЗ ilişkisi ile ilgili dчrЗ hИsИsИБ alЗдБд çiНmekЗedir:
(erhaБgi bir diБiБiБ
icrasд kдsдЗlaБamaН;
DiБi kИrИmlar devleЗЗeБ bağдmsдНdдr;
DВğИ OrЗВdВks
iБaБcд BИlgarisЗaБ CИmhИriМeЗi БiБ geleБeksel diБi Вlarak kabИl edilir ve (4)
DiБi kИrИm ve ЗВГlИlИklar ile diБi iБaБçlar ГВliЗik amaçlar içiБ kИllaБдlamaН
(Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria,
. DВlaМдsдМla aБaМasa bir ЗarafЗaБ
diБ ve devleЗ aМrдmд ilkesiБi beБimserkeБ, diğer ЗarafЗaБ da OrЗВdВkslИğИ
geleneksel diБ Вlarak ЗaБдmlamakЗadдr. OrЗВdВks Kilisesi Бe verilmiş ВlaБ bИ
чНel kВБИm,
МдlдБda kabИl edileБ MeНheГler KaБИБИ Бda da
görülmektedir.
7
DiБ чНg“rl“kleri, diБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leri ve faaliМeЗ alaБlarдБд deЗaМlд bir
şekilde ЗaБдmlaМaБ MeНheГler KaБИБИ, diБi grИГlarдБ kaБИБИБ bildirdiği
hИsИslarд МeriБe geЗirerek З“Нel kişilik kaНaБabilecekleriБi belirЗmekЗedir m.
. AМБд kaБИБ, kaМдЗlд diБi grИГlarдБ mevcИЗ hИkИki d“НeБlemelere ИМgИБ bir
şekilde eğiЗim kИrИmlarд açabilecekleriБi de ifade etmektedir (m. 33).
8
DevleЗ ВkИllarдБda verileБ diБ dersleriБe ilişkiБ d“НeБlemeler ise kВm“БisЗ
rejimiБ
МдlдБda ВkИllarda diБ dersiБi ЗamameБ МasaklamasдБдБ ardдБdaБ
ancak 1997eğiЗim-чğreЗim МдlдБda diБ dersi verilmesiМle МeБideБ
gündeme gelebilmişЗir EvsЗaЗiev, Makariev,
,
-661). Bu tarihte seçmeli
7
PeЗkВf ИБ ChИrch-State Relations under the Bulgarian Denominations Act 2002:
Religious Pluralism and Established Church and the Impact of Other Models of Law on
ReligiВБ , isimli çalдşmasдБda kВБИ “НeriБe geБiş bir ЗarЗдşma bИlИБmakЗadдr
,
316-319).
8
Durham ve Ferrari, Laws on Religion and the State in Post-Communist Europe isimli
çalдşmalarдБda sчН edileБ meНheГler kaБИБИБИБ Зam meЗБiБi vermişlerdir
,
92).
74
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
Вlarak ders ГrВgramlarдБa ekleБeБ diБ dersiБiБ НВrИБlИ seçmeli haliБe
geЗirilmesi içiБ baНд girişimlerde bИlИБИlmИş ise de, aБcak МИkarдda НikredileБ
MeНheГler KaБИБИ БИБ МaМдБlaБmasдБdaБ sВБra eğiЗim ГrВgramlarдБa ilişkiБ
kaБИБda МaГдlaБ değişiklik ile kВБИ açдklдğa kavИşЗИrИlabilmişЗir KalkaБdjiva,
9
2008, 173). Kanuna göre din dersi, ana dil dersi ile birlikte, sosyal bilimler ve
vaЗaБdaşlдk eğiЗimi grИbИБda bИlИБaБ sekiН НВrИБlИ seçmeli alandan bir tanesi
halindedir (m. 10.4).
МдlдБda МaМдБlaБaБ bir karar ise dersiБ НВrИБlИ veМa serbesЗ seçmeli
Вlarak ВkИЗИlmasдБд, aileleriБ ЗaleГleriБe gчre ВkИl idaresiБiБ vereceği karara
bдrakmakЗadдr TВdВrВva,
,
. KВБfesМВБel Мaklaşдmд beБimseyen din
dersleri,
g“Б“m“Нde
DiБ-(дrisЗiМaБlдk
ve
DiБ-İslam
şekliБde
ВkИЗИlmakЗadдr. AБcak, dersiБ işleБişi ve чНellikle de dersЗe beБimseБeБ
Мaklaşдm haleБ Гek çВk ЗarЗдşmaМa kВБИ ВlmakЗadдr. BИБlar arasдБda devleЗ
ВkИllarдБдБ kВБfesМВБel Мaklaşдmla verilecek bir diБ eğiЗimi içiБ ИМgИБ Мer ВlИГ
Вlmadдğд, bчМle bir eğiЗimiБ чğreБciler arasдБda bчl“БmeМe МВl açдГ
açmaМacağд, aБadilde eğiЗim ile diБ eğiЗimi hakkд arasдБda farklдlдk ВlИГ
Вlmadдğд gibi hИsИslar Нikredilebilir EvsЗaЗiev, Makariev,
, 3-656).
1999МдlдБdaБ iЗibareБ merkeНi SВfМa da bИlИБaБ Başm“fЗ“l“k makamд
ЗarafдБdaБ verileБ İslam dersi de g“Б“m“Нde Гek çВk eleşЗiriМe kВБИ
ВlmakЗadдr. AБcak bИ eleşЗiriler dersiБ ЗabiaЗдБdaБ НiМade verilmesiБde
karşдlaşдlaБ sдkдБЗдlar “НeriБe МВğИБlaşmakЗadдr.
10
3. Romanya
BerliБ AБЗlaşmasд ile bağдmsдН bir “lke haliБe geleБ RВmaБМa, BalkaБ
“lkeleriБiБ b“М“k bir bчl“m“ ile ВrЗak kaderi ГaМlaşmдş ve )). D“БМa Savaşд БдБ
ardдБdaБ kВm“БisЗ rejimle МчБeЗilmeМe başlaБmдşЗдr Jelavich,
,
-29).
1
МдlдБda CeaИşescИ БИБ МчБeЗime gelmesi ile birlikЗe ise, rejimiБ sВsМal
9
KaБИБИБ
Зam
meЗБi içiБ bkН.
,
я
У
я
http://www.navet.government.bg/
assets/cms/File/normativni_dokumenti/zakoni/may_2010/ZSOOMUP.pdf SВБ erişim
tarihi: 10.08.2012).
10
YaГдlaБ araşЗдrmalar İslam diБ dersleri ile ilgili Гek çВk sВrИБla karşдlaşдldдğдБд ВrЗaМa
kВМmakЗadдr. OkИllarda dersleriБ ВkИБabilmesinin okul idarecileri ve yerel
МчБeЗicileriБiБ iБsiМaЗifiБe bağlд Вlmasд, dersiБ işleБişiБiБ maddi М“k“Б“Б ЗamamдМla
Başm“fЗ“l“ğe aiЗ Вlmasд ve чğreЗmeБleriБ МeЗersiНliği gibi hИsИslar bИ eБgeller arasдБda
saМдlabilir. Mehmed, Bulgaristan da Bir Din Eğitimi Öğretimi Kurumu Olarak İmam-Hatip
Liseleri–Beklentiler ve Sorunlar isimli yüksek lisans tezinde (2007, 27bИ karşдlaşдlaБ
Зemel sВrИБlar hakkдБda bilgi vermekЗedir.
75
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
kИrИmlar ve чНellikle de diБi kИrИmlar “НeriБdeki baskдsд da giderek arЗmдşЗдr
(Stan, Turcescu, 2007, 3. DiБiБ dВğrИdaБ devleЗ kВБЗrВl“ alЗдБa girdiği bИ
dчБemde hИkИki ЗaБдБmдşlдğa sahiГ ВlaБ З“m diБi grИГlar ve чНellikle de
(дrisЗiМaБ Kilisesi, KВm“БisЗ ParЗi БiБ ГВliЗikalarдБda bir araç haliБe gelmişЗir
(Ramet, 2004, 276. KВm“БisЗ dчБem sВБrasдБda diБe karşд ilgi ve g“veБ
giderek arЗmдşsa da, bИ dчБem g“Б“m“Нde geçerli ВlaБ diБ ve devleЗ arasдБdaki
ilişkiler “НeriБde haleБ belirleМici bir rВl ВМБamakЗadдr.
МдlдБda МaГдlaБ Б“fИs saМдmдБa gчre,
.
.
b“М“k bir bчl“m“ OrЗВdВks iБaБcдБa sahiГЗir %
nüfusunun %0,3 “ ise M“sl“maБ dдr
RВmaБМa da МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБlarдБ %
14
.
.
, iБi
11
ВlaБ RВmaБМa Б“fИsИБИБ
, =
13
.
.
12
kişi . Ülke
YiБe aМБд saМдma gчre
.
T“rk ve TaЗarlar
ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr.
BerliБ AБЗlaşmasд ile RВmaБМa Мa bağlaБaБ DВbrИca
bчlgesiБde МaşaМaБ bИ M“sl“maБ aНдБlдk grИbИ dдşдБda “lke geБeliБde az
saМдda da Вlsa
sВБrasдБda bчlgeМe gчç edeБ M“sl“maБ bИlИБmakЗadдr
(Mihai, 2010, 433).
МдlдБda kabИl edileБ ve haleБ М“r“rl“kЗe bИlИБaБ AБaМasa; “lkedeki diБ,
dil, eЗБik ve k“lЗ“rel aНдБlдklara meБsИГ iБsaБlarдБ eЗБik, k“lЗ“rel, dil ve diБ
kimlikleriБi ifade, kВrИma ve gelişЗirebilme haklarдБд ЗaБдmakЗa ve garaБЗi
alЗдБa almakЗadдr m. . AБaМasa, diБi grИГlarдБ faaliМeЗleriБi s“rd“rmedeki
чНg“rl“kleriБe işareЗ ederkeБ m.
; devleЗiБ de her diБiБ keБdi iБaБçlarдБa
ИМgИБ bir şekilde diБ eğiЗimi s“rd“rme чНg“rl“ğ“Б“ sağlamakla М“k“ml“
ВldИğИБИ ifade eЗmekЗedir m.
. AМБд madde, devleЗ ВkИllarдБdaki diБ
eğiЗimiБiБ garaБЗi alЗдБa alдБdдğдБд bildirmekЗedir Constitution of Romania,
1991).
DiБ eğiЗimiБi s“rd“recek makamlarдБ ЗesГiЗi ile МakдБdaБ ilişkili ВlaБ diБi
grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“s“ kВБИsИ,
МдlдБda МaМдБlaБaБ DiБ ÖНg“rl“ğ“ ve
11
BИcИr, ChИrch aБd SЗaЗe RelaЗiВБs ИБder Зhe CВmmИБisЗ Regime. The Case Вf
Romania
,
isimli çalдşmasдБda kВm“БisЗ dчБemde diБi grИГlara ilişkiБ
ГВliЗika ile ilgili deЗaМlд bilgi vermekЗedir.
12
SВБ Б“fИs saМдmд
МдlдБda МaГдlmдşsa da, bчlgedeki diБi grИГlarдБ dağдlдmдБa
ilişkiБ kesiБ bilgiler heБ“Н МaМдБlaБmamдşЗдr.
13
PВГИlaЗiВБ bМ ReligiВБ, RegiВБs, CВИБЗies aБd Areas , NaЗiВБal )БsЗiЗИЗe Вf SЗaЗisЗics,
Romania, http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/RPL2002INS/vol5/tables/t19.pdf SВБ erişim
tarihi: 31.07.2012).
14
PВГИlaЗiВБ bМ EЗhБic GrВИГs , NaЗiВБal )БsЗiЗИЗe Вf SЗaЗisЗics, RВmaБia,
http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/RPL2002INS/vol5/tables/t20.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi:
31.07.2012).
76
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
15
MeНheГleriБ GeБel SЗaЗ“s“ KaБИБИ ile açдklдğa kavИşЗИrИlmИşЗИr. Dini
grИГlar ve чНellikleriБiБ açдk bir şekilde ЗaБдmlaБdдğд kaБИБda, devleЗiБ diБi
iБaБдşlara ve aЗeisЗik gчr“şlere karşд ЗarafsдН ВldИğИ da açдk bir şekilde ifade
16
edilmektedir (m. 8). KaБИБИБ geЗirdiği h“k“mler dВğrИlЗИsИБda g“Б“m“Нde
RВmaБМa da З“Нel kişiliğe sahiГ
ЗaБдБmдş diБ bИlИБmakЗadдr. BИ diБler,
devleЗЗeБ Б“fИsЗaki МВğИБlИklarдБa Гaralel bir şekilde maddi desЗek almaБдБ
МaБд sдra, keБdi ВkИllarдБд açmak ve devleЗ ВkИllarдБda da diБ eğiЗimi
faaliyetlerini yürütme gibi pek çok dini ve sosyal hakka sahiptirler (Romania,
International Religious Freedom Report for 2011).
17
DevleЗ ВkИllarдБdaki diБ dersleri ise, CeaИşescИ rejimiБiБ МдkдlmasдБдБ hemeБ
ardдБdaБ “lkede meМdaБa geleБ değişikliklerle beraber, ilkчğreЗim ВkИllarдБda
seçmeli ders Вlarak verilmeМe başlaБmдşЗдr
. KВБИ “НeriБe ИНИБ Мдllar
МaГдlaБ ЗarЗдşmalarдБ sВБИcИБda
МдlдБda çдkarдlaБ eğiЗim kaБИБИ ile
birlikЗe ders, ВkИllardaki НВrИБlИ ГrВgramдБ içerisiБe МerleşmişЗir. Ders,
ilkokullarda (1- . SдБдflar diБ dersi НВrИБlИ, ВrЗaВkИllarda
-8) zorunlu
seçmeli ve lise ve meslek liselerinde (9- . sдБдflar seçmeli Вlarak
verilmektedir (Stan, Turcescu, 2005, 388.
МдlдБda МaМдБlaБaБ Milli
EğiЗim KaБИБИ ise, farklд diБlere meБsИГ ВlaБ чğreБcileriБ diБ dersi
almalarдБдБ aБaМasal bir hak ВldИğИБИ vИrgИlaМarak, dersi almak isЗemeМeБ
чğreБciler velileriБiБ МaНдlд m“racaaЗд ile dersЗeБ mИaf ЗИЗИlabilecekleriБi ifade
18
etmektedir (m. 18). KВБfesМВБel bir Мaklaşдmla s“rd“r“leБ dersiБ m“fredaЗ
ve işleМişi de, МИkarдda da belirЗildiği “Нere, diБi grИГlar ve devleЗ arasдБdaki
ilişkilere biБaeБ s“rd“r“lmekЗedir.
Bununla beraber b“М“k çВğИБlИğИ aНдБlдk sЗaЗ“s“Бde МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБlar
içiБ YИБaБisЗaБ da ВldИğИ gibi RВmaБМa da da isЗisБai bir dИrИm sчН
kВБИsИdИr. RВmaБМa daki mevcИЗ hИkИki d“НeБlemelere gчre diБ dersi, milli
aНдБlдklarдБ keБdi dilleriБde чğreЗilebildiğiБdeБ, DВbrИca bчlgesiБde МaşaБ
Türk-Tatar toplumun din dersleri de Türkçe verilmektedir (Tanase, 2011, 210).
15
Law
/
ВБ Зhe FreedВm Вf ReligiВБ aБd Зhe GeБeral SЗaЗИs Вf DeБВmiБaЗiВБs ,
http://www.culte.ro/DocumenteDownload.aspx?id=730 SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
16
AБdrescИ RВmaБia s New Law ВБ ReligiВИs FreedВm aБd ReligiВИs DeБВmiБaЗiВБs
(2008, 139isimli çalдşmasдБda kaБИБ ile ilgili geБiş МВrИmlara Мer vermekЗedir.
17
DevleЗ ЗarafдБdaБ ЗaБдБmдş diБleriБ g“Бcel lisЗesi içiБ bkН. MiБisЗerИl CИlЗИrii şi
Cultelor, http://www.culte.ro/DocumenteHtml.aspx? keyword=biserici-culte (Son
erişim Зarihi: . .
.
18
KaБИБИБ Зam meЗБi içiБ bkН. Legea edИcaЗiei БaЗiВБale. Legea Бr. /
Oficial al Romaniei, Anul 179 (XXIII), nr. 18, 10 ianuarie 2011, 1-64.
77
, MВБiЗВrИl
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
BИБИБ dдşдБda hИkИki alЗ МaГдsд mevcИЗ ise de, devleЗ ВkИllarдБda İslam diБiБe
hasredilmiş herhaБgi bir diБ dersi bИlИБmamakЗadдr TaБase,
,
.
4. Slovenya
UНИБ Мдllar bВМИБca AvИsЗИrМa-Macaristan idaresi içerisinde kalan Slovenya,
diğer eski YИgВslav “lkeleriБdeБ sВsМВ-k“lЗ“rel МaГдsд açдsдБdaБ чБemli
farklдlдklar gчsЗermekЗedir Jelavich,
,
- . XV))). М“НМдldaБ iЗibareБ
Avusturya-MacarisЗaБ İmГaraЗВrlИğИ Бda JВsefaБiНm felsefesiБiБ eЗkisiМle
beraber diğer diБlere meБsИГ ВlaБlara diБ чНg“rl“kleri verilmeМe başlamдş
BereБger,
,
; dВğal Вlarak bИ da SlВveБМa Мд eЗkilemişЗir. YИgВslavМa
DevleЗi dчБemiБde SlВveБМa da чНellikle diБi чНg“rl“kler açдsдБdaБ ВlИmsИН
gelişimler МaşaБmдşsa da )vaБc,
,
, “lkeБiБ
МдlдБda
bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБ eЗmesi ile bИ dИrИm değişmeМe başlamдşЗдr. YИgВslavМa daБ
ilk aМrдlaБ “lke ВlaБ SlВveБМa,
МдlдБda AvrИГa Birliği Бe de girmişЗir.
19
Slovenya, BalkaБ “lkeleri arasдБda diБdeБ eБ ИНak Б“fИsa sahiГ “lkedir. 2002
Б“fИs saМдmдБa gчre .
.
ВlaБ SlВveБМa Б“fИsИБИБ % , i KaЗВlik
.
.
, %
, si aЗeisЗ
.
ve % , “
.
m“sl“maБdдr.
20
21
N“fИsИБ
, si
.
ise bИ sВrИМa МaБдЗ vermek istememektedir.
Ülkedeki diБ eğiЗimi ЗarЗдşmalarдБa da БeЗ bir şekilde МaБsдМaБ bИ dИrИma
Гaralel bir şekilde aБaМasal Вlarak diБ-devleЗ aМrдlдğд ilkesi beБimseБmişЗir.
ÜlkeБiБ bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБ eЗmesiБiБ ardдБdaБ М“r“rl“ğe gireБ
AБaМasasд,
din чНg“rl“kleriБi garaБЗi alЗдБa almakЗadдr m.
ve
. AБaМasa aМБд
НamaБda, devleЗ ve diБi grИГlarдБ birbiriБdeБ aМrд, diБi grИГlarдБ eşiЗ haklara
sahiГ ve faaliМeЗleriБde чНg“r ВldИklarдБд açдk bir şekilde ifade eЗmekЗedir m.
7) (Constitution, 1991). Anayasada belirtilen din-devleЗ aМrдlдğд ilkesi ve diБi
grИГlara ilişkiБ hИsИslar,
МдlдБda МaМдБlaБaБ DiБi ÖНg“rl“kler KaБИБИ ile
deЗaМlд bir şekilde ЗaБдmlaБmдşЗдr. KaБИБda diБi grИГlarдБ З“Нel kişilik
kazanabilmeleri için hangi esaslara göre kaydolmalarд gerekЗiği
19
AНarkaБ SlВveБМa, (дrvaЗisЗaБ ve BВsБa БдБ BağдmsдНlдk M“cadeleleri ve
YИgВslavМa БдБ Dağдlдşд
,
isimli çalдşmasдБda SlВveБМa БдБ bağдmsдНlдğд ile ilgili
temel bilgilere yer vermektedir.
20
Ülkede МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБlar arasдБda ise eБ b“М“k ВraБд BВşБaklar ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr.
%
BВşБak
.
, % ,
.
%
BВsБalд .
ve %
.
ArБavИЗ
(Bajt, 2011, 312).
21
BkН. PВГИlaЗiВБ bМ ReligiВБ aБd TМГe Вf SeЗЗlemeБЗ Slovenia, Census 1991 and 2002,
http://www.stat.si/popis2002/en/rezultati/rezultati_red.asp?ter=SLO&st=8
(Son
erişim Зarihi: . .
.
78
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
22
açдklaБmakЗadдr. KaМdВlsИБ veМa kaМdВlmasдБlar “lke içiБdeki З“m diБi
grИГlar akЗiviЗeleriБi чНg“r bir şekilde s“rd“rebilirlerkeБ, kaМdВlmИş ВlaБlar
З“Нel kişiliğe sahiГ ВlИГ З“Нel kişiliklere has kИrallara Зabi ЗИЗИlmakЗadдrlar m.
23
6). DiБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leri ve diБ eğiЗimiБi de içereБ akЗiviЗeleri ile
ilgili hИsИslarд aМdдБlдğa kavИşЗИrmak içiБ devleЗ aМrдca, diБi grИГlarla ikili
aБЗlaşmalar imНalamдşЗдr.
24
YИkarдda da belirЗildiği “Нere, “lkedeki diБ eğiЗimi ИМgИlamalarд da diБi МaГд ile
beБНerlikler gчsЗermekЗedir. BağдmsдНlдğдБ ilk МдllarдБdaБ iЗibareБ diБ
eğiЗimiБiБ devleЗ ВkИllarдБda НВrИБlИ ВlИГ Вlmamasд “НeriБe МВğИБ ЗarЗдşmalar
МaşaБmдş ve чНellikle de KaЗВlik Kilisesi kВБfesМВБel diБ eğiЗimiБiБ ВkИl
m“fredaЗlarдБa ekleБmesi МчБ“Бde faaliМeЗlerde bИlИБmИşЗИr. AБcak, МaГдlaБ
bИ girişimler БeЗicesiН kalmдşЗдr Smrke, Rakar,
, . NiЗekim,
МдlдБda
kabИl edileБ EğiЗim Yasasд, devleЗ ВkИllarдБдБ diБ kВБИsИБda ЗarafsдН ve diБi
25
grИГlardaБ aМrд Вlmalarд gerekЗiğiБi ifade eЗmektedir (m. 72). Bu durum,
devleЗ ВkИllarдБda kВБfesМВБel diБ eğiЗimi verilemeМeceği ve diБi grИГlarдБ
eБdВkЗriБasМВБ amaçlд herhaБgi bir faaliМeЗi devleЗ ВkИllarдБda
s“rd“remeМeceği aБlamдБa gelmekЗedir ŠЗИrm,
,
; ČeГar,
,
23). Bununla beraber
/
МдlдБdaБ iЗibareБ her ВkИlИБ sИБmak НВrИБda
ВldИğИ, aБcak Зalebe bağlд Вlarak açдlaБ НВrИБlИ-seçmeli DiБler ve Ahlaklar
isimli bir ders bИlИБmakЗadдr.
26
KВБfesМВБel bir Мaklaşдma sahiГ ВlmaМaБ ve
22
Religious
Freedom
Act,
http://www.arhiv.uvs.gov.si/fileadmin/uvs.gov.si/
pageuploads/anglesko/zakonodaja/RELIGIOUSFREEDOMACT-koncnaverzija.zodlocbo
DZ.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
. DiБi grИГlarдБ kaМдЗlarд ve diğer işleri ile ilgili
hususlardan Slovenya Cumhuriyeti Dini Topluluklar Ofisi sorumludur. Günümüzde 43
farklд diБi grИГ ve ЗВГlИlИk kaБИБda belirЗileБ kriЗerlere gчre kaМdedilmiş dИrИmdadдr.
Liste için bkz. The State and Religion in Slovenia (2008, 139-142).
23
ŠЗИrm, ChИrch-State Relations and the Legal Status of Religious Communities in
SlВveБia
,
isimli çalдşmasдБda МasaМд hИkИki açдdaБ deЗaМlд bir şekilde
ЗarЗдşmakЗadдr.
24
AБЗlaşmalar içiБ bkН. http://www.arhiv.uvs.gov.si/si/zakonodaja_in_dokumenti
/drugi_dokumenti/ index.html SВБ erişim Зarihi:
. .
. Bu kapsamda 2007
МдlдБda SlВveБМa İslam TВГlИlИğИ ile de bir aБЗlaşma imНalaБmдşЗдr. Sporazum o
ГravБem
ГВlВžajИ
)slamske
skИГБВsЗi
v
ReГИbliki
SlВveБiji ,
http://www.arhiv.uvs.gov.si/fileadmin/uvs.gov.si/pageuploads/fotografije/razno/
podpis_sporazuma__islamska_skupnost/Sporazum_-_Islamska_skupnost_-_KONCNI.doc
SВБ erişim Зarihi: . 8.2012).
25
OrgaБisaЗiВБ aБd FiБaБciБg Вf UГbriБgiБg aБd EdИcaЗiВБ AcЗ ZakВБ В ВrgaБiНaciji iБ
fiБaБciraБjИ vНgВje iБ iНВbraževaБja , Official Gazette RS, Nos. 12/96.
26
Ders açдldдğд Зakdirde
ČeГar,
,
.
.,
. ve
. sдБдflarda hafЗada bir saaЗ Вlarak verilmekЗedir
79
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
чğreБcileriБ d“БМa diБleri ve ahlaklarд kВБИsИБdaki bilgileriБi arЗЗдrmaМa
МчБelik Вlarak haНдrlaБmдş ВlaБ bИ ders, diБi grИГlardaБ bağдmsдН bir şekilde
verilmektedir (Bkz. Smrke, Rakar, 2006, 26-27, 29-31).
5. (ırvatistan
SlВveБМa gibi ИНИБ Мдllar AvИsЗИrМa-MacarisЗaБ İmГaraЗВrlИğИ idaresi alЗдБda
bИlИБaБ (дrvaЗisЗaБ, erkeБ dчБemlerdeБ iЗibareБ milliМeЗçilik akдmдБдБ
eЗkisiБde kalmдşЗдr Jelavich,
,
- . İmГaraЗВrlИğИБ МдkдlmasдБdaБ
sВБra YИgВslavМa Krallдğд ve ardдБdaБ YИgВslavМa DevleЗi БiБ bir Гarçasд haliБe
geleБ bчlge,
МдlдБda bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБ eЗmişЗir AНarkaБ,
,
-77).
Мдlд Б“fИs saМдmдБa gчre .
.
ВlaБ (дrvaЗisЗaБ Б“fИsИБИБ % , “
.
.
KaЗВlik iБaБcдБa sahiГЗir. N“fИsИБ % , si
.
OrЗВdВks
Kilisesi Бe iБaБdдğдБд ifade ederkeБ, M“sl“maБlarдБ Б“fИs içerisiБdeki ВraБд
27
% , dir
.
. Bчlgede МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБlarдБ b“М“k bir bчl“m“ ise
geçЗiğimiН М“НМдlda BВsБa, SдrbisЗaБ ve Karadağ daБ (дrvaЗisЗaБ a gчç
edeБlerdeБ ВlИşmakЗadдr MИjadžević,
,
. G“Б“m“Нde demВgrafik
isЗaЗisЗikleriБ değişЗiği d“ş“Б“lebilirse de, Б“fИsИБИБ b“М“k bir bчl“m“Б“Б
KaЗВlik ВldИğИ ЗahmiБ edilmekЗedir.
(дrvaЗisЗaБ дБ
Мдlд AБaМasasд ise açдk bir şekilde diБi чНg“rl“kleri garaБЗi
alЗдБa almakЗa m.
ve
ve diБi grИГlarдБ kaБИБlar чБ“Бde eşiЗ ve
devleЗЗeБ aМrд ВldИğИБИ ifade eЗmekЗedir m.
Ustav Republike Hrvatske,
. AМБд madde, З“m diБi grИГlarдБ kaБИБlara ИМgИБ bir şekilde kamИsal
alaБda diБi faaliМeЗleriБi s“rd“rmek, ВkИllar, akademiler ile diğer kИrИmlar
açmakЗa ve haМдr ВrgaБiНasМВБlarд МaГmakЗa чНg“r ВldИklarдБд, bИ
faaliМeЗleriБde de devleЗiБ kВrИmasдБdaБ ve МardдmlarдБdaБ faМdalaБdдklarдБд
belirtmektedir.
МдlдБda diБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leriБe ilişkiБ kabИl edileБ kaБИБ,
aБaМasada diБi grИГlarдБ faaliМeЗleri ile ilgili deЗaМlarд içermektedir.
28
Kanun,
27
SЗaБВvБišЗvВ Prema Vjeri, PВ GradВvima/OГćiБama , Popis 2001, DržavБi ZavВd Нa
Statistiku http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/censuses/Census2001/Popis/E01_02_04/E01_02_
04.html SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
28
ZakВБ В ГravБВm ГВlВžajИ vjerskih НajedБica NN /
, http://www.zakon.hr/
z/284/Zakon-o-pravnom-polo%C5%BEaju-vjerskih-zajednica
SВБ erişim Зarihi:
. .
. AМrдca bчlgedeki diБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leriБiБ Зarihi gelişimi ile ilgili
deЗaМlд bilgi içiБ bkН. NeveБ DИvБjak, MИslim CВmmИБiЗМ iБ Зhe ReГИblic Вf CrВaЗia ,
Religion in Eastern Europe, 19/3 (1999), http://www.georgefox.edu/academics/
80
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
diБi grИГlarдБ diБi ve iç işleriБde чНerkliğiБi kabИl eЗmekЗe m.
ve DiБi
GrИГlar Sicili Бe kaМdedilmeleriБdeБ iЗibareБ З“Нel kişiliğe kavИşacaklarд
29
belirtmektedir (m. 5). DiБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“s“, meБsИГlarдБдБ eğiЗim,
daБдşmaБlдk ihЗiМaçlarд ve faaliМeЗleriБe fiБaБsal desЗek sağlaБmasд gibi
hИsИslar ise, diБi grИГlar ile aМrдca МaГдlaБ aБЗlaşmalarda deЗaМlд bir şekilde
ЗaБдmlaБmakЗadдr Milić,
, -15). Mamafih, diБ eğiЗimi ile ilişkili Вlarak
aМБд kaБИБda, чğreБcileriБ velileriБiБ ЗaleГleri “НeriБe diБi grИГlarдБ devleЗ
ВkИllarдБda ВkИl чБcesi, ilkчğreЗim ve ВrЗaчğreЗim kИrИmlarдБda (дrvaЗisЗaБ
DevleЗi ile МaГЗдklarд aБЗlaşmalar ИМarдБca diБ dersi verebilecekleri ifade
edilmekЗedir. Seçmeli ВlaБ bИ ders, kВБfesМВБel bir Мaklaşдm beБimsemekЗe ve
dersiБ m“fredaЗ ve işleБişleri bчlgede bИlИБaБ diБi grИГlarдБ ЗemsilcileriБiБ
sВrИmlИlИğИ alЗдБda s“rd“r“lmekЗedir m.
.
МдlдБda VaЗikaБ ile (дrvaЗisЗaБ da МaşaМaБ KaЗВlikleriБ eğiЗim ve k“lЗ“r
işleriБe dair imНalaБaБ aБЗlaşma bИ kaГsamda değerleБdirilmekЗedir.
AБЗlaşma, dersiБ işleБişi ile ilgili hИsИslarд –чrБ. kaç чğreБciМe ihЗiМaç
dИМИldИğИ
kişi , hafЗalдk ders saaЗi
saaЗ , m“fredaЗЗaБ sВrИmlИ mercii
(дrvaЗisЗaБ PiskВГВslar KВБferaБsд – hakkдБda bilgi vermekЗedir BВbiБac,
,
. BИБa gчre; dersiБ m“fredaЗдБдБ belirleБmesi, kiЗaГlarдБдБ
haНдrlaБmasд ve чğreЗmeБleriБiБ aЗaБmasд KaЗВlik Kilisesi ЗarafдБdaБ
yürütülmektedir (m. 1).30 AБЗlaşma, aМБд НamaБda KaЗВlik Kilisesi БiБ (дrvaЗ
sВsМal haМaЗдБda ВМБadдğд rВle de işareЗ eЗmekЗe ve eğiЗim ГrВgramlarд
içerisiБde bИ hИsИsa dikkaЗ edilmesi gerekЗiğiБi vИrgИlamakЗadдr m.
. Diğer
diБi grИГlarla МaГдlaБ aБЗlaşmalarda Мer verilmeМeБ bИ maddede belirЗileБ
KaЗВlik Kilisesi БiБ isЗisБai dИrИmИ, diБ dersiБiБ geçmişiБde de açдk bir şekilde
gчr“lmekЗedir. Kaldд ki, (дrvaЗisЗaБ дБ bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБ eЗme s“reci ve hemeБ
akabiБde devleЗ ile KaЗВlik Kilisesi arasдБda kИrИlaБ ilişkiler БeЗicesiБde ilk
МдllardaБ –
/
eğiЗim чğreЗim МдlдБdaБ– iЗibareБ KaЗВlik diБ eğiЗimi,
okul prВgramlarдБda Мer almaМa başlamдşЗдr Ribic,
,
.
31
undergrad/departments/soc-swk/ree/Duvnjak_Muslim_June%201999.pdf SВБ erişim
tarihi: 04.08.2012).
29
DiБi grИГlarдБ kaМдЗ işlemleri AdaleЗ BakaБlдğд ЗarafдБdaБ s“rd“r“lmekЗedir. KaМдЗ
şarЗlarд ve g“Б“m“Нde sicilde kaМдЗlд ВlaБ diБi grИГlarдБ lisЗesi içiБ bkН. ReГИblika
Hrvatska Ministrastvo Uprave, Registar vjerskih zajednica, http://www.appluprava.hr/
RegistarVjerskihZajednica/ SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
30
UgВvВr iНmeđИ SveЗe SЗВlice i ReГИblike (rvaЗske В SИradБji Бa PВdrИčjИ Odgoja i
KИlЗИre , http://www.nku.hbk.hr/dokumenti/medunarodni-ugovori/59-svetastolicair
h01 SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
31
YaГдlaБ aБЗlaşmaБдБ ikiБci maddesi devleЗ ВkИllarдБda verileБ eğiЗimiБ (дrisЗiМaБ
ahlaki değerleriБi gчН чБ“Бde ЗИЗmasд gerekЗiğiБi ifade etmektedir.
81
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
İslam diБ dersleri ise,
МдlдБda devleЗ ile (дrvaЗisЗaБ İslam Birliği arasдБda
imНalaБaБ aБЗlaşma ile İslam Birliği БiБ sВrИmlИlИğИБda s“rd“r“lmekЗedir. BИ
aБЗlaşmaМa gчre, İslam diБ dersi de, Katolik din dersi gibi, seçmeli bir ders olup
seçeБler içiБ НВrИБlИ dersler ile bir saМдlmakЗa, БВrmal şarЗlar alЗдБda eБ aН Мedi
чğreБciБiБ Зalebi haliБde açдlmakЗa m.
, hafЗa iki
saaЗ verilmekЗe ve
dersiБ m“fredaЗд ile dersЗe kИllaБдlaБ maЗerМal MeşihaЗ (дrvaЗisЗaБ İslam
Birliği ЗarafдБdaБ haНдrlaБmakЗa ve ИМgИlaБmakЗadдr m.
.
32
DiБ dersleriБiБ ВkИllarda verilmeМe başlaБdдğд ЗarihЗeБ iЗibareБ DiБ K“lЗ“r“
şekliБde bir alЗerБaЗif “НeriБde ЗarЗдşдlдМВrsa da, МaГдlaБ ЗarЗдşmalar herhaБgi
bir БeЗiceМe ИlaşmamдşЗдr. G“Б“m“Нde diБ dersi, ilkчğreЗim ВkИllarдБda
seçmeli-zorunlu olarak ve herhangi bir alternatifi olmadan sürdürülmeye
devam eЗmekЗedir. OrЗa чğreЗim kИrИmlarдБda derse alЗerБaЗif Вlarak Ahlak
dersi bИlИБmakЗa ise de,
МдlдБda EğiЗim BakaБlдğд ЗarafдБdaБ dersiБ diБ ile
ilişkili bчl“mleri çдkarдlmдşЗдr BВbiБac, JerВlimВv,
, -56).
6. Makedonya
X)V. М“НМдlda OsmaБlд idaresi alЗдБa girmeМe başlaМaБ MakedВБМa, X)X. М“НМдla
geliБdiğiБde МВğИБ bir şekilde BИlgar ve YИБaБ milliМeЗçilik akдmlarдБдБ eЗkisi
alЗдБda kalmдşЗдr (acдsalihВğlИ,
,
.
МдlдБda OsmaБlд
DevleЗi БdeБ ЗamamдМla aМrдlaБ MakedВБМa, YИgВslavМa БдБ bir Гarçasд haliБe
gelmişЗir.
МдlдБda bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБ edeБ “lkeБiБ, ИНИБ Мдllar s“reБ gчçler
sonucunda giderek azalan Müslüman nüfusu, günümüzde toplam nüfusun
Мaklaşдk Вlarak “çЗe biriБi ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr. Mamafih,
Зa МaГдlaБ sВБ Б“fИs
saМдmдБa gчre ЗВГlam .
.
ВlaБ MakedВБМa Б“fИsИБИБ % , i
.
.
OrЗВdВks, % , “ ise
.
M“sl“maБ dдr. Bчlgede МaşaМaБ
diğer diБi grИГlarдБ ВraБlarд ise % ila % , arasдБdadдr Popis na Naselenieto,
Domakinstvata i Stanovite vo Republika Makedonija, 2002, 334).
МдlдБda М“r“rl“ğe gireБ ve МaГдlaБ değişikliklere rağmeБ hala geçerli ВlaБ
MakedonМa AБaМasasд Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, 1991), dini
özgürlükler konusunda garanti verirken (m. 9), Makedonya Ortodoks Kilisesi ve
diğer diБi grИГlarдБ devleЗЗeБ aМrд ve kaБИБlar чБ“Бde eşiЗ ВldИklarд
vИrgИlamakЗadдr m.
. AМБд madde, diБi grИГlarдБ kaБИБlara ИМgИБ şekilde
ВkИl ve haМдr amaçlд kИrИmlar açmakЗa чНg“r ВldИklarдБд da belirЗmekЗedir.
32
UgВvВr iНmeđИ Vlade ReГИblike (rvaЗske i )slamske ZajedБice И (rvaЗskВj В
PiЗaБjima OdНajedБičkВg )БЗeresa , Narodne novine 196/2003, http://www.propisi.hr/
print. php?id=3824 SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
82
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
МдlдБda МaГдlaБ aБaМasa değişikliği ile ise maddede beş diБi grИbИБ adд
açдk bir şekilde ifade edilmeМe başlaБmдşЗдr. BИБlar; MakedВБМa OrЗodoks
Kilisesi-Ohri BaşГiskВГВslИğИ, MakedВБМa İslam Birliği, RВma KaЗВlik Kilisesi,
YahИdi Birliği ve EvaБjelik MeЗВdisЗ Kilisesi dir.
AБaМasa diБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leri ve faaliМeЗleri kВБИsИБda başka bir
deЗaМ vermiМВrsa da,
МдlдБda М“r“rl“ğe giren kilise, dini topluluklar ve
diБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leriБe ilişkiБ kaБИБ, bИ hИsИslarд deЗaМlд bir şekilde
33
ЗaБдmlamakЗadдr. KaБИБda devleЗЗeБ aМrд ve kaБИБlar чБ“Бde eşiЗ ВldИklarд
Зekrar vИrgИlaБaБ bИ ЗВГlИlИklarдБ З“Нel kişilik kaНaБmalarд içiБ kaydedilmeleri
34
gerekЗiği belirЗilmekЗedir.
KaБИБ, kВБИmИН ВlaБ diБ eğiЗimiБe ilişkiБ
hИsИslarд da açдklдğa kavИşЗИrmakЗadдr. NiЗekim . maddeМe gчre, grИГlarдБ
diБ eğiЗimi kИrИmlarд açabilecekleri belirЗilmekЗedir. BИ dВğrИlЗИda içerisiБde
İslam Birliği БiБ de bИlИБdИğИ diБi grИГlar “lke geБeliБde açЗдklarд çeşiЗli
eğiЗim kИrИmlarдБda diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleriБi s“rd“rmekЗedirler.
35
SчН kВБИsИ kaБИБИБ
. maddesi ise, devleЗ ВkИllarдБdaki diБ dersleri ile
ilişkilidir. Madde, devleЗ ВkИllarдБda seçmeli bir ders Вlarak diБ eğiЗimiБiБ
kВБfesМВБel diБ eğiЗimi
verilebileceğiБi ve dersiБ m“fredaЗд ile
maЗerМalleriБiБ sчН kВБИsИ diБi grИГlar ile devleЗ arasдБda kИrИlacak ilişkilerle
belirleБmesi gerekЗiğiБi ifade eЗmekЗedir. KaБИБa bИ maddeБiБ ekleБmesi,
daha önce МaГдlaБ başarдsдН girişim sВБИcИБda devleЗ ВkИllarдБdaБ МasaklaБaБ
33
MakedВБМa БдБ bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБ eЗmesiБiБ ardдБdaБ ilk Вlarak
МдlдБda bчlgede
bИlИБaБ diБi grИГlara ilişkiБ bir kaБИБ haНдrlaБmдşЗдr. KaБИБИБ ihЗiМaçlarд
karşдlaМamamasдБdaБ чЗ“r“
МдlдБda МeБi bir kaБИБ çдkarдlmasдБa gerek
dИМИlmИşЗИr.
ve
kaБИБИ ile ilgili deЗaМlд bilgi içiБ bkН. )БsЗiЗИЗe ВБ ReligiВБ
aБd PИblic PВlicМ ReГВrЗ: ReligiВИs FreedВm iБ MacedВБia , UБiЗed NaЗiВБs (ИmaБ
Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, http://lib.ohchr.org/
HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session5/MK/IRPP_MKD_UPR_S5_2009_Instituteon
ReligionandPublicPolicy.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
34
Ц
,
,
http://www.kovz.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/Zakon_za_pravnata_polozba.pdf SВБ erişim
Зarihi:
. .
. DiБi grИГlarдБ kaБИБi ЗaБдБmдşlдk ediБmeleri ile ilgili işlemler ise
DiБi TВГlИlИklar ve GrИГlarla İlişkiler KВmisМВБИ ЗarafдБdaБ М“r“З“lmekЗedir. К
ј
: http://www.kovz.gov.mk/
?ItemID=42E40EB470F8CD49B813D 582D5B44561 SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
35
G“Б“m“Нde MakedВБМa M“sl“maБlarд farklд diБi grИГlar ЗarafдБdaБ Зemsil
edilmekЗedir: Resmi Вlarak ЗaБдБmдş
MakedВБМa İslam Birliği ve
MakedВБМa
TarikaЗlar Birliği ile
M“sl“maБ DiБi TВГlИlИğИ ve
BekЗaşi TВГlИlИğИ TИraБ,
1999, 209-210; Koinova, trsz, 18-20).
83
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
36
diБ dersleriБiБ МeБideБ verilmeМe başlaБmasд aБlamдБa gelmişЗir. Ancak bu
girişim de aБaМasa mahkemesiБiБ kararд ile bir seБe içerisiБde devleЗ
ВkИllarдБdaki diБ dersleriБiБ МasaklaБmasдМla sВБИçlaБmдşЗдr Ebibi,
,
168).
2010eğiЗim чğreЗim МдlдБdaБ iЗibareБ EğiЗim BakaБlдğд, . sдБдf чğreБcileri
içiБ DiБlere Giriş, DiБde Ahlak ve AvrИГa MedeБiМeЗiБde Klasik K“lЗ“r isimli “ç
seçmeli dersi ВkИl ГrВgramlarдБa eklemişЗir MacedВБia, International Religious
Freedom Report for 2011 . BИ sВБ ИМgИlamaБдБ Бe чlç“de başarдlд ВldИğИ
hakkдБda elimiНde Бe МaНдk ki heБ“Н deЗaМlд bir çalдşma bИlИБmamakЗadдr.
7. Bosna-Hersek
YИgВslavМa БдБ dağдlma s“reciБde bağдmsдНlдğдБд eБ НВrlИ şarЗlar alЗдБda
kaНaБaБ “lkelerdeБ biri kИşkИsИН BВsБa-(ersek Зir Şafak,
. XV. М“НМдlda
OsmaБlд idaresiБe gireБ BВsБa,
de AvИsЗИrМa-MacarisЗaБ ЗarafдБdaБ işgal
edilmiş ve ). D“БМa Savaşд БдБ ardдБdaБ YИgВslavМa Krallдğд БдБ bir Гarçasд
haliБe gelmişЗir. AБcak
larдБ sВБlarдБda keБdi kimlikleriБi açдklaМabilme
hakkд elde edeБ bчlge M“sl“maБlarд ИНИБ Мдllar bВМИБca farklд rejimleriБ
baskдlarдБa hedef ВlmИşЗИr EmeceБ,
,
. BağдmsдНlдklarдБд ilaБ
edişleriБiБ ardдБdaБ seБeler s“reБ savaş,
МдlдБda imzalanan Dayton
aБЗlaşmasд ile sВБlaБmдş ve “lke d“БМada eşi beБНeri gчr“lmemiş bir şekilde iki
eБЗiЗedeБ ВlИşaБ bir idari МaГд ile МчБeЗilmeМe başlaБmдşЗдr.
SчН kВБИsИ eБЗiЗelerdeБ SдrГ CИmhИriМeЗi, merkeНi belediМe sisЗemi ile
yönetilirken, Bosna-Hersek FederasМВБИ БИБ МчБeЗim birimi İsviçre kaБЗВБ
sisЗemiБdeБ esiБleБerek
kaБЗВБdaБ Зeşkil edilmişЗir. AМrдca, BrčkВ bчlgesi
37
özel statü ile yönetilmektedir. İmНalaБdдğд g“БdeБ iЗibareБ Гek çВk eleşЗiriМe
marИН kalaБ DaМЗВБ AБЗlaşmasд, g“Б“m“Нde BВsБa-Hersek CИmhИriМeЗi БiБ
idari МчБeЗimdeБ sВsМal haМaЗдБa, eğiЗimdeБ diБi işleriБe kadar Гek çВk alaБda
Мaşadдğд sВrИБlarдБ da alЗМaГдsдБд ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr. KaБЗВБ sisЗemiМle МчБeЗileБ
FederasМВБ bчlgesiБiБ М“Нчlç“m“Б“Б Мaklaşдk
.
km 2 Мaklaşдk AБkara
36
KВБfesМВБel bir Мaklaşдm beБimseМeБ bИ ders, hИkИki d“НeБlemeleriБ МeЗersiНliği,
dersiБ içeriği, devleЗiБ maddi МeЗersiНlikleri gibi Гek çВk БedeБdeБ dВlaМд ИМgИlama bir
seБe sВБra kaldдrдlmдşЗдr MaЗevski, AНiri, VelickВvski,
,
-142; Veseli, 2005, 53).
37
KaБЗВБ seviМesiБe iБildiğiБde bчlgedeki idari МaГд kВБИsИБda ВldИkça ilgiБç
ИМgИlamalar bИlИБdИğИ gчr“lmekЗedir. Yer darlдğдБdaБ чЗ“r“ bИ çalдşmamдНda bИ
hИsИslarд ele almak m“mk“Б ВlmamдşЗдr. BВsБa БдБ idari МaГдsд ile ilgili (alilВviç iБ
Bosna-Hersek Devleti 1991-2011 isimli çalдşmasдБda deЗaМlд bilgi bИlИБmakЗadдr
,
53-63).
84
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
büy“kl“ğ“Бde ВldИğИ d“ş“Б“ld“ğ“Бde, bИ dИrИmИБ idari açдdaБ ve
kВБИmИНla da ilişkili Вlarak eğiЗim ИМgИlamalarдБдБ sağlдklд bir şekilde
s“rd“r“lmesi açдsдБdaБ Бasдl bir kaВЗik dИrИm ВrЗaМa çдkardдğд ЗahmiБ
edilecektir (Batarilo, Lenhart, 2007, 129).
Balkan ülkeleri arasдБda diБi ve eЗБik grИГlarдБ Б“fИs içerisiБdeki ВraБlarд
açдsдБdaБ belki de eБ heЗerВjeБ МaГдМa sahiГ bчlge ВlaБ BВsБa-(ersek iБ
Б“fИsИБa dair elimiНde bИlИБaБ sВБ veriler, savaş чБcesiБde МaГдlaБ
Б“fИs saМдmдБa daМaБmakЗadдr. BИ saМдma gчre toplam 4.377.033 olan Bosna
Б“fИsИБИБ eБ b“М“k eЗБik grИГlarдБд % ,
ile M“sl“maБlar .
.
,
% ,
ile SдrГlar
.
.
ve % ,
ile (дrvaЗlar
.
38
ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr. BВsБa da eЗБik ve diБi grИГlar b“М“k чlçekЗe birbirleriМle
чrЗ“şЗ“kleriБdeБ, eЗБik grИГlara ilişkiБ bИ bilgiler bчlgedeki diБi grИГlar
hakkдБda da fikir vermekЗedir KВvač, Smajić,
,
. ÖБ“m“Нdeki Мдl
МaГдlacak Б“fИs saМдmдБдБ savaş sВБrasдБda BВsБa da meМdaБa geleБ
demВgrafik değişimleri ЗakiГ eЗmeМe чБemli чlç“de kaЗkдsд Вlacağд açдkЗдr.
Ülkedeki din özgürlükleri ve din-devleЗ ilişkileri kВБИsИБdaki Зemel hИkИki
meЗiБler CИmhИriМeЗiБ aБaМasasд ile eБЗiЗeleriБ aБaМasalarдdдr. DaМЗВБ
AБЗlaşmasд БдБ . eki Вlarak kabИl edileБ ve g“Б“m“Нde de М“r“rl“kЗe ВlaБ
Bosna-(ersek CИmhИriМeЗi AБaМasasд БдБ
maddesiБiБ . beБdi; d“ş“Бce,
vicdaБ ve diБ чНg“rl“ğ“Б“ iБsaБ haklarд ve Зemel чНg“rl“kler arasдБda
39
40
saМmakЗadдr. AМБд hИsИs eБЗiЗeleriБ aБaМasalarдБda Зekrar ediliМВrsa da;
SдrГ CИmhИriМeЗi AБaМasasд Бda, aМrдca, diБi grИГlarдБ hИkИk чБ“Бde eşiЗ
Вlacağд, bИ grИГlarдБ diБi ВkИllar açabileceği ve ВkИllarda diБ eğiЗimi
verebilecekleri de ifade edilmekЗedir m.
. AБдlaБ maddede bИ hИsИslarдБ
dдşдБda SдrГ OrЗВdВks Kilisesi Бe ilişkiБ isЗisБai bir dИrИm da НikredilmekЗedir.
BИБa gчre, SдrГ OrЗВdВks kilisesi CИmhИriМeЗ bчlgesiБde МaşaМaБ SдrГlarдБ ve
diğer OrЗВdВks iБaБcдБa sahiГ ВlaБlarдБ kilisesi kВБИmИБdadдr.
38
SЗaБВvБišЗvВ Prema )НjašБjeБjИ В NaciВБalБВj PriГadБВsЗi ГВ OГšЗiБama , Popis 1991,
http://www.fzs.ba/Dem/Popis/Nacionalnost%20opcine%20Popis%201991.pdf (Son
erişim Зarihi: . .
.
39
BkН. DaМЗВБ Peace AgreemeБЗ, AББex : CВБsЗiЗИЗiВБ Вf BВsБia aБd (erНegВviБa ,
http://www.ohr.int/dpa/default.asp?content_id=372 (Son erişim Зarihi: . .
.
40
BkН. UsЗav Federacije BВsБe i (ercegВviБe , m. , Službenim novinama Federacije
BiH, / ; UsЗav ReГИblike SrГske , m.
ve
, Službeni Glasnik Republike Srpske",
3/92.
85
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
Ülkedeki diБ чНg“rl“kleri ve diБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leriБe dair
41
МдlдБda
aМrдca bir kaБИБ çдkarдlmдşЗдr. KaБИБ; diБi grИГlar ve faaliМeЗleri hakkдБda
deЗaМlд ЗaБдmlamalar verirkeБ, grИГlarдБ devleЗ ЗarafдБdaБ ЗaБдБmдşlдğд ve З“Нel
kişilikleri “НeriБde de dИrmakЗadдr m. . BИ dВğrИlЗИda BВsБa ve (ersek de
Зarihi Зemellere sahiГ ВlaБ diБi grИГlarдБ –ki bunlar, BВsБa ve (ersek İslam
Birliği, SдrГ OrЗВdВks Kilisesi, KaЗВlik Kilisesi ve BВsБa-(ersek YahИdi Birliği ile
kaБИБИБ М“r“rl“ğe girdiği ЗarihЗe daha чБceki kaБИБlara gчre З“Нel kişiliğe
sahiГ ВlmИş ВlaБ diğer kilise ve diБi grИГlardдr– З“Нel kişilikleriБiБ devam
eЗЗiğiБi belirЗeБ kaБИБda, МeБi kИrИlaБ kilise ve diБi grИГlarдБ З“Нel kişiliğe
kavИşabilmesi içiБ AdaleЗ BakaБlдğд Бa başvИrmasд gerekЗiği ifade edilmekЗedir
(m. 8).
42
Din-devleЗ aМrдlдğд ilkesiБe чНellikle vИrgИ МaГaБ kaБИБ, diБi grИГlarдБ keБdi
diБi ve iç işleriБi s“rd“rmeleriБde чНerk ВldИğИБИ belirЗmekЗedir m.
.
KaБИБda ileride diБi grИГlarla aБЗlaşmalarдБ imНalaБabileceğiБiБ de ifade
edilmesi m.
sВБИcИБda devleЗ,
МдlдБda VaЗikaБ ile bчlgedeki
KaЗВlikleriБ diБ eğiЗimiБiБ de içerisiБde bИlИБdИğИ З“m diБi işleriБiБ
М“r“З“lmesiБdeki deЗaМlarдБ açдklдğa kavИşЗИrИlmasд içiБ bir aБЗlaşma
43
imНalamдşЗдr. BeБНeri bir aБЗlaşma
МдlдБda SдrГ Kilisesi ile imНalaБдrkeБ,
aМБд Мдl İslam TВГlИmИ ile gчr“şmelere başlaБmдşЗдr Karčić,
.
Söz kВБИsИ kaБИБ aМБд НamaБda BВsБa daki diБ eğiЗimi ИМgИlamalarд ile ilgili
de hИkИki alЗ МaГдМд ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr. KaБИБda ifade edildiği “Нere, “БiversiЗe
чБcesiБdeki З“m devleЗ ВkИllarд ile чНel ВkИllarda verileБ diБ dersleri sчН
kВБИsИ diБi grИГlarдБ resmi Зemsilcileri ЗarafдБdaБ М“r“З“lmekЗedir m. .
МдlдБdaБ iЗibareБ BВsБa-(ersek EğiЗim BakaБlдğд ЗarafдБdaБ seçmeli
41
BkН. ZakВБ В SlВbВdi Vjere i PravБВm PВlВžajИ Crkava i Vjerskih Zajednica u Bosni i
(ercegВviБi ,
http://www.ombudsmen.gov.ba/odjeli/Zakon%20o%20slobodi%20
vjere%20i%20pravnom%20polozaju%20crkava%20i%20vjerskih%20zajednica%20u
%20BiH%20-%20Sl.%20glasnik%20BiH%2005 -04.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
).
Bчlgedeki diБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leriБdeki Зarihi değişimler hakkдБda (eИberger iБ
ReligiВБ ИБd PВliЗik iБ BВsБieБ-(erНegВwiБa isimli çalдşmasдБda geБiş bilgi
bИlИБmakЗadдr
,
-393).
42
Kanunun 16. maddesine göre, Bosna ve Hersek Adalet BakaБlдğд kilise ve diБi
grИГlarдБ kaМдЗ işlemleriБi М“r“ЗmekЗedir. BИБa gчre, МeБi kИrИlacak diБi grИГlar
bakaБlдğa başvИrИda bИlИБmakЗa ve aБcak bИ şekilde kaМдЗ defЗeriБe girebilmekЗedir.
AМrдca bkН. BВsБa i (ercegВviБa MiБisЗarsЗvВ Pravde, http://www.mpr.gov.ba/
organizacija_nadleznosti/uprava/registracije/crkve/?id=2298
SВБ erişim Зarihi:
29.07.2012).
43
NisaБ
МдlдБda imНalaБaБ bИ aБЗlaşma meЗБi içiБ bkН. Temeljni Ugovor
)НmeđИ SveЗe SЗВlice i BВsБe i (ercegВviБe , http://kuvn.org/temeljni_ugovor.pdf (Son
erişim Зarihi: . .
.
86
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
Вlarak З“m ilk ve ВrЗaчğreЗim kИrИmlarдБдБ ГrВgramlarдБa ekleБeБ diБ dersleri
(bkz. Popov, Ofstad, 2006, 74-75), günümüzde konfesyonel yaГдsдБд
kВrИmakЗadдr. KВБИ hakkдБdaki eБ sВБ d“НeБleme ВlaБ
Зarihli Bosna
(ersek İlk ve Ortaöğretimine Dair Çerçeve Kanunu Бda da bчlgedeki iБaБç
çeşiЗliliği vИrgИlaБarak чğreБcileriБ keБdi iБaБçlarдБa ИМgИБ diБ dersleriБe
kaЗдlabilecekleri belirЗilmekЗedir m. . OkИllarдБ diБi чНg“rl“kleri kдsдЗlaМдcд
herhaБgi bir eМlemde bИlaБamaМacağдБд da açдk bir şekilde ifade edeБ kaБИБda,
diБ dersleriБe kaЗдlmak isЗemeМeБ чğreБcileriБ diğer чğreБcilerdeБ
deНavaБЗajlд bir dИrИma sВkИlamaМacaklarдБдБ alЗд çiНilmektedir (m. 9) (Okvirni
zakon o osnovnom i srednjem obrazovanju u Bosni i Hercegovini, 2003).
BИ meЗiБlerle ЗeВrik aБlamda МaГдsд ve çerçevesi belirleБmiş ВlaБ diБ
dersleriБiБ ИМgИlamalarд ise, her iki eБЗiЗede farklдlдklar gчsЗermekЗedir BВsБia
and Herzegovina, International Religious Freedom Report for 2011). Din
dersleri, Federasyon bölgesinde –kaБЗВБlar arasдБdaki farklдlarla beraber–
hafЗada bir veМa iki saaЗ şekliБde ilk ve ВrЗaчğreЗimde seçmeli Вlarak verilirkeБ;
SдrГ CИmhИriМeЗi Бde ilkчğreЗim seviМesiБdeki diБ dersleriБe SдrГ чğreБcileriБ
kaЗдlдmlarд НВrИБlИ ВlИГ, (дrvaЗ ve M“sl“maБ чğreБcileriБ dersi alma
НВrИБlИlИğИ bИlИБmamakЗadдr. AМrдca SдrГ CИmhИriМeЗi ve BrčkВ bчlgesiБde
ВrЗaчğreЗimde diБ dersiБe Мer verilmemekЗedir PВГВv, OfsЗad,
,
;
Popov, 2005).
G“Б“m“Нde diБ dersiБiБ МaГдsд ve veriliş şekliМle ilgili ЗarЗдşmalarдБ s“rd“ğ“
“lkede diБ eğiЗimiБe ilişkiБ ilgi çekici bir gelişme,
МдlдБdaБ iЗibareБ
чБc“l“ğ“Б“ AGİT iБ “sЗleБdiği DiБ K“lЗ“r“ dersi ГrВjesiБiБ ИМgИlamaМa
kВБИlmasдdдr. PrВjeБiБ чğreБcileriБ iБaБçlarдБд чğreБme чНg“rl“ğ“Б“
çiğБemeМi hedeflemediğiБiБ alЗдБд чНellikle vИrgИlaМaБ AGİT raГВrlarд, dersiБ
asдl amacдБдБ diБler ve iБaБçlarд arasдБdaki МaБlдş aБlaşдlmalardaБ kaМБaklд
sВrИБlarд aНalЗma ve diБler arasд ЗВleraБsд gelişЗirmek ВldИğИБИ belirЗmekЗedir
OSCE,
, . MeНheГler/diБler “sЗ“ bir Мaklaşдmla s“rd“r“leБ bИ dersiБ,
ilkчğreЗim ВkИllarдБдБ sВБ sдБдflarд Мa da ВrЗaчğreЗim ВkИllarдБдБ ilk sдБдflarдБda
. veМa . sдБдflarda НВrИБlИ bir ders Вlarak ВkИЗИlmasд ГlaБlaБmдşЗдr.
BВsБa da kВБИМa ilişkiБ çalдşmalar МaГaБ Гek çВk araşЗдrmacдБдБ desЗeklediği
bИ ders, BВsБa БдБ З“m“Бde ise МaМgдБlaşЗдrдlamamдşЗдr Alibašić,
44
,
.
44
Alibašić, makalesiБde her iki dersiБ, diğer bir değişle kВБfesМВБel diБ eğiЗimi ve diБ
k“lЗ“r“ dersleriБiБ birbiriБiБ alЗerБaЗifi Вlarak değil, bir arada ВkИЗИlmasдБдБ başarдlд
ВlabileceğiБi savИБmakЗadдr.
87
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
8. Sırbistan
МдlдБda OsmaБlд daБ aМrдlдГ чНerk bir МaГдМa kavИşaБ SдrbisЗaБ, BerliБ
AБЗlaşmasд
ile birlikЗe bağдmsдН hale gelmişЗir ÖНkaБ,
.
MilliМeЗçilik akдmlarдБдБ çВk g“çl“ bir МaГдМa kavИşЗИğИ “lke, МakдБ çevre
“lkeleriБde МaşaМaБ SдrГlarд da eЗkisi alЗдБa almдş, МaşaБaБ gergiБlikler ve
çaЗдşmalar БedeБiМle bчlgede М“НМдllar bВМИБca МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБ Б“fИs çevre
“lkeleriБe ve чНellikle de BВsБa Мa gчç eЗmişЗir. YИgВslavМa DevleЗi БiБ varisi
iddiasдБda ВlaБ SдrbisЗaБ DevleЗi,
МдlдБda Karadağ дБ SдrbisЗaБ ile kИrdИğИ
birlikЗeБ aМrдldдğдБд bildirmesiМle Зek başдБa kalmдşЗдr Krliç,
,
-99).
Б“fИs saМдmдБa gчre ЗВГlam .
.
ВlaБ SдrbisЗaБ Б“fИsИБИБ b“М“k
bчl“m“ OrЗВdВks ЗИr % ,
= .
.
. N“fИsИБ geri kalaБдБд ise
Katolikler (%5,48 = 410.976), Müslümanlar (%3,2 = 239.658) ve Protestanlar
45
(%1,08 = 80.83
ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr. YaГдlaБ araşЗдrmalar m“sl“maБlarдБ
büyük bir bölümünün SaБcak bчlgesiБde bчlge Б“fИsИБИБ % , si
МaşamakЗa ВlИГ; SдrbisЗaБ geБeliБde МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБlarдБ % sдБдБ
BВşБaklar ve % “Б“Б ArБavИЗlardaБ ВlИşЗИğИБИ ifade eЗmekЗedir Alibašić,
2010, 457).
46
47
ЗarihiБde referaБdИmla kabИl edileБ SдrbisЗaБ AБaМasasд
dini
чНg“rl“kleriБ garaБЗi alЗдБa alдБdдğдБд Гek çВk maddesiБde ifade ediliМВrsa da
чrБ. m.
ve
, devleЗ kВБИМa ilişkiБ ИМgИlamalarд ve Мasaklarд açдsдБdaБ
eleşЗirilmektedir (Serbia, International Religious Freedom Report for 2011).
AБaМasaБдБ
. maddesi ise “lkeБiБ sek“ler bir devleЗ ВldИğИБИБ alЗдБд
çizmekte ve herhangi bir dinin resmi veya zorunlu din statüsünde
bИlИБmadдğдБд da belirЗmekЗedir. AБaМasa, kilise ve diБi grИГlarдБ eşiЗ ve
devleЗЗeБ aМrд ВldИğИБИ ifade ederkeБ, keБdi iç ve diБi МaГдlarдБda, kamИsal ve
чНel alaБlarda d“НeБledikleri ibadeЗlerde чНerk ВldИklarдБд da bildirmekЗe;
45
DeЗaМlд isЗaЗisЗiki bilgi içiБ bkН.
http://webrzs. stat.gov.rs/axd/Zip/VJN3.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi:
46
.
.
, Popis 2002,
.
G“Б“m“Нde SдrbisЗaБ M“sl“maБlarд ile ilgili МaşaБaБ eБ чБemli sВrИБlardaБ bir ЗaБesi
İslam TВГlИlИğИ БИБ Зemsili kВБИsИdИr. M“sl“maБlarд Зemsil edeБ iki kИrИm Belgrad
merkeНli İslam Birliği БiБ bir devamд Вlarak БiЗeleБdirilebilecek ВlaБ Sırbistan İslam
Topluluğu ve merkeНi NВvi PaНar da bulunan ve bölgede –Sancak, PreševВ vadisi, MerkeН
SдrbisЗaБ ve VВМvВdiБa– МaşaМaБ M“sl“maБlarдБ k“lЗ“rel ve Зarihi bağlarдБд
vИrgИlaМarak BВsБa daki RiМaseЗe bağlд Sırbistan daki İslam Topluluğu arasдБdaki
gerilimler günümüzde halen devam etmekte ve çözümlenmeyi bekleyen siyasi ve sosyal
sВrИБlarд beraberiБde geЗirmekЗedir MВrrisВБ,
.
47
AБaМasaБдБ Зam meЗБi içiБ bkН. Decision Calling a Republic Referendum to Endorse
Зhe Бew CВБsЗiЗИЗiВБ Вf Зhe ReГИblic Вf Serbia , http://www.mfa.gov.rs/
Facts/UstavRS_pdf.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
88
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
kaБИБa ИМgИБ bir şekilde diБi ВkИllar ve sВsМal-haМдr kИrИmlarд kИrmalarдБa ve
yönetmelerine izin vermektedir (m. 44).
48
DiБi grИГlarдБ hИkИki sЗaЗ“leriБe ve faaliМeЗ alaБlarдБa ilişkiБ ise, aБaМasa ile
49
aМБд Мдlda
Kilise ve Dini Gruplar Kanunu М“r“rl“ğe girmişЗir. Kanun,
aБaМasada belirЗileБ hИsИslarдБ dдşдБda kaМдЗlд kilise ve diБi grИГlarдБ З“Нel
kişiliğe sahiГ ВlabilecekleriБi ifade eЗmekЗedir m. . SдrbisЗaБ da geleБeksel
diБler Вlarak ЗaБдmlaБaБ SдrГ OrЗВdВks Kilisesi, RВma KaЗВlik Kilisesi, SlВvak
EvaБjelik Kilisesi, (дrisЗiМaБ RefВrm Kilisesi, İslam Birliği ve YahИdi Birliği ise
Зarihi s“reç içerisiБde МaГдlaБ kaБИБ/aБЗlaşmalar ile З“Нel kişilikleriБi
kaНaБmдşlardдr m.
. BИ diБi grИГlar dдşдБda kalaБlarдБ kaМдЗ işlemleri DiБi
İşler BakaБlдğд ЗarafдБdaБ М“r“З“lmekЗedir m.
. KaБИБ aМrдca ilkчğreЗim ve
ВrЗaчğreЗim seviМesiБdeki devleЗ ВkИllarд ile чНel ВkИllarda diБ eğiЗimiБiБ
verileceğiБi bildirmekЗe, aБcak deЗaМlara girmemekЗedir m.
. DersiБ
ИМgИlaБдşд ve sВrИmlИlarд kВБИsИ ise
МдlдБda МaМдБlaБmдş ВlaБ ilkчğreЗim
ve ВrЗaчğreЗim ВkИllarдБdaki diБ dersiБe dair МчБeЗmelikЗe açдklaБmakЗadдr.
50
YчБeЗmeliğiБ М“r“rl“ğe girmesiБiБ ardдБdaБ
/
eğiЗim чğreЗim
МдlдБda devleЗ ВkИllarдБda diБ dersi ИМgИlamalarд alЗerБaЗifi ВlaБ seçmeli bir
51
ders Вlarak başlamдşЗдr. SчН kВБИsИ МчБeЗmeliğiБ . maddesi dersiБ МИkarдda
saМдlaБ geleБeksel diБi grИГlar ЗarafдБdaБ verilebileceğiБi ifade eЗmekЗedir.
KВБfesМВБel МaklaşдmдБ beБimseБdiği dersiБ m“fredaЗд ve işleБişi gibi
hИsИslardaБ ise kaМдЗlд diБi grИГlar, EğiЗim BakaБlдğд ve DiБ BakaБlдğд
sВrИmlИdИr. ÖğreБcileriБ velileriБiБ dilekçeleri dВğrИlЗИsИБda seçileБ bИ ders,
dersi seçeБ чğreБciler içiБ НВrИБlИ hale gelmekЗedir m. . AБcak, чğreБciler
isЗedikleri Зakdirde diБ dersiБiБ alЗerБaЗifi başka bir dersi seçebilmekЗedirler
m. . (er Бe kadar diБ dersi ИМgИlamalarд başladдğдБda VaЗaБdaşlдk Dersi bir
alЗerБaЗif Вlarak ders ГrВgramlarдБa ekleБmiş ve чğreБciler bИ derslerdeБ
biriБi veМa hiçbiriБi seçmemede serbesЗ bдrakдlmдşlarsa da, ilerleМeБ Мдllarda iki
dersЗeБ biriБi seçmek НВrИБlИ hale gelmişЗir KИbИric,
,
).
48
Bчlgede bИlИБaБ diБi grИГlar ve sЗaЗ“leriБe ilişkiБ KИbИrić iБ Verske Zajednice u Srbiji
i Verska Distanca isimli çalдşmasдБda deЗaМlд bilgi bИlИБmakЗadдr
.
49
KaБИБИБ Зam meЗБi içiБ bkН. ZakВБ В Crkvama i Verskjm ZajedБicama , Sl. glasnik SR,
36/2006.
50
UredbИ В OrgaБiНВvaБjИ i OsЗvarivaБjИ Verske NasЗave i NasЗave AlЗerБaЗivБВg
PredmeЗa И OsБВvБВj i SredБjВj ŠkВli , Sl. Glasniku RS, 46 (27.07.2001).
51
UМgИlamaБдБ başlamasдБдБ ardдБda МaЗaБ siМasi ve sВsМal БedeБler ve чНellikle
OrЗВdВks Kilisesi БiБ rВl“ ile ilgili deЗaМlд bilgi içiБ bkН.
,
Е
: К
Е
,
;
Aleksov, ReligiВИs EdИcaЗiВБ iБ Serbia
,
-363).
89
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
OkИllarda verilmeМe başlaБdдğд ЗarihЗeБ iЗibareБ diБ devleЗ aМrдmд ilkesi, diБi
grИГlarдБ kaБИБ чБ“Бdeki eşiЗliği, velileriБ çВcИklarдБдБ diБ eğiЗimleri hakkдБda
karar verebilme чНg“rl“kleriБi kдsдЗlama gibi Гek çВk açдdaБ ЗarЗдşдlaБ diБ
dersleri ile ilgili
МдlдБda AБaМasa Mahkemesi Бe bir dava açдlmдş, aБcak
mahkeme başvИrИМИ reddederek ИМgИlamaБдБ aБaМasal ВldИğИБa karar
vermişЗir KИbИric,
,
; VИkВmaБВvić,
.
9. Karadağ
XV))). М“НМдlдБ başдБdaБ iЗibareБ isМaБlara sahБe ВlaБ Karadağ bölgesi, Berlin
AБЗlaşmasд ile birlikЗe bağдmsдНlдğдБд kaНaБmдşЗдr ÖНer,
. BИ aşamadaБ
sВБra SдrbisЗaБ la aralarдБda ВlИşaБ kader birliği YИgВslavМa БдБ dağдlmasд
sВБrasдБda da devam eЗmiş, Karadağ дБ
МдlдБda SдrГ-Karadağ
CИmhИriМeЗi БdeБ bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБ eЗmesiМle sВБ bИlmИşЗИr Krliç,
,
.
Bölgedeki yüz ölçümü itibariyle en küçük devletlerden bir tanesi olsa da
(13.812 km2 Karadağ дБ Б“fИsИ eЗБik ve diБi açдsдБdaБ чБemli bir çeşiЗlilik
göstermektedir.
Б“fИs saМдmдБa gчre bчlgede МaşaМaБ
.
kişiБiБ
% , si
.
OrЗВdВks, % ,
si
.
İslam diБiБe iБaБmakЗa,
52
% , “
.
M“sl“maБ ve % , “
.
KaЗВlik Зir. N“fИs saМдmдБda
İslam ve M“sl“maБ şekliБde iki grИbИБ ЗaБдmlaБmдş Вlmasд Karadağ İslam
53
Birliği ЗarafдБdaБ ЗeГkiМle karşдlaБmдşsa da, her iki grИГ ЗВГlaБdдğдБda
Мaklaşдk % lИk bir dilim aБlamдБa gelmekЗedir ki bИ Б“fИsИБ beşЗe birlik bir
54
bчl“m“Б“ ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr. ÜlkeБiБ demВgrafik МaГдsдБda gчr“leБ diБi
çeşiЗlilik diБi grИГlarla ilişkili hИkИki d“НeБlemeler “НeriБde de eЗkili ВlmИşЗИr.
МдlдБa aiЗ g“Б“m“Нde de geçerliğiБi s“rd“reБ aБaМasada diБ
чНg“rl“kleriБiБ garaБЗi alЗдБa alдБmasдБдБ m.
МaБд sдra “lkede bИlИБaБ З“m
52
DeЗaМlд isЗaЗisЗiki bilgi içiБ bkН. PВdaci Бa БivВИ CrБe GВre , ZavВd Нa SЗaЗisЗikИ CrБe
GВre , http://www.monstat.org/cg/page. php?id=534&pageid=322 (SВБ erişim Зarihi:
05.08.2012).
53
ReagВvaБje MešihaЗa )slamske НajedБice И CrБВj GВri PВvВdВm ReНИlЗaЗa PВГisa
SЗaБВvБišЗva
,
http://www.monteislam.com/novosti/reagovanje-mesihataislamske-zajednice-u-crnoj-gori-povodom-rezultata-popisa-stanovnistva-2011
(Son
erişim Зarihi: . .
54
M“sl“maБlarдБ eЗБik grИГlara gчre dağдlдmдБda ise ВrЗaМa ilgiБç bir ЗablВ çдkmakЗadдr.
BИБa gчre M“sl“maБlarдБ % , i BВşБak, % , И M“sl“maБ ve % , si Karadağlд
ВldИklarдБд ifade eЗmişlerdir. SЗaБВvБišЗvВ Гrema БaciВБalБВj ВdБВsБВ eЗБičkВj
ГriГadБВsЗi i vjerВisГВvijesЗi, PВГis sЗaБВvБišЗva , ZavВd za Statistiku Crne Gore,
http://www.monstat.org/userfiles/file/popis2011/podaci%20cg/nove/Tabela%2
0CG5.xls (SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
90
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
diБi grИГlarдБ devleЗЗeБ aМrд ВlИГ diБi ibadeЗ ve işleriБi s“rd“rmede eşiЗ ve
чНg“r ВldИklarд da belirЗilmekЗedir m.
Ustav Crne Gore, 2007). Anayasa
diБi grИГlarдБ ihЗiМaçlarдБд karşдlaМamamasдБdaБ чЗ“r“ eleşЗirilere marИН kalsa
da, devleЗ geçЗiğimiН МдldaБ iЗibareБ
hИkИki sЗaЗ“leri ve faaliМeЗleri ile
ilişkili diБi grИГlarla ikili aБЗlaşmalar imНalamaМa başlamдşЗдr MВБЗeБegrВ,
International Religious Freedom Report for 2011).
55
AБaМasaМa gчre diБ ve devleЗ aМrдlдğд ilkesi beБimseБdiğiБdeБ МaГдlaБ bИ
aБlaşmalar ile diБ eğiЗimi ИМgИlamalarд diБi grИГlarдБ sВrИmlИlИğИ ve yetkisi
alЗдБa verilmişЗir. BИ dИrИm, devleЗ ВkИllarдБda diБ dersleriБiБ verilmemesi,
diБi grИГlarдБ aБcak keБdi çaЗдlarд alЗдБda diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleriБi
s“rd“rebilmeleri aБlamдБa gelmekЗedir. İlerleМeБ Мдllarda diБi grИГlar ve devleЗ
arasдБdaki ilişkileri d“НeБleМeБ bir hИkИkИ alЗМaГдБдБ ВlИşЗИrИlmasд
dИrИmИБda değişebilecek gibi gчr“БeБ bИ hИsИs, чНellikle medМada g“Бdeme
56
geЗirilmekЗe ve diБ eğiЗimi kВБИsИБdaki ihЗiМaç vИrgИlaБmakЗadдr. Yine de,
kВБИ “НeriБe МaГдlaБ ЗarЗдşmalar devleЗ ВkИllarдБda diБ eğiЗimi kВБИsИБИБ
МakдБ dчБemde çчН“leceğiБe işareЗ eЗmemekЗedir RasЗВder, MИsЗafić,
,
179).
10.
Kosova
X)V. М“НМдl daБ iЗibareБ OsmaБlд idaresi alЗдБda bИlИБaБ bчlge, BalkaБ Savaşlarд
ile birlikЗe чБcelikle SдrbisЗaБ a, ). D“БМa Savaşд БdaБ sВБra ise YИgВslavМa Мa
bağlaБmдşЗдr Vickers,
. YИgВslavМa БдБ ГarçalaБma s“reciБde
МдlдБda başarдsдН bir girişimle bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilaБ edeБ KВsВva CИmhИriМeЗi,
ИНИБ Мдllar s“reБ m“cadelelerdeБ sВБra
Мдllarд arasдБda BM ve
NATO gчНeЗimi alЗдБda bИlИБmИş,
МдlдБda ise bağдmsдНlдğдБд kaНaБmдşЗдr
T“Мs“НВğlИ,
. Bчlgede МaşaБaБ savaş БedeБiМle g“Б“m“Нde haleБ
hassasiМeЗiБi kВrИМaБ Б“fИsИБ eЗБik ve diБi dağдlдmд ile ilgili БeЗ bir bilgi
55
BИ bağlamda İslam Birliği ile МaГдlaБ aБЗlaşmada da Karadağ İslam Birliği resmi Вlarak
ЗaБдБmдş ve kИrИmИБ iç işleri ile ilgili hИsИslar açдklдğa kavИşЗИrИlmИşЗИr. )slamska
НajedБica И CrБВj GВri i Vlada CrБe GВre ГВЗГisale UgВvВr kВjim se defiБiše ИređeБje
međИsВbБih ВdБВsa , http://www.monteislam.com/novosti/islamska-zajednica-ucrnoj-gori-i-vlada-crne-gore-potpisale-ugovor-kojim-se-definise-uredenje-medusobnihodnosa SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
56
VjerВБaИci Бema mjesЗa И škВlama , e-Balkan, 10 Eylül 2011, http://www.ebalkan.net/drustvo-svijet/8545-vjeronauci-nema-mjesta-u-kolama.html;
Vjeronauka
ГreГИšЗeБa vjerskim НajedБicama , Radio Slobodna Evropa, 28. 05, 2011,
http://www.slobodnaevropa.org/content/tema_sedmice_vjeronauka_u_skolama_
crna_gora/24208042.html SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
.
91
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
ediБmek m“mk“Б değildir.
МдlдБda МaГдlaБ saМдmda –2.100.000 olarak
tespit edilen– Б“fИsИБ % siБi ArБavИЗlar, % , “Б“ SдrГlar, % , “Б“ T“rkler
57
ve % , iБi ÇiБgeБeler ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr. YaГдlaБ çalдşmalarda ArБavИЗlarдБ
b“М“k bir bчl“m“Б“Б M“sl“maБ ВldИğИ ifade edilmekЗedir )smaili, (amiЗi,
2010, 280).
ÜlkeБiБ bağдmsдНlдk ilaБдБдБ ardдБdaБ МaМдБlaБaБ AБaМasasд Бa gчre KВsВva
CИmhИriМeЗi sek“ler bir devleЗЗir ve diБi iБaБçlar kВБИsИБda ЗarafsдНdдr m. .
AБaМasada diБi haklar ve чНg“rl“kler kВБИsИБa geБiş Мer aМrдlmдşЗдr чrБ. .,
38., 58. ve 59. maddeler . DiБi grИГlar ve devleЗ arasдБdaki ilişkileri ЗaБдmlaМaБ
. maddede ise diБi grИГlarдБ diБi ve iç işleriБde чНg“r ВldИklarд
belirtilmektedir (Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo,
. Madde aМБд
НamaБda bИ grИГlarдБ Мasalara ИМgИБ bir şekilde diБi ВkИllar kИrma hakkдБa
sahiГ ВldИklarдБд da ifade eЗmekЗedir. AБcak, diБ eğiЗimiБe ilişkiБ herhaБgi bir
ifade kИllaБдlmamakЗadдr.
Ülkedeki diБi grИГlarla ve dВlaМдsдМla da diБ eğiЗimi ile ilişkili diğer чБemli bir
sВrИБ ise diБi grИГlarдБ devleЗ ЗarafдБdaБ ЗaБдБmдşlдğд veМa resmi makamlarca
kaМdedilmeleriБe ilişkiБ herhaБgi bir d“НeБleme bИlИБmamasдdдr Kosovo,
58
International Religious Freedom Report, 2010).
МдlдБda kabИl edileБ Din
Özgürlükleri Kanunu Бda diБi чНg“rl“kler ve diБi kИrИmlar ile ilgili hususlar
kВБИsИБda deЗaМlд bilgiler veriМВrsa da, bИ sВrИБ hala çчН“me kavИşЗИrИlmaМд
beklemektedir
59.
SчН kВБИsИ kaБИБa gчre, diБ eğiЗimi amacд içiБ чНel Вlarak aМrдlmдş Мerlerde
s“rd“r“leБ diБ ve iБaБç чğreЗim faaliМeЗleriБiБ diБ чНg“rl“kleri kaГsamдБda
bИlИБdИğИ kabИl edilmişЗir m.
. YiБe aМБд kaБИБ, diБi ЗВГlИlИklarдБ
ihЗiМaçlarд dВğrИlЗИsИБda mevcИЗ kaБИБlar ile ИМИm içerisiБde Вlma kВşИlИМla
eğiЗim kИrИmlarд açmakЗa чНg“r ВldИğИБИ belirЗmekЗedir m. . ÖНel ВkИl
sЗaЗ“s“Бde ВlaБ bИ ВkИllar dдşдБda ise, devleЗ ВkИllarдБdaki diБ dersleri veriliГ
57
DeЗaМlд isЗaЗisЗiki bilgi içiБ bkН. Details for Demographic Changes of the Kosovo
Population 1948-2006, Republic of Kosovo, Office of the Prime Minister, Kosovo Agency
of Statistics, http://esk.rks-gov.net/ENG/publikimet/doc_details/521-demographicchanges-of-the-kosovo-population-1948-2006 SВБ erişim Зarihi:
. .
. 2011
ЗarihiБde МaГдlaБ saМдma gчre “lkeБiБ Б“fИsИ, .
.
dir. PВГИlaЗiВБ aБd (ВИsiБg
Census
in
Kosovo,
Preliminary
Results–JИБe
,
http://esk.rksgov.net/rekos2011/repository/docs/REKOS%20 LEAFLET%20ALB%20FINAL.pdf (Son
erişim Зarihi: . .
.
58
Woods, Religious Freedom in Kosovo: Pre-БaЗal Care ЗВ a New NaЗiВБ isimli
çalдşmasдБda kВБИМa dair deЗaМlд bir hИkИki aБaliН МaГmakЗadдr
,
.
59
Law NВ.
/L-31 on FreedВm Вf ReligiВБ iБ KВsВvВ , http://www.assemblykosova.org/ common/docs/ligjet/2006_02-L31_en.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
..
92
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
verilemeМeceğiБe dair kaБИБda herhaБgi bir ibare bИlИБmamakЗadдr. BИ ve
diğer Гek çВk БedeБdeБ чЗ“r“, diБ eğiЗimi diБi grИГlarдБ keБdi b“БМeleriБde
s“rd“r“lmekЗe; devleЗ ВkИllarдБda ise diБ dersleriБe Мer verilmemektedir
(Hamiti, 2009, 233-238).
11.
60
Arnavutluk
LВБdra KВБferaБsд ile OsmaБlд БдБ bчlgedeБ çekilmesiБiБ ardдБdaБ
bağдmsдН hale geleБ ArБavИЗlИk, ). D“БМa Savaşд БdaБ sВБra İЗalМa БдБ işgali
alЗдБda kalmдşЗдr.
МдlдБda МeБideБ bağдmsдНlдğдБд ilan eden ülkede uzun
Мдllar bВМИБca ГВliЗik isЗikrar sağlaБamamдşЗдr. )). D“БМa Savaşд ile birlikЗe ise
“lkede МeБideБ İЗalМa БдБ işgaliБe girmişЗir.
Зe EБver (Вca БдБ
başkaБlдğдМla МeБideБ bağдmsдНlдğдБ ilaБ edilmesi, “lkeБiБ ЗamamiМle МeБi bir
döneme girmesi aБlamдБa gelmişЗir AkМВl,
. BчМlelikle kВm“БisЗ idare
ЗarafдБdaБ МчБeЗilmeМe başlaБaБ ArБavИЗlИk Зa
МдlдБda ArБavИЗlИk (alk
KВБseМi ЗarafдБdaБ çдkarдlaБ karar ile diБ illegal hale geЗirilmiş ve kaБИБИБ
çдkarдlmasдБдБ ardдБdaБ З“m diБi kИrИmlar kaГaЗдlmдşЗдr TчББes,
,
.
da çВk ГarЗili sisЗeme geçiş ile birlikЗe ise, Гek çВk alaБda ВldИğИ
gibi diБi grИГlar ve diБ чНg“rl“kler de gelişmeМe başlamдşЗдr KaraБdrea,
,
26-27).
Ülkedeki diБi dağдlдmд gчsЗereБ sВБ Б“fИs saМдmд ВlaБ
Зarihli saМдma gчre
ArБavИЗlИk ИБ ЗВГlam Б“fИsИБИБ % , “ M“sl“maБdдr. 61 Günümüzde
bчlgedeki diБi dağдlдm hakkдБda Зam bir bilgi bИlИБmamakЗaМsa da, МaГдlaБ
ЗahmiБlere gчre Б“fИsИ
МдlдБda .
.
ВlaБ ArБavИЗlИk Б“fИsИБИБ
%
iБi M“sl“maБlar ВlИşЗИrmakЗadдr.
62
60
G“Б“m“Нde KВsВva ВkИllarдБda diБ eğiЗimiБiБ verilmesiБe МчБelik МaГдlaБ ЗarЗдşmalar
içiБ
bkН
Xhabir
(amiЗi,
ReligiВИs
EdИcaЗiВБ
iБ
KВsВvВ ,
http://breziiri.com/2010/10/08/ religious-education-in-kosovo/ (SoБ erişim Зarihi:
27.06.2012).
61
ClaМer, GВd iБ Зhe LaБd Вf Зhe Mercedes , The ReligiВИs CВmmИБiЗies iБ AlbaБia
siБce
isimli çalдşmasдБda bчlgedeki diБi grИГlar ile ilgili deЗaМlд bir aБaliН
sИБmakЗadдr
,
-314).
62
Arnavutluk nüfusu ile ilgili deЗaМlд bilgiler içiБ bkН. ShqiГëri, ReНИlЗaЗeЗ, ParaГrake Зë
CeБsИsiЗ Зë PИГИllsisë dhe BaБesave
N“fИs ve Yerleşim SaМдmдБдБ ÖБ
SВБИçlarд , http://census.al/Resources/Data/Census2011/Instat_print%20.pdf, (Son
erişim Зarihi:
. .
. ArБavИЗlИkЗa geleБeksel Вlarak SИББi ve BekЗaşi iБaБçlarд
МaМgдБ ikeБ g“Б“m“Нde чНellikle diБ alaБдБdaki чНg“rl“kleriБ arЗmasд ve diБ eğiЗimi içiБ
arap ülkelerine giden gençlerin ülkelerine geri dönmesinin bir neticesi olarak selefi
akдmlar da bчlgede МaМgдБlaşmaМa başlamдşЗдr Vickers,
, . AМrдca bkН. The
93
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
(aleБ М“r“rl“kЗe ВlaБ
AБaМasasд БдБ
. maddesiБe gчre ArБavИЗlИk
CИmhИriМeЗi БiБ resmi diБi bИlИБmamakЗadдr. AМБд maddeМe gчre, devleЗ iБaБç
63
ve vicdaБ чНg“rl“kleri kВБИsИБda ЗarafsдНdдr ve kamusal alanda inanç ve
vicdan özgürl“kleriБiБ ifade edilme hakkдБд garaБЗi eЗmekЗedir Constitution of
Albania,
. DevleЗ З“m diБi grИГlarдБ eşiЗliğiБi ЗaБдrkeБ, devleЗ ve diБi
grИГlar arasдБdaki ilişkileriБ diБi grИГlarдБ Зemsilcileri ve BakaБlar KИrИlИ
64
arasдБda МaГдlaБ aБЗlaşma esaslarдБca d“НeБleБeceği bildirilmekЗedir m.
.
BahsedileБ bИ hИsИs kaГsamдБda bчlgede МaşaМaБ diБi grИГlarдБ Зemsilcileri ile
65
aБЗlaşmalar imНalaБmдşЗдr. YaГдlaБ aБЗlaşmalar arasдБda diБi grИГlarдБ eğiЗim
kИrИmИ açma ve МчБeЗme haklarд bИlИБdИğИ ifade edilmektedir.
66
1995 tarihli Üniversite Öncesi Eğitim Sistemi Üzerine Kanun da da üniversite
чБcesiБdeki devleЗ ВkИllarдБдБ laik bir МaГдМa sahiГ ВldИklarд ve ideВlВjik-dini
eğilimiБ devleЗ ВkИllarдБda МasaklaБdдğд belirЗilmekЗedir m.
KaraБdrea,
67
2003, 31).
YiБe aМБд kaБИБ, diБ eğiЗimi verilebileceği чНel ВkИllarдБ
açдlabileceğiБi ifade eЗmekЗedir m.
. . Diğer bir ifadeМle “lkedeki diБ
eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleri diБi grИГlarдБ keБdi açЗдklarд eğiЗim kИrИmlarдБda
s“rd“r“l“r ikeБ, devleЗ ВkИllarдБda diБ dersi verilmemekЗedir aМrдca bkН.
Turan, 1999, 141).
Future of the Global Muslim Population, Muslim Population by Country, The Pew Forum
ВБ ReligiВБ aБd PИblic Life , http://features.pewforum.org/muslim-population/ (Son
erişim Зarihi: . .
.
63
AБaМasaБдБ . maddesiБde de aМБд hИsИs “НeriБde dИrИlmИşЗИr. AБaМasa bИ madde
ile diБi чНg“rl“kleriБi garaБЗi alЗдБa alдrkeБ, herkesiБ diБi iБaБçlarдБд ibadeЗleri, eğiЗimi
ve МaГЗдğд faaliМeЗler aracдlдğдМla ifade eЗmede чНg“r ВldИğИБИ belirЗmekЗedir.
64
BИБИБ dдşдБda diБi ЗВГlИlИklarдБ sЗaЗ“leri ile ilgili herhaБgi bir d“НeБleme
bИlИБmamakЗadдr. DiБi ЗВГlИlИklar STK Вlarak З“Нel kişilik kaНaБabilmekЗedirler Flere,
2010, 101).
65
da KaЗВlik Kilisesi,
da M“sl“maБ TВГlИmИ,
da OrЗВdВks Kilisesi,
da D“БМa BekЗaşi MerkeНi ve
da EvaБjelik Kilise ile aБЗlaşmalar
imНalaБmдşЗдr. AБЗlaşma meЗiБleri içiБ bkz. Republika e Shqipërisë, Komiteti Shtetëror
për Kultet, http://www. kshk.gov.al/?fq=brenda&gj=gj1&kid=9 SВБ erişim Зarihi:
. .
. DevleЗ İБaБçlar KВmiЗesi
daБ iЗibareБ devleЗ ve diБi grИГlar
arasдБdaki ilişkileri kИraБ ve s“rd“reБ resmi ВrgaБ Вlarak gчrev МaГmakЗadдr.
66
ÖrБ.
ArБavИЗlИk M“sl“maБ Birliği ile МaГдlaБ aБЗlaşma, m. . BkН. Për
Ratifikimin e Marrëveshjes Ndërmjet Këshillit të Ministrave të Republikës së Shqipërisë
dhe Komunitetit Mysliman të Shqipërisë për Rregullimin e Marrëdhënieve të Ndërsjella",
http://www.kshk.gov.al/?fq=brenda&m=shfaqart&aid=17&gj=gj1, SВБ erişim Зarihi:
24.07.2012).
67
KaБИБИБ Зam meЗБi içiБ aМrдca bkН. Law, БВ.
2, 21.06.1995, on Pre-University
EdИcaЗiВБ SМsЗem , http://www.see-educoop.net/ education_in/pdf/law_on_pre_univ_
educ_ syst-alb-enl-t04.pdf, SВБ erişim tarihi: 24.06.2012).
94
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
SONUÇ
İrili Иfaklд Гek çВk “lkedeБ ВlИşaБ bir bчlge ВlaБ BalkaБlar, idari ve cВğrafi
МaГдsдБdaki farklдlaşmalarдБ МaБд sдra diБ, dil, k“lЗ“r ve eЗБik kчkeБler gibi Гek
çВk hИsИs açдsдБdaБ da çВk çeşiЗli bir МaГд arН eЗmekЗedir. BИ БedeБdeБ чЗ“r“,
bчlgeМi ЗaБдmaМa МчБelik МaГдlaБ çalдşmalarda geБellemeler МaГmak haЗalд
kaБaaЗleriБ ВlИşmasдБa БedeБ ВlabilmekЗedir. ÇalдşmamдНda ele aldдğдmдН
devleЗ ВkИllarдБdaki diБ dersleri açдsдБdaБ da bчlge iБceleБdiğiБde beБНeri bir
dИrИmИБ mevcИЗ ВldИğИ aБlaşдlmakЗadдr. Mamafih, çalдşmamдН esБasдБda
МaГдlaБ aБaliНler bчlgede bИlИБaБ her “lkeБiБ, kВБИМa dair keБdi sВsМВk“lЗ“rel
МaГдsдБa ИМgИБ bir Мaklaşдm gelişЗirdiğiБi gчsЗermekЗedir. BИБИБla birlikЗe, baНд
istisnalar bulunsa da, BalkaБ “lkeleriБdeki ИМgИlamalarдБ şekilleБmesiБde
birbiriМle ilişkili iki Зemel hИsИsИБ eЗkili ВldИğИБИ sчМlemek m“mk“Бd“r.
Bunlardan birincisi, bölgenin tarihi altʼapısıdдr. Y“НМдllarca s“reБ OsmaБlд
hakimiМeЗi ve sВБrasдБda МaşaБaБ idari değişimler, BalkaБlarдБ g“Б“m“Нdeki
sosyo-k“lЗ“rel dВkИsИБИБ ВlИşИmИБda чБemli bir eЗkeБdir. ÖНellikle )). D“БМa
Savaşд sВБrasдБda idareМe geleБ sВsМalisЗ rejimler, М“НМдllar bВМИБca diБi
iБaБçlarla МakдБdaБ ilişkili bir şekilde ЗaБдmlaБaБ sВsМal grИГlarдБ b“М“k
ölç“de başkalaşдm geçirmesiБe МВl açmдşЗдr. DчБemde diБi grИГlarдБ “sЗ“Бe
kИrИlaБ baskдlar, bИ grИГlarдБ diБ eğiЗimiБiБ de içerisiБde bИlИБdИğИ faaliМeЗ
alaБlarдБдБ giderek daralmasд ile sВБИçlaБmдşЗдr.
sВБrasдБda bчlgedeki
rejimleriБ ard arda çчk“ş“Мle beraber din özgürlükleri konusunda da
iМileşmeler МaşaБmaМa başlamдş, “lkelerde diБi grИГlarдБ sЗaЗ“leri ve faaliМeЗ
alaБlarд ile ilgili hИkИki d“НeБlemeler МaГдlmдşЗдr. BИБИБla beraber, geçЗiğimiН
ВБ Мдl bВМИБca bчlgede diБ Зemelli МaşaБaБ çaЗдşma ve savaşlar, чНellikle
bчlgede aНдБlдk haliБe gelmiş ВlaБ M“sl“maБlar açдsдБdaБ sВrИБlarдБ Зam
aБlamдМla çчН“mleБemediğiБi gчsЗermekЗedir. YiБe de, kВm“БisЗ rejimler
sВБrasдБda çВğИБlИk diБi grИГlarдБдБ idare ile ilişkileriБiБ giderek g“çleБerek,
bölgede konfesyВБel diБ eğiЗimi МaklaşдmдБдБ hРkim ВlmasдБda eЗkili ВldИğИ
aБlaşдlmakЗadдr.
BalkaБ “lkeleriБiБ diБ ГВliЗikalarд ve dВlaМдsдМla da diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleriБ
ВlИşИmИБda eЗkili ВlaБ ikiБci bir hИsИs, bчlgeБiБ demografik ʼapısıdдr. ÇВk
kültürlü ve çok dinli bir МaГдМa sahiГ ВlaБ bчlge, geçЗiğimiН М“НМдl bВМИБca
МaşaБaБ gчçleriБ ВlИmsИН eЗkileriБe rağmeБ, g“Б“m“Нde haleБ bИ чНelliğiБi
kВrИmakЗadдr. ÇalдşmamдНda verileБ isЗaЗisЗiklerdeБ de aБlaşдldдğд “Нere
bölgede günümüzde Ortodoks, Müslüman ve Katoliklerin olИşЗИrdИğИ “ç Зemel
diБi grИГ bИlИБmakЗadдr. ÖНellikle BaЗд BalkaБlar bчlgesiБde haleБ МВğИБ bir
95
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
М“Нde ВlИşЗИraБ M“sl“maБ Б“fИs ile KИНeМ BaЗд daki KaЗВlik Б“fИs bИ
bчlgelerdeki diБ eğiЗimi ИМgИlamalarдБдБ şekilleБmesiБde eЗkili ВlmakЗadдr.
ÇalдşmamдНдБ sВnunda verilen haritada, ülkelerdeki uygulamalardaki
farklдlдklara işareЗ edilmekЗedir Bk. EK . YiБe de, ele alдБaБ “lkeleriБ geБel
чНellikleriБe ilişkiБ bir ЗasБif çalдşmasдБдБ МaГдlmasдБдБ faМdalд Вlacağд
ВrЗadadдr. Aşağдda, diБ eğiЗimi ile ilgili alЗerБatifler göz önünde tutularak,
bчlgedeki “lkelerdeki ИМgИlamalar чНeЗleБmişЗir:
68
–
Ders programının t“m“n“n belirli bir dinin eğitimi amaçlı
olarak hazırlanması. Ele alдБaБ “lkelerdeki mevcИЗ diБi grИГlarдБ keБdi
b“БМeleriБde açЗдklarд чНel ВkИl sЗaЗ“s“Бdeki kurumlarda
s“rd“rd“kleri diБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleri bИ kaГsamda değerleБdirilebilir.
AБcak, “lkeleriБ hiçbiriБde devleЗ ВkИllarдБda sadece diБ eğiЗimiБi
amaçlaМaБ bir ГrВgram ИМgИlaБmamakЗadдr.
–
Din dersinin ders programındaki diğer derslerin arasında bir
ders olarak verilmesi.
o Konfesyonel din dersleri: DevleЗ ВkИllarдБda diБ dersiБiБ
verildiği “lkelerde –Slovenya haricinde– geБel Вlarak bИ Мaklaşдm
beБimseБmişЗir. YИБaБisЗaБ ve kдsmeБ RВmaБМa da НВrИБlИ
sЗaЗ“de ВlaБ ders, diğer “lkelerde seçmelidir. ÇalдşmamдНda da
gчr“ld“ğ“ “Нere, seçmeli ders kavramд, farklд “lkelerde farklд
şekillerde МВrИmlaБabilmekЗedir. BaНд “lkelerde alЗerБaЗifler
arasдБdaБ bir diБ dersiБi seçmek aБlamдБda kИllaБдlaБ bИ Зerim
чrБ. SдrbisЗaБ , baНдlarдБda ise herhaБgi bir alЗerБaЗif olmayan
dersiБ seçilmesi aБlamдБa gelmekЗedir чrБ. SдrГ CИmhИriМeЗiBosna Hersek).
o Konfesyonel olmayan din dersleri: BИ Мaklaşдma чrБek
Вlabilecek МegРБe чrБek SlВveБМa dдr. DiБ k“lЗ“r“ fВrmaЗдБda
verileБ bИ ders dдşдБda, BВsБa-(ersek Зe de sВБ dчБemlerde din
derslerine alternatif olarak Din Kültürü dersi verilmesi yönünde
çalдşmalar başlamдşЗдr. ÇВk diБli/çВk k“lЗ“rl“ eğiЗim
МaklaşдmlarдБдБ
ИМgИlamalarд
ise
BalkaБ
“lkeleriБde
görülmemektedir.
–
Din dersi ʼerine başka bir dersin verilmesi Ahlak eğitimi,
değerler eğitimi vs. . Genellikle din dersine alternatif olarak
68
VerileБ ЗasБif kВБИ “НeriБe МaНдlmдş liЗeraЗ“rdeБ esiБleБerek ВlИşЗИrИlmИşЗИr ÖrБ.
Leirvik, 2010, 1037; Willaime, 2007, 60).
96
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
değerleБdirileБ bИ Мaklaşдm,
ИМgИlamaМa başlaБmдşЗдr.
MakedВБМa da
МakдБ
dчБemde
–
Ders programlarında din dersine ʼer verilmemesi. Arnavutluk,
KВsВva, Karadağ da ders ГrВgramlarдБda Мer verilmeМen din dersleri,
g“Б“m“Нde чБemli bir ЗarЗдşma kВБИsИdИr.
AБlaşдldдğд “Нere, BalkaБlarda devleЗ ВkИllarдБda diБ dersleriБe Мer vereБ
“lkeleriБ çВk b“М“k bir bчl“m“ kВБfesМВБel diБ eğiЗimi МaklaşдmдБд
benimsemektedir. Bununla beraber, din derslerinin uygulaБдşд ile ilişkili Гek
çВk чБemli hИsИs gчНe çarГmakЗadдr. BИ hИsИslardaБ baНдlarд kВБИ hakkдБda
geБel bir fikir ВlИşЗИrИlabilmesi amacдМla aşağдda sдralaБmдşЗдr:
1. Din eğitiminin haklar çerçevesinde değerlendirilmesi
BИ dИrИm iki başlдk alЗдБda iБceleБebilir:
a. Din eğitiminin din özg“rl“kleri çerçevesinde değerlendirilmesi.
T“m balkaБ “lkeleriБiБ aБaМasalarд diБ чНg“rl“kleri “НeriБde
durmakta ve hatta bölgedeki de facto durumun bir neticesi olsa
gerek, devleЗiБ diБ чНg“rl“kleriБi kВrИdИğИ kВБИsИ чНellikle
vИrgИlaБmakЗadдr. DiБi grИГlarдБ devleЗleriБ b“М“k bir
bчl“m“Бde З“Нel kişiliklere sahiГ Вlmalarд ve BВsБa-Hersek ile
SдrbisЗaБ чrБekleriБde ВldИğИ gibi devleЗ ile diБi grИГlar
arasдБda ikili aБЗlaşmalarдБ МaГдlmasд БeЗicesiБde sчН kВБИsИ
grИГlarдБ meБsИГlarдБдБ devleЗ ВkИllarдБda keБdi iБaБçlarдБa
ИМgИБ Вlarak diБ dersi alma haklarд hИkИki Вlarak garaБЗi alЗдБa
alдБmakЗadдr.
b. Din eğitiminin azınlık hakları çerçevesinde değerlendirilmesi.
ÖНellikle BaЗд TrakМa ve DВbrИca bчlgesiБde МaşaМaБ T“rk
aНдБlдklarд bИ grИГ içerisiБde Мer almakЗadдr. AБcak, bИ
“lkelerde aНдБlдk Вlarak БiЗeleБdirileБ grИГlarдБ dдşarдsдБda
kalan müslümanlar için herhaБgi bir diБ eğiЗimi imkРБд
bИlИБmamakЗadдr.
2. Din eğitiminin bir milli g“venlik hususu olarak ele alınması.
Balkan ülkeleriБde diБ dersleri ile ilgili gчr“şlerdeБ bir ЗaБesi, diБ
dersleriБiБ bчlgede МaşaМaБ farklд grИГlar arasдБda çaЗдşmalarдБ
ВlИşmasдБa МВl açabileceği ve haЗЗa milli birliği bВНИcИ bir fakЗчr
Вlabileceğidir. Gчr“ş, ИМgИlamalarda farklд şekillerde МaБsдmalarдБд
bИlmИşЗИr. ÖrБeğiБ, ArБavИЗlИk, KВsВva ve Karadağ da diБ dersleri devleЗ
97
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
ВkИllarдБdaБ МasaklaБmasдМla sВБИçlaБmдşkeБ, MakedВБМa da diБ dersleri
s“rekli dava kВБИsИ ВlmИşЗИr.
3. Konfesʼonel eğitime alternatifler konusunda tartışmaların ʼapılması ve
uygulamaların din k“lt“r“ eğitimine doğru ʼönelmesi.
Bчlgedeki sВsМalisЗ rejimleriБ МдkдlmasдБдБ hemeБ ardдБdaБ BalkaБ
“lkeleriБiБ b“М“k bir bчl“m“Бdeki devleЗ ВkИllarдБda kВБfesМВБel diБ
dersleriБiБ verilmeМe başlaБmasд, МВğИБ ЗarЗдşmalara kВБИ ВlmИşЗИr.
GüncelliğiБi haleБ kВrИМaБ bИ ЗarЗдşmalarдБ da bir БeЗicesi Вlarak baНд
“lkelerde alЗerБaЗif Мaklaşдmlar kВБИ edilmeМe başlaБmдşЗдr. BИ bağlamda
ИНИБ Мдllardдr SlВveБМa da ИМgИlaБaБ, sВБ dчБemlerde AGİT iБ girişimiМle
BВsБa da g“Бdeme geleБ diБ k“lЗ“r“ dersi ilerleМeБ Мдllarda diğer
“lkelerde de МaМgдБlaşmaМa başlaМacak gibi gчr“БmekЗedir.
BчlgeМe ilişkiБ eБ чБemli hИsИslardaБ bir ЗaБesi de, diБ dersleri ile ilişkili
МaГдlaБ ЗeВrik d“НeБlemelerle ile ГraЗikЗeki ИМgИlamalarдБ arasдБda чБemli
farklдlдklarдБ bИlИБmasдdдr. BИ БedeБdeБ dВlaМд, МaГдlaБ çalдşmalar bИ hИsИsИ
deЗaМlд bir şekilde değerleБdirmek dИrИmИБdadдrlar. YИБaБisЗaБ dдşдБdaki
BalkaБ “lkeleriБde resmi bir diБ veМa diБleriБ bИlИБmamasд ve aБaМasalarдБda
din-devleЗ aМrдlдğд ilkesiБiБ vИrgИlaБmasдБa karşдБ; ГraЗikЗe, bчlge “lkeleriБde
çВğИБlИğИ ВlИşЗИraБ ve “lkeБiБ Зarihi-k“lЗ“rel dВkИsИБИБ ВlИşmasдБda eЗkili
ВldИğИ ifade edileБ grИГlarдБ Гek çВk alaБda ВldИğИ gibi diБ eğiЗimi kВБИsИБda
da чБ ГlaБa çдkЗдklarд aБlaşдlmakЗadдr чrБ. RВmaБМa, BИlgarisЗaБ, (дrvaЗisЗaБ
vs. . Diğer ЗarafЗaБ, bчlgedeki “lkeleriБ bir kдsmдБдБ AvrИГa Birliği Бe dРhil
Вlmasд BИlgarisЗaБ, YИБaБisЗaБ, RВmaБМa ve SlВveБМa , diğerleriБiБ ise giriş
s“reciБde Вlmasд, чНellikle diБ чНg“rl“kleriБiБ g“Бdeme gelmesiБe БedeБ
ВlmИşЗИr. DiБ eğiЗimiБi de МakдБdaБ ilgileБdireБ bИ dИrИm, kВБИ hakkдБda МeБi
gelişmeleriБ ВrЗaМa çдkmasд aБlamдБa gelmekЗedir. AБcak, sчН kВБИsИ
gelişmeleriБ sadece kРğдЗ “НeriБde kalдГ kalmadдğд sВrИsИ haleБ cevaГlaБmaМд
beklemektedir.
B“З“Б bИБlarдБ чЗesiБde, g“Б“m“Нde her Бe kadar BalkaБlar “НeriБe МaГдlaБ
çalдşmalarda чБemli bir arЗдş МaşaБsa da, Бe МaНдk ki bчlgedeki diБ eğiЗimi
ИМgИlamalarдБa ilişkiБ dilimiНde kдsдЗlд saМдda çalдşma bИlИБdИğИ
gчr“lmekЗedir. ÇalдşmamдНda da işareЗ edildiği “Нere, devleЗ ВkИllarдБda verilen
diБ dersleri dдşдБda, diБ eğiЗimi ile ilişkili karşдlaşЗдrmalд çalдşmalarд bekleМeБ
Гek çВk hИsИs bИlИБmakЗadдr. BИБlardaБ sadece birkaç ЗaБesi; diБi grИГlarдБ
МaМgдБ eğiЗim faaliМeЗleri, diБ чğreЗmeБleriБiБ ve diБ hiНmeЗlileriБiБ
МeЗişЗirilmesi, ders m“fredaЗlarдБдБ belirleБmesidir. UmИd ediМВrИН ki, ilerleМeБ
Мдllarda МaГдlacak çalдşmalar ile Зarihi ve sВsМal açдdaБ Гek çВk ВrЗak БВkЗaМa
sahiГ ВldИğИmИН BalkaБlar дБ bИg“Бk“ dИrИmИ ve чНellikle de bчlgede МaşaМaБ
98
FИraЗ, BalkaБ ÜlkeleriБdeki DevleЗ OkИllarдБda DiБ Dersleri
M“sl“maБlarдБ eБ çВk sдkдБЗдМla karşдlaşЗдklarд alaБlardaБ biri ВlaБ diБ eğiЗimi
kВБИsИБda daha deЗaМlд МВrИmlar МaГabilmek m“mk“Б ВlacakЗдr.
Kaynaklar
BВsБia aБd (erНegВviБa, )БЗerБaЗiВБal ReligiВИs FreedВm ReГВrЗ fВr
, Bureau of
Democracy,
Human
Rights
and
Labor,
http://www.state.gov/documents/
organization/193003.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
)
BИlgaria, ReligiВИs DeБВmiБaЗiВБs AcЗ , Laws on Religion and the State in PostCommunist Europe, ed. W. Cole Durham, Silvio Ferrari, Leuven: Peeters, 2004, 78-92. –
Bulgaristan
CВБsЗiЗИЗiВБ , Official Gazette RS, Nos. 33/91-), / , /
, / , / , / ,
http://www.us-rs.si/media/full.text.of.the.constitution.full.text.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi:
27.06.2012) – Slovenya
DaМЗВБ Peace AgreemeБЗ, AББex : CВБsЗiЗИЗiВБ Вf BВsБia aБd (erНegВviБa ,
http://www.ohr.int/dpa/default.asp?content_id=372 SВБ erişim Зarihi: 6.08.2012) –
Bosna-Hersek
Decision Calling a Republic Referendum to Endorse the new Constitution of the
ReГИblic Вf Serbia , http://www.mfa.gov.rs/Facts/UstavRS_pdf.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi:
10.08.2012) – SдrbisЗaБ
Greece, )БЗerБaЗiВБal ReligiВИs FreedВm ReГВrЗ fВr
, Bureau of Democracy,
Human Rights and Labor, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/ 193027.pdf
SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
)
)БsЗiЗИЗe ВБ ReligiВБ aБd PИblic PВlicМ ReГВrЗ: ReligiВИs FreedВm iБ MacedВБia ,
United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights,
http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session5/MK/IRPP_MKD_UPR_S5_200
9_InstituteonReligionandPublicPolicy.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
)
)slamska НajedБica И CrБВj GВri i Vlada CrБe GВre ГВЗГisale UgВvВr kВjim se defiБiše
ИređeБje međИsВbБih ВdБВsa , http://www.monteislam.com/novosti/islamskazajednica-u-crnoj-gori-i-vlada-crne-gore-potpisale-ugovor-kojim-se-definise-uredenjemedusobnih-odnosa SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
) – Karadağ
KВsВvВ, )БЗernational Religious Freedom Report for July-December
, Bureau of
Democracy,
Human
Rights
and
Labor,
http://www.state.gov/documents/
organization/171702.pdf SВБ erişim Зarihi: . .
)
Law
/
ВБ Зhe FreedВm Вf ReligiВБ aБd Зhe GeБeral SЗaЗИs Вf DeБВmiБaЗiВБs ,
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109
T(E ROLE OF REASON )N KANT S THE CONFLICT OF THE
FACULTIES
Dr. Muharrem HAFIZ*
E-mail: [email protected]
Citation/©: (afız, M., (2012). The Role of Reason in KaБЗ s The
Conflict of The Faculties, Journal of Intercultural and Religious
Studies. (2), 111-119.
ABSTRACT
In the Conflict of the Faculties Kant treats the conflict of the higher faculties
(theology, law, and medicine) and the lower faculty (philosophy) which was
divided with reference to the state/government in his period, and
approaches the role and the function of the philosophy faculty in this conflict.
In this work, firstly the ground of the aforementioned conflict will be
discussed, secondly the peace of the faculties in terms of the project of
EБlighЗeБmeБЗ aБd Зhe disЗiБcЗiВБ beЗweeБ Зhe public and private use of the
reasВБ which becВme evideБЗ iБ his brief arЗicle AБ AБswer ЗВ Зhe QИesЗiВБ:
WhaЗ is EБlighЗeБmeБЗ? .
Keywords: Higher faculties (theology, law, and medicine), the lower
faculty (philosophy), conflict, reason, the public and private use of reason,
Enlightenment.
* Researcher.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
Introduction
)З mИsЗ be firsЗlМ sЗressed ЗhaЗ Зhe Зerm Вf facИlЗМ iБ KaБЗ s The Conflict of the
Faculties is not used as an intellectual faculty in the philosophical sense. That is,
the conflict of the faculties is not an abstract conflict between the faculties of
mind and reason such as sensibility and reason that structures The Critique of
Pure Reason, but a concrete and historical conflict between the university
facИlЗies iБ KaБЗ s Зime GИМer,
:
. The facИlЗies Вf ИБiversiЗies as Иsed
by Kant are, then, divided into two ranks: three higher faculties and one lower
faculty. While the higher Faculties are Theology, Law, and Medicine; the lower
one is the Faculty of Philosophy. In addition Kant also insisted that this
distinction between the faculties is not his categorization. In other words, the
distinction between the faculties has been already present in his academic
environment and period.
The division of the faculties as higher and low is made for Kant with reference
to the government, rather than to the learned professions. Therefore, a faculty
is cВБsidered higher if iЗs ЗeachiБgs fiБd iБЗeresЗ iБ Зhe government itself in
terms of its content and the way it is expounded to the public. On the other
hand, the faculty whose function is only to look after the interests of reason and
scieБce is called lВwer , siБce iЗ cВБcerБs iЗself wiЗh reasВБ aБd ЗrИЗh, not the
interests of the public. Hence, the government is interested primarily in means
for securing the people. Accordingly, Kant distinguishes between scholar
proper and those members of the intelligentsia who are the instruments of the
government. So, the government divides the faculties into two ranks, and it
keeps the higher faculties under strict control, for they directly deal with the
people (Kant, 1979, 25).
AccВrdiБg ЗВ KaБЗ iЗ is absВlИЗelМ esseБЗial ЗhaЗ Зhe learБed cВmmИБiЗМ aЗ Зhe
university also contains a faculty that is independent of the government s
command with regard to its teachings; one that having no commands to give, is
free to evaluate everything, and concerns itself with the interests of the
scieБces, ЗhaЗ is, wiЗh ЗrИЗh. […] Without a faculty of this kind, the truth would
БВЗ cВme ЗВ Зhe lighЗ KaБЗ,
:
. )Б Зhis regard, Derrida sЗaЗes ЗhaЗ KaБЗ
here ИБderlies Зhe wВrd reasВБ aБd creaЗiБg : a ИБiversiЗМ is ЗhИs aИЗhВriНed
to have the autonomous power of creating titles (Derrida, 1992: 4). Since
reason is by its nature free and admits of no command to hold something as
ЗrИe БВ imГeraЗive Believe! bИЗ ВБlМ a free ) believe KaБЗ,
,
. KaБЗ
seems ironically to cognize and consider the reason why this faculty of
philosophy, despite its great prerogative and freedom, is called the lower
112
(afiН, The RВle Вf ReasВБ iБ KaБЗ s The CВБflicЗ Вf Зhe FacИlЗies
faculty lies in human nature. Since a man who can give commands, even though
he is sВmeВБe else s hИmble service, is cВБsidered mВre disЗiБgИished ЗhaБ a
free man who has no one under his command.
1. The Higher Faculties (Theology, Law, and Medicine)
The division of the higher faculties is related to the incentives that the
government can use to achieve its end of influencing the people: First comes the
eternal well-being (Theology), secondly the civil well-being as a member of
society (Law), and finally the physical well-being of the people (Medicine). So
the theologian as a member of a higher faculty draws his teachings not from
reason, but from the Bible; the professor of law gets his arguments not from
natural law, but the law of the land; and the professor of medicine does not
draw his methods of therapy as practiced on the public from physiology of the
human body, but from medical regulations. Kant again ironically states that the
ground of higher faculties is not reason, aБd Зhe digБiЗМ Вf Зheir Зhe higher
faculties) statutes will not be damaged by the free play of reason KaБЗ,
:
35).
The biblical theologian proves the existence of God on the grounds of the Bible.
But, he as such cannot and need not prove that God Himself spoke through the
Bible, since that is a matter of history and belongs to the philosophy faculty. On
the other hand to require a jurist to prove the truth of the laws that secure lives
of the public Вr ЗВ defeБd Зhem agaiБsЗ reasВБ s ВbjecЗiВБs wВИld be ИБfair.
Finally unlike the other higher faculties, however, the faculty of medicine must
derive its rules not from orders of authorities, but from the nature of things. Yet
this faculty deals with the ГeВГle s healЗh which mИsЗ is Вf greaЗ iБЗeresЗ ЗВ Зhe
government (Kant, 1979: 35-41).
As is seen, Kant conceives of the higher faculties as training students to hold
offices within the state/government, and regulated by it. Thus the teachers in
these faculties must also exercise the private use of reason, teaching their
sЗИdeБЗs Зhe sЗaЗe-maБdaЗed dВcЗriБes aБd regИlaЗiВБs . BИЗ Зhe facИlЗМ Вf
ГhilВsВГhМ as lВwer, eveБ ЗhВИgh iБ KaБЗ s Зime all iЗs Зeachers were
themselves employees of the state, is in the business of exercising and training
its students in the public use of reason (Guyer, 2006: 292). What are the private
aБd Зhe ГИblic Иse Вf reasВБ iБ KaБЗ s Иsage? WhaЗ is Зhe cВББecЗiВБ beЗweeБ
the higher faculties and the lower one in terms of this distinction of reason?
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
2. The Private and Public Use of Reason
KaБЗ defiБes Зhe Иse Вf reasВБ iБ his arЗicle AБ AБswer ЗВ Зhe QИesЗiВБ: WhaЗ is
EБlighЗeБmeБЗ? ГИblished iБ
as:
EБlighЗeБmeБЗ is Зhe hИmaБ beiБg s emaБciГaЗiВБ frВm iЗs selfincurred immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to make use of
ВБe s iБЗellecЗ wiЗhВИЗ Зhe direcЗiВБ Вf aБВЗher. This immaturity is
self-incurred when its cause does not lie in a lack of intellect, but
raЗher iБ a lack Вf resВlve aБd cВИrage ЗВ make Иse Вf ВБe s intellect
without the direction of another. Sapere aude! (ave Зhe cВИrage ЗВ
make Иse Вf МВИr ВwБ iБЗellecЗ! is heБce Зhe mВЗЗВ Вf
eБlighЗeБmeБЗ KaБЗ,
:
.
KaБЗ calls Зhe ГВwer ЗВ jИdge aИЗВБВmВИslМ aБd freelМ as reason in the
Conflict of the Faculties as well. Unlike the higher faculties, the philosophy
faculty must be considered as free and subject only to laws by reason, not by
the government (Kant, 1979: 43). In this regard, its function is to control the
other faculties in order to control them, in this way, be useful to them. Since
truth and utility fВr KaБЗ s cВБsideraЗiВБ is differeБЗ. The fВrmer ГhilВsВГhМ
faculty) is the main thing, latter (the higher faculties) is of secondary
imГВrЗaБce KaБЗ,
:
. )Б KaБЗ s view, ЗheБ, Зhe members of the
philosophy faculty clearly have not only the right, but also the duty to seek the
truth. Therefore it is the duty of philosophy faculty to do what it can to ensure
not only what it says is true, but also that what all the higher faculties say is
ЗrИe. The ГhilВsВГhМ facИlЗМ caБ, ЗherefВre, laМ claim ЗВ aБМ ЗeachiБg, iБ Вrder
ЗВ ЗesЗ iЗs ЗrИЗh KaБЗ,
:
.
Kant divides the conflict of the faculties into two, as illegal and legal. A conflict
between the faculties can be illegal by reason of its matter or its form. Illegal
conflict by means of its matter is related to the conditions that it were not
permissible to debate. In other words, the illegal conflict by means of its matter
is occurred when any proposition of one of the higher faculties cannot be
debated or not permissible to judge. On the other side, it will be illegal by
reason of its form if one of the parts relies on subjective grounds, not on
objective grounds and unchangeable truth (Kant, 1979: 47). On the other hand,
the people also want the higher faculties to make them more acceptable
proposals. But if the higher faculties adopt such principles, then they are and
always will be in conflict with the lower faculty.
The other conflict is in the legal field. For Kant, if the conflict depends on the
legal ground of reason, which we referred to as stated above, and controls the
114
(afiН, The RВle Вf ReasВБ iБ KaБЗ s The CВБflicЗ Вf Зhe FacИlЗies
principles of the other faculties on the basis of truth, this conflict is legal.
Accordingly, the government cannot be completely indifferent to the truth of
the teachings of the higher faculties and in this respect they must subject to
reason. But this is only possible if complete freedom to examine these teachings
in public is permitted. We again turn to the use and function of reason as being
sЗressed iБ AБ AБswer ЗВ Зhe QИesЗiВБ: WhaЗ is EБlighЗeБmeБЗ bМ KaБЗ: AБ
entire public should enlighten itself; indeed it is nearly unavoidable if one
allows it the freedom to do so. For there will always be some independent
thinkers even among the appointed guardians of the great masses who, after
they themselves have thrown off the yoke of immaturity, will spread the spirit
Вf raЗiВБal aГГreciaЗiВБ Вf ВБe s ВwБ wВrЗh aБd Зhe calliБg Вf everМ hИmaБ
beiБg ЗВ ЗhiБk fВr himself KaБЗ,
:
. TherefВre, KaБЗ alwaМs mentions
the necessity of making public use of reason in all matters, and this freedom is
required not only for the enlightenment itself, but also the free thinking of all
other higher faculties. So we can conclude that learning the courage to use
reason through philosophy (philosophy faculty) is then inevitable in all areas of
life, and indeed the teachings of other higher faculties.
According to Kant, public can only attain enlightenment slowly. However, a
revolution is overthrow autocratic despotism and profiteering or powergrabbing oppression, but it can never truly reform the manner of thinking.
Instead, new prejudices will serve as a guiding rein for the thoughtless masses.
YeЗ, freedВm is reqИired fВr Зhis eБlighЗeБmeБЗ KaБЗ,
:
. With the
liberty afforded by his retirement from the university and the security for his
old age afforded by a lifetime of saving, Kant was willing to announce publicly
that he found such evidence in the French revolution (Guyer, 2006: 370). But
Kant makes a distinction between the private and public reason by stating that,
БВw ) hear called ВИЗ ВБ all sides: DВ БВЗ argИe! The Вfficer saМs: DВ БВЗ argИe,
just drill! The tax collector says: Do not argue, just pay! The clergyman says: Do
not argue, just believe! (There is only one master in the world who says: argue
as much as you like and about whatever you like, but obey!) Everywhere here
there are limitations to freedom. But what kind of limitation is a hindrance to
enlightenment? And what kind of limitation is not, but rather even serves to
promote it? I answer: the public use of one s reason must be free at all times, and
this alone can bring about enlightenment among humans; the private use of
ВБe s reasВБ maМ ВfЗeБ, hВwever, be highlМ resЗricЗed wiЗhВИЗ ЗherebМ
esГeciallМ imГediБg Зhe ГrВgress Вf eБlighЗeБmeБЗ KaБЗ,
: -19).
For example, it would be harmful if an officer who was given a command by his
superior were to question the expediency or usefulness of his orders. In other
words, in the point of the office, he must obey. This is the use of private reason.
115
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
But as a scholar he cannot be justly constrained from making comments about
errors in military service. This is, on the other hand, the use of public use of
reason. We will give an example from KanЗ s cВБsideraЗiВБ Вf bВЗh Иsage Вf
reason. A citizen cannot refuse to pay the taxes imposed on him; indeed,
impertinent criticisms of such levies, when they should be paid by him taxes are
to be paid by him, can be punished as causing a public scandal. But the same
citizen does not contravene his civic duty if he publicly expresses, as a scholar,
his thoughts against the impropriety or even in justice of such levies. Likewise a
pastor is bound to instruct his congregation in accordance with the symbol of
the church he serves, for he is appointed on that condition and he uses the
public use of reason in his official works. However, but as a scholar he has
complete freedom to mention his thoughts concerning mistaken aspects of
those symbols as well as his suggestions for the better arrangement of religious
and church matters.
3. The Importance of the Lower Faculty (Philosophy) and Reason
Philosophy faculty here as the lower has not only the title, but also the duty, if
not to state the whole truth in public, at least to see to it that everything put
forward in public as a principle is true (Kant, 1979: 53). However the conflict
can never detract from the dignity of the government. In other words, the
conflict is not between the faculties and the government, but between one
faculty and another. That is, though the conflict has taken certain tenets of the
higher faculties under its own protection, it is not protecting the higher
faculties as learned societies on account of the truth of these teachings, but only
fВr Зhe sake Вf Зhe gВverБmeБЗ s ВwБ advaБЗage KaБЗ,
:
.
As stated above, the three essays which Kant published in 1798 under the title
The Conflict of the Faculties deals with the lower faculty (philosophy) and the
other three higher faculties (theology, law and medicine). In fact, the conflict of
the philosophy faculty with the theology faculty was the result of the reaction of
Зhe biblical ЗheВlВgiaБs iБ PrИssia ЗВ Зhe ГИblicaЗiВБ Вf KaБЗ s Religion within
the Limits of Reason Alone (1793). Kant defines, then, a biblical theologian as
one who is versed in the Scriptures with regard to ecclesiastical faith while a
rational theologian is defined as one who is versed in reason with regard to
religious faith. Therefore, according to Kant, religion is not the sum of all our
duties regarded as divine commands. In other words, the object or matter of
religion is no different than that of morality in Kant (Goodreau, 1998: 160).
SiБce Зhe idea Вf GВd is derived frВm mВraliЗМ iЗself iБ Вrder ЗВ give mВrality
116
(afiН, The RВle Вf ReasВБ iБ KaБЗ s The CВБflicЗ Вf Зhe FacИlЗies
iБflИeБce ВБ ВИr will ЗВ ГerfВrm ВИr dИЗies. This is whМ Зhere is ВБlМ ВБe
religiВБ fВr KaБЗ, religiВБ wiЗhiБ Зhe limiЗs Вf reasВБ alВБe KaБЗ,
:
.1
In short, Kant argues that genuine peace and dialogue among the faculties can
only occur if the ecclesiastical faith and the laws of morality are consistent with
a priori principles of reason. Hence the philosophy faculty must be free to
criticize the religion and the legal code of the state within the legal and private
use of reason. Kant states iБ Зhis regard ЗhaЗ ) hear biblical ЗheВlВgiaБs crМ ВИЗ
in union against the very idea of a philosophical interpretation of Scripture.
Philosophical exegesis, they say, aims primarily at a natural religion, not
Christianity. I reply that Christianity is the idea of religion, which must as such
be based on reason KaБЗ,
:
.
Moreover, Kant mentions that a scriptural text, for instance, contains
theoretical teachings which are proclaimed sacred but which also transcend all
rational and especially moral concepts. Therefore the doctrine of the Trinity
has no practical relevance at all. On the other hand, if we read a moral meaning
of faith in God it would no longer contain an inconsequential belief, but an
intelligible one that refer to our moral vocation. The same holds, also, true of
the doctrine that one person of the God head became man (Kant, 1979: 67).
KaБЗ s ГВsiЗiВБ iБ the Conflict of the Faculties is, then, that human beings have a
moral predisposition which was conceived in an idea of reason that digБifies
human beings as such. Hence he seems to support the thesis of this work that
the feeling of Sublime (God) plays an important role in his moral metaphysics
not only in term of theology, but also that of moral motivation including the
awareness of the moral laws (in the faculty of law), that of the principles of the
medicine faculty.
Conclusion
It is necessary to stress the connection that exists between the brief article
WhaЗ is EБlighЗeБmeБЗ and The Conflict of the Faculties in which the faculties
are traditionally divided into two ranks: three higher faculties (theology, law
and medicine) and the lower faculty (philosophy). Kant describes
Enlightenment as the moment when humanity is going to put its own reason to
use, without subjecting itself to any authority. Kant also stresses in the final
Гassage Вf his arЗicle ЗhaЗ WhaЗ is EБlighЗeБmeБЗ ЗhaЗ Зhe ЗeБdeБcМ aБd Зhe
1 )Б Зhis arЗicle ВИr maiБ sИbjecЗ is БВЗ KaБЗ s mВral ГhilВsВГhМ. BИЗ, iБ accВrdaБce wiЗh
understanding the conflict of philosophy faculty with the others we have mentioned his
ideas of religion within the limits of reason.
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
calling to free thinking will gradually extend its effects to the disposition of the
people (through which the people gradually becomes more capable of freedom
of action), and finally even to the principles of government, which find it to be
beneficial to itself to treat the human being, who is indeed more than a machine,
in accordance with his dignity. (Kant, 2006: 23)
Man, Kant says, makes a private Иse Вf reasВБ wheБ he is a cВg iБ a machiБe ;
that is, when he has a role to play in society and jobs to do: to be a soldier, to
have taxes to pay, to be in charge of a parish, to be a civil servant, all this makes
the human being a particular segment of society; he finds himself thereby
placed in a circumscribed position, where he has to apply particular rules and
pursue particular ends. Kant does not ask that people practice a blind and
foolish obedience, but that they adapt the use they make of their reason to these
determined circumstances; and reason must then be subjected to the particular
ends in view. Thus there cannot be, here, any free use of reason. However one is
reasВБiБg ВБlМ iБ Вrder ЗВ Иse ВБe s reasВБ, wheБ ВБe is reasoning as a
reasonable being (and not as a cog in a machine), when one is reasoning as a
member of reasonable humanity, then the use of reason must be free and public.
The public use of reason and enlightenment for Kant here neither a world era
to which one belongs, nor an event whose signs are perceived, nor the dawning
of an accomplishment. As Michel Foucault states, Kant uses the concept of
eБlighЗeБmeБЗ as exit and way out (Michel Foucault, 1984: 34). Since
enlightenment is thus not merely the process by which individuals would see
their own personal freedom of thought guaranteed. There is enlightenment
when the universal, the free, and the public uses of reason are superimposed on
one another.
In conclusion, while the higher faculties (theology, law, and medicine) are the
faculties through which the government uses to achieve its end for influencing
the people, the lower faculty (philosophy) has the duty to state the whole truth
in public and to see to it that everything put forward in public as a principle is
true. AЗ Зhis ГВiБЗ we caБ cВБЗacЗ Зhe cВБflicЗ Вf Зhe facИlЗies aБd KaБЗ s ГrВjecЗ
of Enlightenment through his distinction between the private and public use of
reason. Whereas the higher faculties must protect the interests of people and
the advantage of the government, the lower faculty whose function is only to
look after the interests of science and truth: one in which reason is authorized
to speak out publicly. Therefore we can conclude that without the philosophy
faculty the truth and the public use of reason, which also protect not only the
digБiЗМ Вf maБ s БaЗИre bИЗ alsВ ЗhaЗ Вf Зhe gВverБmeБЗ aБd iЗs ВwБ advaБЗage,
would not come to exist. Nothing is required for enlightenment except freedom
and the public use of reason in all matters. Hence the higher faculties can use
118
(afiН, The RВle Вf ReasВБ iБ KaБЗ s The CВБflicЗ Вf Зhe FacИlЗies
the public reason for the sake of government, on condition that they must obey
the rules in the usage of private reasВБ as iБdicaЗed iБ KaБЗ s arЗicle WhaЗ is
EБlighЗeБmeБЗ . BИЗ Зhe public use of reason is only possible for the sake of the
government and the enlightenment with the philosophy faculty which lay claim
to any teaching, in order to test its truth.
References
Derrida, J. (1992) MВchlВs; Вr Зhe CВБflicЗ Вf Зhe FacИlЗies , ЗraБs. Richard RaБd aБd
Amy Wygant, ed. Richard Rand Logomacia: The Conflict of the Faculties, London:
University of Nebraska Press, 2-34.
Guyer, P. (2006) Kant, New York: Routledge, 2006.
Goodreau, J. R. (1998) The Role of the Sublime in Kant s Moral Metaphʼsics, The Council
for Research in Values and Philosophy, Washington.
Foucault, M. (1984), WhaЗ is EБlighЗeБmeБЗ? , The Foucault Reader, New York:
Pantheon Books, 32-50.
Kant, I. (1979), The Conflict of the Faculties, trans. Mary J. Gregor, London: University of
Nebraska Press.
Kant, I. (2006) AБ AБswer ЗВ Зhe QИesЗiВБ: WhaЗ is EБlighЗeБmeБЗ? , Rethinking the
Western Tradition: Immanuel Kant, ed. Pauline Kleingeld, trans. David L. Colclasure, Yale
University Press, 17-23.
119
SEARCHING FOR HAPPINESS IN THE MODERN WORLD:
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND RELIGION
KeБaБ SEVİNÇ 
E-mail: [email protected]
Citation/©: Sevinc, K., (2012). Searching for Happiness in the
Modern World: Positive Psychology and Religion, Journal of
Intercultural and Religious Studies. (2), 121-146.
ABSTRACT
In Ancient Greece the prevailiБg idea was ЗhaЗ Зhe ИlЗimaЗe gВal
, telos) of
hИmaБ deeds is Зhe haГГiБess ὐ αι
α, eudaimonia). And in the Medieval Age
wheБ all Зhe religiВБs were dВmiБaБЗ, liviБg sИiЗablМ ЗВ GВd s cВmmaБds aБd
prohibitions and attaining his consent had become the main goal. Religion had a
fИБcЗiВБal rВle iБ ВvercВmiБg Зhe difficИlЗies, ЗraИmaЗic eveБЗs aБd ГeВГle s
search for getting to know the world and themselves. After 17th century, the
modern understanding ignored the religion on account to the fact that the religion
limited the realm of freedom and it did not suit to scientific findings which were
rational and factual; and science came into prominence. Science responded to
ГeВГle s search fВr meaБiБg, ГreseБЗed Зhe wВrld ЗВ Зhe ГeВГle aБd ГrВmised a
more comfortable life. In the modern age, science was assigned with such a duty
aБd Зhis alВБg wiЗh EГicИrИs ВГiБiВБ which saМs ЗhaЗ ГhilВsВГhМ s maiБ aim is ЗВ
tell how people become happier. The thoughts which appeared in modern world
where determinist, materialist and absolute universe understanding were
dominant are similar to hedonist happiness understanding which were
established on materialist philosophy by Epicurus. Nevertheless, modernity did
not sustain happiness it promised although sustained people a more comfortable
life. This happiness crisis and search of happiness which appeared in Modern
Ages, tries to find an answer in science which is the most powerful instrument of
modernity. One of the names of this searching happiness is Positive Psychology
Movement. In this movement there are people who are inspired with expressions
of religion and emphasize on function of religion sustain people happiness; and
there are people who were searching for ways of happiness without leaving from
modern science philosophy. In any case Positive Psychology is seen as an
important step from the terms of discussing regional and ethic expressions in
modern psychology.
Key Words: Positive Psychology, Happiness, Modernity, Modern World, Religion.
* Research Assistant, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Theology.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
Happiness in Ancient Greece
Aristotle says that human wants to know naturally. Human never has been
indifferent to the things around him and has searched answers to some
questions. These answers confront us sometimes as mythology, sometimes as
religion and sometimes as philosophy. The base of Ancient Greece culture is
formed with myths which are providing inner peace and respond to the
obscurity of the universe (Estin and Laporte, 2005, 1). Afterwards these
answers were intellectualized and philosophy appeared. Inner peace which has
been sustained by the answers towards obscurities of the universe, is the
iБdicaЗВr Вf ГeВГle s search fВr meaБiБg. OБe Вf Зhe besЗ ГrВdИcЗs Вf ГeВГle s
search for meaning and urge to know is philosophy. This activity which is
thought to have been started and Ancient Greece have dealt with a lot of
questions such as knowledge, existence and values. One of the questions which
aБswer is reallМ wВБdered is whaЗ is haГГiБess? .
In the First Age, happiness was discussed as the theme of ethics and generally
Grecian ethical undersЗaБdiБg is Бamed as eИdaimВБisЗ
ὐ αι
α,
eudaimonia . The ЗheВries, claims ЗhaЗ Зhe highesЗ gВВd aБd Зhe acЗs Вf ГeВГle s
purpose is the happiness, are named such. The general characteristic of the
Ancient Greece is this. In First Age, Sophist philosophers thought that the
measure of everything is human. Accordingly, about moral topics man is the
measure of all things. This states that there is no objective moral principle. So it
is БВЗ ГВssible ЗВ fiБd a de facЗВ aЗЗiЗИde abВИЗ whaЗ is haГГiБess? . According
to Protagoras; the more individuals there are, the more ethical judgment there
is. In fact this means that there is no universal scruple. Against Sophists, the
most significant philosopher is Socrates. He tries to show that there is objective
principles and for doing this he has chosen the term of virtue (ἀ
, arete)
which is known by everybody. While trying to show the existence of universal
notions, he has raked together the knowledge and the ethics. Knowledge is a
virtue and human never harm intentionally. Knowledge which renders people
virtuous is the knowledge of the good and proper. Immoral person is really
ignorant person (Arslan, 2007, 149). Happiness is a situation about knowledge
and accordingly being virtuous.
Thoughts of Socrates have affected some thinkers and caused to appearance of
different movements. One of them is Cynics. According to Cynics (founder is
Antisthenes) all kinds of civilization are unimportant. Cynics think that the
world basically bad and it is necessary to leave from it in order to live properly.
Happiness is that reducing needs to the minimum level. Happiness is indifferent
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Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
to pleasure and gratification (ἡ
, hedone). Virtue provides happiness. Being
happy can be provided by only gaining inner independency. And independence
can be gained by being senseless against all kind of inner and external
stimulant. According to Cyrenaic school (the founder is Aristippos) which is
totally opposite to Cynics, the highest good is happiness and the happiness is
sensual pleasure (gratification). They refer to active, dynamic, alive pleasure
(Arslan, 2007, 149). The reason of each act is the will of being happy and
pleasure. They are rather distant to religion. One of the substitute of this
movement Theodoros, has written book which clearly depicts atheism. And
Evhemeros said that in fact Gods are emblazoned human heroes (Weber, 1998,
46). On the contrary to views of Socrates connecting virtue with knowledge,
Cyrenaic school defends that knowledge is not about virtue. It is really, we have
ВБlМ iБdividИal exciЗemeБЗs aБd seБses. VirЗИe aБd GВВdБess ЗhiБgs we saМ, is
just common words among people (Ülken, 1958, 201). Cyrenaic school can be
said to have affected Epicurus seriously.
Plato, the student of Socrates, has a happiness based ethical approach. His
views are supported with teaching the ideas and type of the knowledge of ideas.
By means of dealing with the knowledge of ideas instead of knowledge of the
world, he tried to propound what is good and happiness and accordingly he
was interested in knowledge of values. Plato accepted a value hierarchy like a
existence hierarchy and so he equated good with idea of the Good. He said that
happiness is to have the Good. According to him every part of the human has a
virtue to realize. The highest part of the soul is mind and act of mind is wisdom
α, sophia). Mind has a duty of dominating the part which is about
appetence and instinct. The middle part of the soul is the will and the virtue of
Зhis is cВИrage α
α, andreia). Each part of the soul, in order to carry out
the act which suits themselves, should be able to suit each other and interfere
each other. Here this harmony is justice. Justice, as the highest virtue, is a
harmony and suitability which takes the individual to the happiness. Thanks to
Зhis harmВБМ, eqИiЗable maБ dВes БВЗ leЗ variВИs elemeБЗs iБ Зhe sВИl ЗВ
iБЗerfere wiЗh each ВЗher s fИБcЗiВБ aБd he iБ Зhis waМ became healЗhМ aБd
happy. As justice is good, injustice is bad. When illiteracy takes place of wisdom,
spinelessness takes place of courage, repulsiveness takes place of temperance
ω
ύ , sophrosyne), badness so unhappiness appears. One of the big
iБiqИiЗies is ЗhaЗ, ГersВБ, whВ is iБ haБds Вf ГaiБ
, lupe) and pleasure,
believes in the reality of them (Plato, 1989, 59). The supreme aim of the human
is to search for happiness. We try to obtain the happiness by getting rid of pain
and procuring pleasure as soon as possible. Nevertheless it is impossible to
reach the happiness when being kept to pain and pleasure. Because the
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
cВmmВБ sВИrce Вf ГaiБ aБd ГleasИre is desire
ι
α, epithymia). When
desire is satisfied, pleasure appears, not satisfied pain appears. Nonetheless
after the pleasure provided by satisfaction, comes pain. In that case there is no
possibility of continuous gratification and happiness. For this reason, soul turns
its direction from the world of the senses to the world of the ideas. It sees
unchanging ideas, which is the first example of everything, there. The
satisfaction given by idea of the Good is not like pleasures of the world and not
surrounded with pain. Real pleasure and real happiness is possible only by this
Зhe highesЗ gВВd ÜlkeБ,
,
. ShariБg a ГleasИre wiЗh aБВЗher aБd
sharing pain with another is not a real way in order to get virtue. Against all of
these the only thing to change is wisdom. Courage, temperance, justice;
everything is purchased with this. Real virtue is got by wisdom (Plato, 1989,
. )Б PlaЗВ s ЗhВИghЗ, imГВrЗaБЗ БВЗiВБ is virЗИe. As seen in Youth Dialogues
he says that virtue is knowledge. There is not much virtue but just one and this
is to know the good and act according to this. Phaidon in his dialogues
separates real virtue from ordinary virtue. Real virtue is knowledge of the Good
and justice so it is knowledge of the ideas. Who attains the knowledge of idea, it
means he reaches knowledge of virtue. Ordinary virtue is opinion (doxa) in
ordinary life (Birand, 1958, 60). The highest good is not in pleasure or
gratification but resemblance of God increasingly. As God is good and absolute
justice, we can only resemble him with justice. Justice is the basic virtue,
mother of the virtue (Weber, 1998, 60). In this way according to Plato apart
from wisdom, courage and temperance are also virtues.
According to Aristotle (2011, 16), like other Greece philosophers, supreme aim
Вf all kiБds Вf effВrЗs is Зhe haГГiБess. PeВГle s maiБ aim is ЗВ be haГГМ aБd,
happiness is the best thing. Pleasure, mind and virtue are preferred both for
themselves and happiness. Also they are preferred as we become happy thanks
to them. With a view happiness is about external conditions but the main theme
of the ethic is about person himself. According to Aristotle, every entity may be
happy by development own essence or its own effectiveness (Gökberk, 1998,
79). Everything should be done in accordance with the original. The feature
which separate people from the animals is mind. Because of this people should
act suitable to the mind. People become happy when act suitable to the mind
(Aristotle, 2011, 18). Animal is not a moral creature, because it is lack of mind;
again it is not talked immorality of God. In this position morality is the
distinctive feature of the human nature. The main aim of the human life is not
only development of the direction of animal, but also being godlike. The aim is
opening and development of our double essence (Weber, 1998, 86). For Gods
the whole of the life is happiness, and for people only under the condition of
124
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
resembling this, life will be full of happiness (Aristotle, 2011, 209). Pleasure is
not good. It is an obstacle to be right-minded. Because pleasure can never be an
aim, it is not an aim but a process (Aristotle, 2011, 149). The good is not an act
directed to pleasure but a virtuous act. The one important for happiness is to
act accordance with virtue (Aristotle, 2011, 20-27). If a life is suitable to the
virtues, so it is a happy life. And virtue is not provided by entertaining but
working (Aristotle, 2011, 205). Happiness should not be for a moment but
sustain lifelong. And it is gained by habits. Thanks to the habits we can get rid of
excess, which cause pain, and stand in the middle (juste milieu) (Ülken, 1958,
200). Here, virtue is this midway (Aristotle, 2011, 115-129). For example the
mid of the stinginess and extravagancy is profuseness and it is a virtue.
According to Epicurus, philosophy is nothing but making research of devices
which will provide happiness. If philosophy will take the human to the
happiness, first of all, it should save him from the fear of Gods and death. In
order to provide it, it is necessary a worldview that is based on nature. And this
shows that there are natural reasons for everything. This world view is seen
also in Democritus. Namely real existence is space and atoms. As in universe
there is nothing but atoms, there is no possibility of morality appearing from
interference of Gods to the world (Ülken, 1958, 201). Gods have no effect on the
world. They stand in the space between the worlds. They are very happy and
because of that they are not busy with the world. As Gods are never interested
in us, there is no need to be afraid of them (Gökberk, 1998, 88-89). Death is
nothing for us. Death is the disappearance of the senses, if we know that death
is nothing then we began have taste of life. As we on existing, death disappears,
and death exists we disappear. Accordingly, we should not be afraid of it
(Epicurus, 1962, 34). If body does not exist, soul will never be able to come into
existence. If we give up the idea of immortality, death stops being a fear.
Unfounded fears prevent us to catch the happiness (Weber, 1998, 89-90). The
idea of death is too such an unfounded fear and if we came to this world,
defining how we will life is in our hands. Everything we do is to avoid pain. We
only miss pleasure when we want it because of the pain. Pleasure is the
beginning and the end of a happy life. Pleasure is the highest goodness. It is the
main criterion for determining that what should we tend to and what should
we get away from (Epicurus, 1962, 36).
Epicurus believes that (like Stoa ecole) human can be happy. And the difference
between them is that, Stoics follow Cynics and Epicurus follows Cyrenaic school
BiraБd,
,
. (e aБimaЗes CМreБaic schВВl s hedonism, yet makes a set
of changes. Pleasure is the natural goal of every effort and demands of the
creature. Pleasure is the mix of material and spiritual gratification. In this mix,
125
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
the first element is material gratification. Spiritual gratifications are connected
to the body and they are not independent in spite of their violence, past and
largeness. According to Epicurus (1962, 36), pleasure is negative gratification
(getting rid of pain) rather than positive gratification. Getting rid of pain is the
bВdМ s salvaЗiВБ frВm agВБМ aБd Зhe sВИl's salvaЗiВБ frВm ИБresЗ, which is iБ
shВrЗ α α α α, ataraxia); pleasure is the painlessness (Gökberk, 1998, 90).
With this view Epicurus has affected all of the hedonist views and it can be said
that hedonism affected the modern world in the historical process. On the
periods after them, Plato shows the effect by emphasize virtues; Aristotle
shows the effect by saying that virtues appear on the acts and the virtue is the
midway; Epicurus shows the effect by bringing pleasure to the fore.
From Medieval Age to Modernity
ArisЗВЗle s views ВБ eЗhics, hИmaБ aБd cВsmВlВgМ affecЗed deeГlМ ЗhrВИgh Зhe
Medieval Age bВЗh is )slam aБd WesЗ ЗhВИghЗs. ArisЗВЗle s views are iБЗerГreЗed
by the effort of Saint Thomas in West to the Christian theology and by the effort
of Al-Farabi and Ibn-i Sina in East to the Islamic theology. This commend style
had sustained its effect until Renaissance. In West, base of Christian philosophy
is SЗ. ThВmas s ArisЗВЗle which he made БearlМ a ChrisЗian (Koyré, 2000, 35). In
13th century in universities traditional philosophy which shaped around the
ideas of Aristotle, came into prominence (Westfall, 2000, 26). Scholastic
understanding which did not accept Aristotle in the beginning of scholastic
period and after he was interpreted, loved and adopted him, but this was seen
as aБ ВbsЗacle fВr Зhe scieБЗific develВГmeБЗ bМ iЗs aГГearaБce as have
kБВwledge . FВr ЗhaЗ maЗЗer iБ Зhe discИssiВБ Вf religiВБ – science, one of the
leading period is scholastic period, it reason is that scholasticism is a
meЗaГhМsic which Зries ЗВ ГrВve defiБiЗe dВgmas Yдldдrдm,
,
. )Б Зhis
period which goes on until Galileo, scholar thought that they know all details of
the creation of the universe, the secrets of the universe, what will be happen
after life, the most profound mysteries of metaphysics, the principles that
govern the moving of objects and powers that shape the material world.
According to them there was nothing in the nature and in the supernature
which was not explained and known (Russell, 1969, 32). Because of this
feature, in time, scholastic view became closed for the free search and critical
thinking. Scholastic view is a vicious cyclic endeavor which just tries to prove
religious statements and it does not try to understand the factual world.
Moreover, it caused to begin the tradition of the Inquisition (Ayvaz, 2002, 70).
126
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
As reaction to this atmosphere which is closed to the different thoughts,
modern understanding appeared.
AБcieБЗ Greece s aБd RВme s rediscovery of knowledge tradition caused born of
Renaissance and it can be said that after 17th century modern period started.
The most distinctive feature of modern period is rationality, getting secularism,
industrialization and science. According to the understanding of this period,
human does not live in an environment planned for himself but in a wild
nature. Human should be the owner of the nature and rule it. Fort his, the
strongest device is science. According to statement of F. Bacon, science is the
power (scientia potestas est). The knowledge which will give this power, first of
all shВИld be chaБged aБd imГrВved. The ВБlМ waМ Вf eБabliБg Зhis is ЗВ base
science on observation and experiment; and getting rid of biases. In this way
the ethical values which direct the human life, were pushed away from the
iБЗeresЗ Вf scieБce Demir,
,
. NaЗИral ГhilВsВГhМ Вf Зhe th century
declared that secrets of the nature are dark fort for the human mind. Secret
powers which occupy the universe could be learБЗ bМ ВБlМ exГerimeБЗ . This
view is one of the most important statements of epistemological transformation
(Westfall, 2000, 32). With the Cartesian philosophy of Descartes soul and
material separated from each other and the thought have settled that
mechaБic rИles are valid iБ maЗerial wВrld . This, iБ БexЗ ГeriВds Гaved Зhe
waМ fВr aГГeariБg ГВsiЗivisЗ aБd maЗerialisЗ ИБdersЗaБdiБg. UБiversal
mechanism, have proceeded since Descartes ruled physic, biology, astronomy
aБd chemisЗrМ BВlaМ,
, 30). Afterwards this effect has been seen in both
sociology and psychology.
In Medieval Age, Western ethical understanding was shaped by the Christian
theology (Lewis, 1967, 160). Real happiness can be obtained by leading a life
suitable to the rules of God. The orders of God are good and the prohibitions of
God are bad. This world is not eternal and real life will begin after death. The
way of getting happiness in this world is only possible by religious life and the
real happiness is in heaven. In this world human should not run after sensual
pleasures, should get away from sensual pleasures as soon as possible. Western
ethical understanding in Medieval Age resembles substantially Stoic thought.
When have a look on after Renaissance, the effects of rationalism began to be
seen in Western thought. The freedom of the individual was tried to be
prioritized. There was a functional approach towards ethic principles as they
provide order of sociological life. According to Descartes (1946, 71) who is one
of the most important names of this period, freedom of the individual is notably
important. In other words about happiness one of the prerequisite is that
127
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
individual should be free. And, according to Lock (1999, 312-313), as well; the
individual should be free and ethic principles are necessary for the benefit of
society. It is compulsive in terms of happiness of everybody. Here there is a
factionalist approach towards ethic. It is possible to see a similar thought about
benefit in Hume (Bairer, 1992, 569). According to Kant (1995, 12-14), it is
possible to isolated ethic from God and benefit. According to him ethical virtue
should be suitable to the duty and only as it suits to the maxim, it should act
according to it. Human should protect his happiness because of duty but not his
ЗeБdeБcМ. NВБeЗheless GВd is Зhe ИlЗimaЗe assИraБce Вf Зhe miss Вf eЗhics aБd
happiness. Therefore existence of God, immortality of the soul and freedom are
Зhe iБdisГeБsable ГВsЗИlaЗe Вf miБd. )Б ВЗher wВrds, KaБЗ s emГhasiНe ВБ
ethics, features existence of God and afterlife in the level of requires evaluating
iЗ as a ГВsЗИlaЗe T“rkeri,
,
. YeЗ here Зhe ЗhiБg which is defiБiЗive ВБ
whaЗ are Зhe eЗhical valИes is БВЗ a sИГerБaЗИral refereБce ЗВ Зhe miБd. )Б Зhe
process between 17th and 19th centuries, dominant idea in Western ethic
thought was that if a universal, international, ethic system is developed, ethical
dilemmas will be sВlved (ackБeМ,
,
. OБe Вf Зhe mВsЗ imГВrЗaБЗ
features of enlightening ideas is that, anymore religious statement will not be
required as the reference; instead mind and science will be featured. And also
about ethic, the same approach is the point of question and according to this
Зerm s acceГЗaБce if Зhere is a ИБiversal eЗhical ГriБciГle, Зhis principle can be
grounded with mind.
In the understanding of 19th century, if the universe is ruled by the legislations
of the nature, then it is not necessary to believe in a supernatural power (Bayet,
2004, 24). Suggestions of the religion are invalid, and religion is just the theme
of science. For instance according to Jane Harrison Religion have risen from the
dissatisfied desire and it is regulated on important events such as human life,
death, birth and marriage (Malinowski, 2000, 13). In this resГecЗ religiВБ is a
cultural system and it has a functional value both for the individual and society.
For instance one of the most powerful satisfaction of instincts, is immortality,
they are presentations which are saturating people sensibly like rebirth or life
afЗer deaЗh MaliБВwski,
,
. AccВrdiБg ЗВ ВБe Вf Зhe esЗablishers Вf
modern psychology Sigmund Freud (2011a, 28), religious thoughts, as other
systems of civilization, rose after as a result of search of confidence in the
nature. This apprВach reflecЗs mВderБ ГsМchВlВgМ s regard ЗВwards religiВБ.
Freud launched that the religion discusses as a product of human in psychology.
FreИd s imГВrЗaБce fВr ГsМchВlВgМ is Зhe same wiЗh Marks s imГВrЗaБce fВr
sВciВlВgМ aБd DarwiБ s imГВrЗaБce Вf biВlВgy. Freud said that human has two
basic motives such as sex and aggression and acts in order to satisfy them.
128
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
Religion has no future anymore. According to Freud (2011a, 48-59) religious
doctrines consists of illusion. There is no longer a future of religion. Religion is
no longer as effective on humans as before. Thanks to the science, we should
establish the civilization on the rationalist basics. According to Freud (2011a, 619), civilization is all of the features that separates human from animal; forces
which human has it in order to rule the nature; and knowledge which are used
in order to use the nature. Civilization consists in the common life of people and
people have made some sacrifices on behalf of the common life. Human affairs
are established on acts which are used to suppress the instincts and
unhappiness is caused by the suppression of instincts. This is a complete
paradox. Since, if there would not have been suppress and force, then the
wealth would not have been obtained, and people would have been destructive
towards each other. Retirement of the limits of the civilization, would take only
one person to the real happiness. For other people happiness would never be
point of question. Yet, people run after happiness. People want that pain and
dissatisfaction not to increase in addition to this, they want to have dense
pleasure senses. Happiness is just about desire of pleasure feelings. The thing
defining the aim of life is the principle of pleasure. Nevertheless this is not
completely applicable. Because in short, happiness is the satisfaction of needs.
Accordingly, our opportunity to become happy is limited with our body. Our
own bodies, external world and other people are the obstacles against it (Freud,
2011b, 71-72). Nevertheless we should direct to the principles provided by the
science getting rid of moral principles and religion limiting our freedom. These
views of Freud strengthen the manner of psychology which is against the
religion and views of psychology which is about religion. As the examples for
these Köse (2005, 52-53) determined that: religion makes emphasize on
consciousness and psychoanalysis does it on sub consciousness; while religion
talks about freedom of the will, psychoanalysis talks about determinism.
FreИd s descriГЗiВБ Вf human is in the shape of an automat and human nature is
mechanical. Freud has a deterministic understanding. Freud says that there is a
determinist structure under the sub consciousness and adds that all
phenomenon act according to principle of causality (Köse, 2005, 60). Over
FreИd s Зhese views, absВlИЗe aБd deЗermiБisЗ ИБiversal ИБdersЗaБdiБg which
has been undergoing since Newton showed its effect clearly.
According to Erich Fromm (1995, 220) who belongs to the next generation
ГsМchВlВgisЗ, haГГiБess is not a gift of the Gods, but a success which is realized
bМ Зhe iБgeБИiЗМ iБside Зhe ГersВБ . FrВmm
,
, ВБ accВИБЗ Вf drawiБg
Вf Зhe ИБdersЗaБdiБg Вf haГГiБess iБ mВderБ ГeriВd, discИsses SГeБcer s
understanding of ethic and happiness and pleasure understanding inside it like
129
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
ЗhaЗ: AccВrdiБg ЗВ SГeБcer hИmaБ s haГГiБess aБd ГleasИre descriГЗiВБ is
abВИЗ evВlИЗiВБ ГrВcess. EvВlИЗiВБ ГrВcess is esЗablished ВБ a creaЗИre s effВrЗ
to survive. Pain means harmful and pleasure means useful. Accordingly a living
creaЗИre rИБs afЗer Зhe ЗhiБg which is ИsefИl fВr iЗ. (ИmaБ s sЗrИggle fВr
surviving and proliferation like just any animal. Being successful in surviving
and proliferation, more pleasure and less pain are the simplest formulas of the
happiness. After Freud, modern psychology in spite of the fact that it tended to
humanism, but imagination and evolutionist understanding of 19 th century
went on. The statement of T. Hobbes homo homini lupus can be seen as the
definition of the understanding of modern world which is isolated from virtues
and directed to pleasure. Since this statement is the definition of individualism
and selfish system. Individualist understanding of modern period directed
human to the happiness view which is isolated from virtues. Nevertheless the
ВБlМ caБal ЗВ ГrВЗecЗ ГeВГle s righЗs ЗВward each ВЗher is БВЗ Зhe gВverБmeБЗ
and law but should be values interiorized by people. Not only about protecting
ВЗher s righЗ bИЗ abВИЗ ВИЗrighЗ virЗИes sИch as alЗrИism, cВmГassiВБ,
forgiveness, gratitude etc.) have an important function. In modern period
virtues have been ignored or transformed. For example virtues such as
compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, patience etc. have been ignored in modern
period.
In short, it can be said that before modernity, religion had certain dominance
on the question of what happiness is. Nevertheless Modern understanding
which is distant from religion took place of scholastic thoughts and afterwards
the viewpoint about happiness changed and a secular psychology
ИБdersЗaБdiБg rВse. Before modern medicine and psychology, theologians
were the therapists of the West. They addressed anxiety and depression,
psychopathology and character flaws. With the advent of modern psychology,
theology's contribution to understanding human psychology has been
considerably muted. Some recent theologians have distanced themselves from
modern psychology because it is based on secular presuppositions of human
iБdeГeБdeБce frВm GВd CharrМ,
,
. Therefore psychology was
indiffereБЗ ЗВ Зhe religiВБ. ReligiВБ s views Вf hИmaБ aБd eЗhic did БВЗ fiБd
place in psychology. Instead of this, modern understanding which sees human
as the last element of the evolution process, started looking for happiness in
anywhere else.
130
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
Happiness Crisis of the Modern World
Modernity could keep most of his promises. From now on average lifetime is
longer, struggling with illnesses more successful, we have more reliable
opportunities of harboring, we do not worry about nutrition, and are leading a
more comfortable life compared to a hundred years earlier. In spite of these,
Зhere is sВmeЗhiБg gВiБg wrВБg. )Б WesЗerБ sВcieЗies, maЗerial life sЗaБdards
and national income increased but at the same time neurotic disorder and
chrВБic meБЗal illБess… Practical indicators such as harboring, education or
purchasing power increased. Against it subjective / individual power of welfare
decreased. )Б ВИr daМ, deГressiВБs are ЗeБ Зimes mВre ЗhaБ
UЗsch,
,
. DeГressiВБ has beeБ iБcreasiБg siБce WВrld War II. Today young
ГeВГle s ГВssibiliЗМ Вf sИfferiБg frВm deГressiВБ heavilМ is ЗeБ Зimes mВre ЗhaБ
ЗhaЗ Вf graБdmВЗhers aБd graБdfaЗhers SeligmaБ,
,
. Even if we
were asymptotically successful at removing depression, anxiety and anger, that
wВИld БВЗ resИlЗ iБ haГГiБess SeligmaБ eЗc.,
,
. The person who has
property, money, worldwide fame and people who love him very much in spite
of the fact that he is not happy, and seeks happiness in alcohol and drugs and
afterward he may commit suicide and finishes his life. Whitney Houston and
Elvis Presley were addicted to drugs and alcohol, they died because of that.
Famous people such as Amy Winehouse, Kurt Cobain, Jim Morrison were
addicted to drugs and committed suicide. Yet most of us thought that they are
incredibly happy. But scientifically it is stated that money can never purchase
haГГiБess. Richard EasЗerliБg, iБ
s cВmГared AmericaБ s level Вf
happiness and economic data and in passing time, despite national income four
times increased, in level of happiness there is not any increase. It is not valid
only for America but Germany, England (Karaçay, 2012, 17-18). Happiness is
not about cure of the illnesses and purchasing power directly. When the
relationship between life satisfaction and purchasing power is studied, it was
seen that more wealth does not provide more satisfaction and happiness
SeligmaБ,
,
. AfЗer each sИccess, iЗ is mВre clearlМ seeБ ЗhaЗ mВБeМ,
power, position or commodities do not contribute to the life qИaliЗМ aЗ all
(Csikszentmihalyi, 2005, 17). )З has beeБ fВИБd ЗhaЗ afЗer basic hИmaБ Бeeds
are met, happiness is not clearly associated with wealth or material affluence.
The finding that wealth, material possessions and happiness are poorly
correlated has the potential to make a significant contribution to society as it
challenges many assumptions fundamental to western culture, where the
accИmИlaЗiВБ Вf maЗerial ГВssessiВБs is highlМ sВИghЗ Norrish and VellaBrodrick, 2008, 398). MВderБiЗМ s ГrВmises and the life style it presented has
not been successful and assumptions of modern understanding and life style
131
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
has been started to be questioned. Martin Seligman (2011, 290-291)
summarizes the reached point in this way:
From Medieval Age to the Renaissance, egВ was small… TВwards Зhe eБd Вf
ReБaissaБce egВ brВadeБed… BrВadeБiБg Вf egВ is sЗill gВiБg ВБ ЗВdaМ. OИr
wealth and technology revealed an ego which makes choice, enjoys, deplores,
acts, tries to carry the things in his hands to a better level or is content with
what he has and even has unique emotions such as self-respect, effectiveness
and self-cВБfideБce… This Бew egВ which carries Зhe ГleasИre ЗВ Зhe lisЗ Вf
miБded ЗhiБgs is a big egВ… Anymore we have a culture which is formed of big
egos. We are making choices among services and goods which are designed
according to the individual and reaching beyond of them in order to obtain
more privileged freedoms. Broadened ego, brings a set of dangers with the
freedoms. And the primary one is a big depression… TВdaМ Зhe grВwЗh Вf egВ,
coincides with the decrease of sense of society, and the loss of high goal. And
Зhese fВrmed a ГrВdИcЗive field, deГressiВБ ЗВ arise… A life which is not
dedicate to values apart from itself, in fact is an unpleasant life. People need a
context of meaning and hope. In the past we had a wide context. When we faced
with a failure, in that context, we could rest on our spiritual furniture and
recreate sense of who are we. I am giving to this context the name common
values. These contains believing in nation , God , family or aim which exceeds
ВИr lives… The eveБЗs ЗВВk Гlace iБ lasЗ qИarЗer Вf ceБЗИrМ, have weakeБed ВИr
context of wider existence, therefore we almost have been denuded against the
usual attacks of ordinary life.
Modernity not only did not keep its promises but left the human among
meaБiБglessБess. New life sЗМle did БВЗ resГВБd ЗВ hИmaБ s search Вf meaБiБg.
PВsiЗivisЗ exГressiВБs aБd mВderБ ВГГВrЗИБiЗies geБerallМ cВИld БВЗ reГlace
the religion and worse contributed to Зhe develВГmeБЗ Вf meaБiБglessБess
Bahadдr,
,
. OБe Вf Зhe biggesЗ ГrВblems which mВderБiЗМ brВИghЗ ЗВ
Зhe hИmaБ life is dВИbЗlesslМ meaБiБglessБess Bahadдr,
,
. FraБkl
(2010, 113) says that for human, effort of finding a meaning in his life is an
impulsion. Frankl (2010, 150-153) found in his so many investigations that
there is a close relation between psychological disorder and being search of
meaБiБg. There is sИch a relaЗiВБ beЗweeБ hИmaБ s search Вf meaБiБg aБd
beiБg haГГМ. AccВrding to Frankl modern human is suffering from being
prevented from search of meaning but not being prevented from meeting
sexИal Бeeds Вr search Вf ГВwer / ГerfecЗiВБ Bahadдr,
,
. (ИmaБ s
one of the biggest source of meaning, has been religion until modern periods.
It has been suggested that a focus on materialism has negative consequences
on individual well-being and relationships because wealth and material goods
132
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
distract individuals from sources that lead to true happiness and psychological
fИlfillmeБЗ Norrish and Vella-Brodrick, 2008, 399). These sources are religion
and spirituality. It is thought that after modernity the effects of religion and
after religion, the religion itself will disappear. But quite the contrary after 20 th
century return to the divinity has begun. A lot of investigation supports this
(e.g. Bell, 2006; Gode, 2000; Glock and Bellah, 1976). AbsВlИЗelМ afЗer
s
religious and spiritual constituents has been started to draw interest. According
to Arslan (2010, 197-201) the reasons of this; the search of meaning of modern
people and crisis which is made out by individualism. The culture which has
advanced technology provides material peace but not spiritual peace. Modern
people have meaning crises and need new meaning structures. Excessive
rationalism causes loss of meaning and society faces with a meaning explosion.
It can be said that psychological movements such as Positive Psychology and
logotherapy bears on search of meaning and spiritual crisis. The source of
1
happiness crisis can be zeitgeist in Western culture (especially American). In
this culture a lot of virtues commended by the religion are ignored and instead
of them the virtues which support the struggle between people are brought
(Matthews and Zeidner, 2003, 137). In order to get rid of happiness crisis,
discussing the virtues and search of meaning again, may be useful.
What is Positive Psychology?
It can be said that modern psychology became a therapy profession and
traditionally it focuses on mental diseases and pathologies. According to some
scientist psychology ignores the positive sides of the human acts. Positive
PsМchВlВgМ mВvemeБЗ direcЗed ЗВ iБvesЗigaЗiБg ГВsiЗive sides Вf ГeВГle s
experiments and situation which can develop people in order to full this need
(Norrish and Vella-Brodrick, 2008, 393-394). The goal of the Positive
Psychology is the study of the good life and the strategy it uses doing this is
scientific method (Peterson and Park, 2003, 145). Although so many statements
have been made about happiness until today, many branches of the science
have not tried to respond to this philosophic question. Yet science may
enlighten the components of happiness and investigate empirically what
establishes these components (Seligman etc., 2004, 1380). In order to make this
investigation in 1998 Martin Seligman who was the president of American
Psychological Association launched the Positive Psychology movement
(Peterson and Park, 2003, 143). Seligman declared his inconvenience by stating
1
The spirit of the age.
133
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
that psychology is not interested in improvement themes but in mental health
disВrders. American psychology before World War II had three objectives: the
first was to cure mental illness, the second was to make relatively untroubled
people happier, and the third was to sЗИdМ geБiИs aБd high ЗaleБЗ (Seligman
etc., 2004, 1379). New psychology movement to whom Positive Psychology
gave its name makes an effort on providing paradigm change in psychology and
emГhasiНes ВБ PВsiЗive PsМchВlВgical feaЗИres. )З is a mВvemeБЗ Зhat hopes to
balaБce maiБsЗream ГsМchВlВgМ s ЗradiЗiВБallМ ГessimisЗic view Вf hИmaБ
БaЗИre (ackБeМ,
,
. )Б shВrЗ, iЗ caБ be said ЗhaЗ PВsiЗive PsМchВlВgМ
deals with positive behaviors such as happiness, well being, pleasure, enjoy.
According to Seligman the paths that lead to happiness are such: gratification,
pleasure and meaning. The main characters of the gratification, completely
bewitches us. Pleasures aspirate us. Despite the pleasures are enjoyable
actions, they do not necessarily accompany ЗВ Зhe ГВsiЗive seБses. FiБdiБg flВw
iБ graЗificaЗiВБs Бeed БВЗ iБvВlve aБМЗhiБg larger ЗhaБ Зhe self SeligmaБ eЗc.,
,
. AgaiБsЗ Зhe seБses which are creaЗed iБ a verМ reliable waМ,
establishing life around sensual pleasures is not easy, because all of them are
mВmeБЗarМ… we easilМ geЗ Иsed ЗВ Зhem aБd iБ Вrder ЗВ ЗasЗe Зhe ГleasИre iБ
firsЗ Зime, we sЗarЗ ЗВ Бeed higher dВses… ИБless Зhese kiБd Вf saЗisfacЗiВБs are
carried out in distant periods, the pleasures which are point of question,
disaГГears SeligmaБ,
,
. PВsiЗive PsМchВlВgМ makes seБse mВre ЗhaБ
being hedonic. Simple hedonic theory is unsuccessful in terms of a positive life
without strength, virtue and meaning. According to simple hedonic theory a
good life occurs when the total of good moments exceeds the total of bad
moments. It is not a true approach (Seligman and Pawelski, 2003, 160).
Wealthy cultures invent myriad shortcuts to feeling good. These produce
positive emotion in us without our going to the trouble of using our strengths
and virtues. Shopping, drugs, chocolate, loveless sex, and television are all
examples. Positive psychology does not deny that these shortcuts, along with
2
many others can result in positive emotion. However, following Nozick (and
Aristotle), positive psychology is principally interested in the emotions that
resИlЗ frВm Зhe exercise Вf sЗreБgЗhs aБd virЗИes (Seligman and Pawelski,
2003, 161). According to NafsЗad ГВsiЗive ГsМchВlВgМ sЗrВБglМ assВciaЗes iЗself
with the Aristotelian model of hИmaБ БaЗИre (ackБeМ,
,
. BecaИse
Seligman emphasizes on virtues like Aristotle and puts forward ideas about
ЗhaЗ haГГiБess caБ be ГrВvided wiЗh a virЗИВИs life. TВgeЗher wiЗh ChrisЗВГher
Peterson, he examines the moral and religious literatures from a wide array of
2
Rober Nozick (1938-2002), American philosopher.
134
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
cultures, giving some emphasis to the moral traditions in world religions and
classical Greece MarЗiБ,
,
. AccВrdiБg ЗВ SeligmaБ haГГiБess is
relevant to the virtues. It can be said that virtues are about social traditions and
from time to time and from society to society, they can change. Nonetheless
there are six common virtues which take place in each religious and cultural
tradition. These are such as; wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance
and transcendence. These cВБsЗiЗИЗe alЗВgeЗher Зhe БВЗiВБ Вf gВВd characЗer
(Seligman, 2007, 144-147). According to Seligman, good character is the main
idea of the Positive Psychology. Good character gets strength with the
responsibility and willpower. In addition to this Positive Psychology is neither
meliorism which dogmatizes nor has emphasis of benevolence or belief (Utsch,
2008, 171). Seligman claims that positive character in which power and virtue
deployed is something which is the way going to the good life. Good life is
different form pleasant life as a kind, but not less perfect or less positive
(Seligman and Pawelski, 2003, 161). In other words happiness is having a good
character and good character is about virtue. Accordingly it can be said that
happiness is about beiБg virЗИВИs. This ЗhВИghЗ resembles ArisЗВЗle s ЗhВИghЗ
Вf haГГiБess aБd alsВ sВme ВЗher GreciaБ ГhilВsВГhers . NeverЗheless iЗ caББВЗ
be said properly that Seligman denies pleasure and puts forward virtues like in
Ancient Greece. Since Seligman attaches different importance to the pleasures
the one important is how we distribute pleasures to our life instead of leading a
life iБdexed ЗВ Зhe ГleasИres. )Б resГecЗ ЗhereВf iЗ is said ЗhaЗ: (Вw МВИ
disЗribИЗe Зhe ГleasИres dИriБg Зhe Зime is verМ imГВrЗaБЗ… add your life many
events which creates pleasure as soon as possible, yet distribute them and let
Гassage Вf Зime mВre ЗhaБ ИsИal beЗweeБ Зhem SeligmaБ,
,
.
Pleasures do not provide the same satisfaction as the first time, without
overdose and passage of time. Therefore, we use them properly.
Another important person in Positive Psychology movement is Mihaly
Csikszentmihalyi. According to Csikszentmihalyi (2005, 47-51) happiness is
gotten by letting life of flow. Flow is order in conscious. This situation is the
contrast of psychic disarranges and this is a high-level experience. Flow makes
Зhe mВmeБЗ mВre ГleasИrable. PeВГle are eБgrВssed iБ sВmeЗhiБg, acЗiviЗМ
instinctively, almost automatically realizes; therefore people cannot be warred
of themselves differeБЗlМ frВm Зhe acЗiviЗies… Зhe aim Вf Зhe flВw is ЗВ flВw; БВЗ
ЗВ reach ЗВ a ЗrИЗh Вr ИЗВГia. FlВw is ЗВ remaiБ Зhe case… )З is БВЗ a risiБg ИГ,
bИЗ flВwiБg cВБЗiБИВИslМ (CsiksНeБЗmihalМi,
,
. )Б life Вf flВw, Зhe
person can forget about everything which he does not like. As the pleasurable
acЗiviЗМ, gaЗhers aЗЗeБЗiВБ, БВ Гlace is available fВr Зhe ВЗher ЗhiБgs
(CsiksНeБЗmihalМi,
,
. A keМ elemeБЗ Вf a high level Вf exГerieБce, is
135
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
ЗhaЗ Зhe ГИrГВse iЗself (Csikszentmihalyi, 2005, 80). With the flow, bother
leaves its place to the pleasure. Return to a flow from an ordinary life, it is
possible only by changes and challenges. Csikszentmihalyi gives an example of
a ГersВБ whВ dВБ З kБВw ГlaМiБg ЗeББis iБ Вrder ЗВ exГlaiБ Зhe flВw. For the
person who does not know how to play tennis, holding the racket smoothly and
throwing the ball to the beyond of file is very hard. For the person who tries to
achieve this, a flow occurs and getting achieving this, the flow goes on. Yet after
a while this does not give pleasure anymore. New challenges and new limits are
needed. Doing this when an opponent is there, start to be more enjoyable
according to the previous one and flow goes on. At first, while the opponents
responding is enough, afterwards the opponents being challenging sustains the
flow. Thus the need for renewal and challenges goes on. When the degree of
difficulty increases, if the degree of ability does not increase, anxiety appears.
When degree of ability is going on increasing, if the degree of difficulty does not
increase, drabness occurs. Life of flow goes on when degree of ability and
difficИlЗМ iБcreases iБ Зhe same level. PersВБ dВes БВЗ eБjВМ wiЗh dВiБg Зhe
same ЗhiБg iБ same level, fВr a lВБg Зime (Csikszentmihalyi, 2005, 90). Yet,
maМbe Зhe weak side Вf CsiksНeБЗmihalМi s ЗheВrМ is Зhis. SiБce iБ aБМ wВrk,
degree of ability and degree of difficulty have limits. Because of these limits
sВВБer Вr laЗer, aБxieЗМ will ВccИr dИe ЗВ Зhe degree Вf abiliЗМ s limiЗ Вr bВЗher
will aГГear dИe ЗВ Зhe degree Вf difficИlЗМ s limiЗ. )Б ВЗher wВrds flВw has ЗВ
finish in any point.
According to Csikszentmihalyi (2005, 53) there are two strategy in order to
increase the quality of life. The first is trying to enable external conditions to
suit to our goals; the second is to change external conditions, as suitable for our
lives and goals. Also happiness is about perceiving external conditions and
commenting on it but not changing them. Happiness is about the way of using
ВИr miБd. PleasИre is a main element of life quality but does not give joy by
iЗself… eБjВМable eveБЗs Зakes Гlace wheБ ВБe achieves sВmeЗhiБg ИБexГecЗed
Вr, sВmeЗhiБg ВБ which he has Бever ЗhВИghЗ… we caБ Зake graЗificaЗiВБ
without using psychic energy; yet pleasure is obtained only as a result of
exЗraВrdiБarМ aЗЗeБЗiВБ (Csikszentmihalyi, 2005, 56-57). Concentrating or not
concentrating on the same event, can affect pleasure, also happiness.
According to Csikszentmihalyi (2005, 138-139) physical and mental functions
produce flow. From the point of these factors which are producing flow; two
different pleasures can be defined as mental pleasures and physical pleasures.
In physical activities, there is a mental extent. Similarly in mental activities,
there is a physical extent. For instance, in yoga body control is within conscious
control. The conditions necessary for mental activities to be enjoyable, is the
136
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
same with physical activities. We cannot concentrate on one thing without the
stimulants coming from external world. This shows that we have a very limited
control on our mind. When there is nothing to occupy our mind, our control
disappears and the mind starts to be busy with the things which are not nice for
us. We should order our thoughts. When conscious is left alone, it is irregular
and this irregularity is not enjoyable. In other words we should occupy our
mind every time. When the mind directs to itself, unhappiness will arise.
Finally we can say that about Positive Psychology: this movement has
contributed to the cВБceГЗИaliНiБg haГГiБess aБd becВmiБg ГsМchВlВgМ s
Зheme. SeligmaБ s ЗheВrМ abВИЗ aБ eБjВМable life aБd aИЗheБЗic haГГiБess is
especially important, which has been established on hedonic and eudemonic
happiness concepts. The biggest contribution of Seligman is carrying values
areas ЗВ Зhe ГsМchВlВgМ s field Вf iБЗeresЗ aБd CsiksНeБЗmiahlМi s cВБЗribИЗiВБ is
integrating flow theory with the concept of well-being (Norrish and VellaBrodrick, 2008, 395). It can be said that both of scholars were affected by the
previous philosophers in their contributions. For instance, according to
Robbins humanist psychology is under the skin of Positive Psychology. Yet, this
term was firstly used by Maslow about 40 years ago. Because of this common
point between them many supporters greeted Positive Psychology warmly.
According to Robbins, in spite of these, Positive Psychology has a colder style
accВrdiБg ЗВ hИmaБisЗ ГsМchВlВgМ. OБe Вf Зhese cВld sЗМle s reasВБs maМ be
giving more or less importance to pleasure. Thus Positive Psychology has been
defined by some any psychologist as a hedonic approach to the psychology
(Robbins, 2008, 97-101). Or one of the fundamentals of being criticized by
psychology may be the remains positivist standpoint.
Positive Psychology and Religion
According to Aristotle, the main goal of the human acts is to be happy.
AccВrdiБg ЗВ ГsМchВaБalМsis hИmaБ acЗ s direcЗive elemeБЗ is exГerieБces Вf
childhood and sub-consciousness. According to behaviorists our acts should be
reinforced. All of these approaches present valuable ideas in terms of
understanding human nature. But none of them can respond the question:
(Вw Зhe hИmaБ becВmes haГГМ? TherefВre PВsiЗive PsМchВlВgМ is aБ
important step in terms of discussing the happiness in a more healthy ground.
It discusses religion and religious discourses in a more constructive way and
Зhis is mВre imГВrЗaБЗ ГВiБЗ. A worthy goal for those working in the field of
positive psychology is to communicate that materialism and consumerism do
not result in sustainable increases in happiness and can have negative
137
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
reГercИssiВБs ВБ ГsМchВlВgical fИlfillmeБЗ Norrish and Vella-Brodrick, 2008,
399). Human does not become happy only feeling pleasure. Positive Psychology
is an important step in the world of psychology and with this step it became to
be talked that virtues restore the social life and they have a function about
happiness. ScieБЗific sЗИdМ Вf virЗИes Вver Зhe lasЗ
Мears, Зhis has beeБ
supplemented and reinvigorated with the interest of researchers within
ГВsiЗive ГsМchВlВgМ Lewis aБd CrИise,
,
. MВsЗ Вf Зhe virЗИes Вrdered
by Seligman and their strengths (gratitude, hope, religiousness, kindness, love)
(Seligman etc., 2005, 412) are the things whose absence is felt in the modern
world. For instaБce abВИЗ SeligmaБ s cВБceГЗ Вf graЗiЗИde, EmmВБs
,
saМs ЗhaЗ: OИr iБvesЗigaЗiВБ shВws ЗhaЗ ГeВГle, whВ are graЗefИl, have ГВsiЗive
feelings such as joy, love, happiness, optimism mostly; gratitude protects
human from the harmful feelings such as jealousy, anger, pain and ambition.
The people who have sense of gratitude can cope with stress; show increased
resistance to stress as a result of trauma; heal more quickly than the disease;
become healthier. We observed that people are more gracious, and closer to the
GВd, aБd fИll Вf lВve wheБ ЗheМ have seБse Вf graЗiЗИde . )Б sВ maБМ sЗИdies iЗ
has beeБ shВwed ЗhaЗ deГressiВБ aБd graЗiЗИde iБ a cВБЗrasЗ relaЗiВБ
(Emmons, 2009, 41). Again according to some investigations, for instance,
mВral characЗer features such as modesty and submission encourage the
health-based saЗisfacЗiВБ… OrdiБarМ sЗrИggle which are deГeБd ВБ arrВgaБce,
narcissism, and superiority is more damaging to the self-confidence than
beБefiЗs… ThВse whВ have Зhe seБse Вf graЗiЗИde feel more peaceful in ordinary
life aБd caБ deal wiЗh chrВБic disВrders mВre easilМ (Utsch, 2008, 170-171). To
sИm ИГ virЗИe ГrВmВЗes haГГiБess, ВИr ВwБ as well as ЗhaЗ Вf ВЗhers…
cultivating virtue will make you happy MarЗiБ,
,
. This is valid БВt
only for gratitude but also for other virtues and strengths. Therefore it can be
thought that the studies about virtues deal with how people become happy and
about positive approaches towards religion. Its importance in terms of our
point is that it constitutes intersection points with religion. Virtues and
especially spirituality (or transcendence as Seligman says) is this intersection
ГВiБЗ. BecaИse, wheБ iЗ cВmes ЗВ religiВБ, iЗ wВИld БВЗ be wrВБg ЗВ saМ ЗhaЗ
religion is a moral system, because major religions on earth, directly or
iБdirecЗlМ, Вffer a lifesЗМle aЗ Зhe same Зime T“rkeri,
,
. AlmВsЗ all Вf
the virtues (for example love, forgiveness, modesty) have a connection with the
religious point of view (Martin, 2007, 97). For instance, if we will consider
gratitude, in every major religion, it is stated that people should be grateful for
the benedictions given by God and gratitude is a virtue. There are many
sЗaЗemeБЗs iБ Зhe QИraБ abВИЗ graЗiЗИde sИch as be graЗefИl ЗВ Me, aБd rejecЗ
not Me Al-Baqara, 2: 152), aБd swifЗlМ shall We reward ЗhВse ЗhaЗ serve Иs
138
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
wiЗh graЗiЗИde Al-i Imran, 3: 145). In The Bible there are statements
eБcВИragiБg graЗiЗИde sИch as O give thanks to the Lord, for He is good
(Psalms, 136: 1), Be thankful and saМ sВ ЗВ (im (Psalms, 100: 4). Not only
gratitude but other virtues, which Seligman addressed, take place in scriptures.
AБd SeligmaБ alsВ acceГЗs ЗhaЗ Зhese virЗИes ЗakiБg Гlace iБ mВsЗ religiВБs. )Б
religions, it is advised that sensual pleasure should be ignored while putting
forward virtues. This approach can be seen in either Buddhism, or Christianity
or Islam.
In spite of the fact that, in Positive Psychology there are statements about
religion, it does not mean that, it is a religious psychological movement.
PВsiЗive PsМchВlВgМ is Зhe child Вf scieБce. This ГsМchВlВgical aГГrВach,
iБvesЗigaЗes which sВlИЗiВБ ВvercВmes Зhe life. )Б addiЗiВБ, iЗ is БВЗ Зhe
advВcaЗe Вf ГВsiЗivism ; iБ cВБЗrasЗ iЗ is abВИЗ hВw ГeВГle ВvercВme wiЗh Зhe
problems in life… iЗ Бever asserЗs a mВral claim… AБ iБvesЗigaЗiВБ meЗhВd
which belongs to Positive Psychology discovers the constructive potentials of
values and moral virtues which has been promoted and expressed by religions
fВr a lВБg Зime (Utsch, 2008, 170). Gratitude is one of the important concepts
of Positive Psychology, but here gratitude is discussed in a pragmatist way in
terms of happiness and mental health. Nevertheless Freud says that gratitude is
a benefit-oriented behavior. Namely, Positive Psychology does not discuss
virtues in the same way with religions. Even some approaches are opposite to
religion and they remain distant from religion.
One of the psychologists who have a negative point of view towards religion is
Csikszentmihalyi. According to Csikszentmihalyi (2005, 11), universe has not
been prepared for our comfort. There are many challenges to confront in the
ИБiverse. This ИБdersЗaБdiБg resembles F. BacВБ s ИБdersЗaБdiБg which
defines wild structure of the universe and prescribes that we should domain
Зhe БaЗИre. The sВИrce Вf disaГГrВval is iБЗerБal, aБd each ГersВБ shВИld fiБd
these sources and bring them into open by himself. Shields worked in the past
such as religion, patriotism, ethnic traditions and social classes, are no longer
effective fВr Зhe ГeВГle… )Б ГasЗ Зimes, Зhe mВsЗ direcЗ waМ Вf faciБg wiЗh Зhe
problem of existentialism was religion and today frustrated people are
choosing Eastern beliefs or gravitating towards religion. Nevertheless religions
have a temporary success is dealing with absence of meaning, religion fails to
giviБg a cВБЗemГВrarМ resГВБse (Csikszentmihalyi, 2005, 16-18). According to
CsiksНeБЗmihalМi
,
religiВБ is Зhe ВldesЗ aБd mВsЗ cВБsisЗeБЗ aЗЗemГЗ
to create order in consciousness. Therefore it is plausible that religious ritual is
aБ imГВrЗaБЗ sВИrce Вf ГleasИre . ReligiВБ is a ИsefИl acЗiviЗМ field bИЗ БВЗ
functional anymore in terms of providing happiness and completed its mission.
139
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
Religion and Happiness
There is a relation between religion and happiness. This is a fact stated clearly.
Since William James (1842-1910), psychologists think that there is a relation
between well-beiБg aБd religiВБ, wВrshiГ, riЗИals DaМ,
,
. MВderБ
psychology, accepts constructive potential of the religion. Today psychologists,
evaluate religion in a more positive way according to the past. In the past
religion was regarded as something which should be battled with and
annihilated, today its potential which is worth to enhancing, is discovered. New
publications, testifies to the profound transformation. A lively religiousness is
appreciated because of its supportive function and it is used partially as a
meЗhВd Вf ЗreaЗmeБЗ (Utsch, 2008, 172). There is a lot of investigation about it.
In most of investigations, iБ ВЗher wВrds, iБ
ГerceБЗ Вf Зhe iБvesЗigaЗiВБs, iЗ
has been detected that a higher life satisfaction, a great happiness and morality
were accompanied by religious faith. Among 14 investigations, hope, meliorism
and meaning of life are indicators of spiritual health, in 12 of them there is a
positive relation with religiousness and in 2 of them relation is not found. In
101 investigations in which the relation between religion and depression is
investigated, it is understood that non-religious men are more depressive in
3/2 level then religious men. It is known that similar results are reported for
Зhe ГeВГle whВ have aБ iБЗeБЗiВБ Вf sИicide, are addicЗed ЗВ drИgs aБd alcВhВl
AГaМdдБ,
,
. There a lВЗ Вf fiБdiБgs abВИЗ Зhe ГeВГle whВ gВ ВБ Гray
have a haГГier, mВre meaБiБgfИl aБd healЗhier life Bahadдr,
,
.
According to an investigation done by Kimter on relation between religiousness
and self-esteem; participators with the biggest self-esteem, are the ones who
perceive themselves as religious. Also there is meaningful and positive relation
between belief extent of religious life and self-esЗeem AГaМdдБ,
,
.
There is a relation between religiousness and feelings such as happiness, joy,
reverence. In the same way there is a directly proportional relation between
satisfaction of life, dealing with difficulties of life, personal efficacy and
supervision, feeling of well-being, continuing of marriage, satisfaction of
marriage and some virtues (e.g. forgiving); and there is a inversely proportional
relation between stress, depression, anxiety, illness, trauma, and relationship
problems (Day, 2010, 216-217). According to investigation results done by
Ayten (2010-183), there is a positive relation between religiousness and
emphatic tendency. The investigations done about the relation between
religion and happiness is not limited to this.
Pargament (2005, 280-303) states these in his studies on benefits of
religiousness:
140
Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
Historically, psychologists have taken both sides in the debate on the value of
religious experience (see Wulff, 1997). Religion has been criticized as irrational
and pathological (Leuba, 1925), punitive and exploitative (Skinner, 1953), and
dangerously illusory (Freud, 1927/1961). Conversely, at its best, religion has
been described as a pathway to the highest of human potentials (James, 1902);
a source of balance, harmony, and wholeness (Jung, 1938/1969); a model of
healing relationships (Rizzuto, 1979); and a basis of wisdom and maturity
EriksВБ,
/
… The cВБclИsions regarding the efficacy of religion have
ranged from positive (Becker, 1971) to negative (Dittes, 1969) to inconsistent
or complex (Bergin, 1983; Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Sanua, 1969). How
do we make sense of these different conclusions? They can be attributed not
only to differences in the ways religion has been conceptualized and measured
but also to differences in the criteria of well-being that have been examined by
researchers… BecaИse religiВБ Зakes sВ maБМ fВrms, becaИse Зhere are a hВsЗ Вf
potential moderators of the relationships between religion and well-being, and
because well-being is itself a complex phenomenon, simple answers to
evalИaЗive qИesЗiВБs abВИЗ religiВБ are simГlМ imГВssible… ReligiВБ has bВЗh
costs and benefits to people. The value of religion depends on the kind of
religion, the criteria of well-being, the person, the situation and social context,
and the degree to which the various elements of religious life are welliБЗegraЗed iБЗВ Зhe ГersВБ's life… Зhe meЗhВds Вf ГsМchology can provide no
insights into the truths of religious claims. What psychologists can do is
examine the implications of religious beliefs and practices for the full range of
hИmaБ behaviВr… A religiВБ ЗhaЗ is iБЗerБaliНed, iБЗriБsicallМ mВЗivaЗed, aБd
built on a belief in a greater meaning in life, a secure relationship with God, and
a sense of spiritual connectedness with others has positive implications for
well-being. Conversely, a religion that is imposed, unexamined, and reflective of
a tenuous relationship with God and the world bodes poorly for well-being, at
least in the short-term.
From this point of view, it can be said that the life style presented by religion
provides human a more regular life and help people to struggle with
psychological difficИlЗies; bИЗ iЗ is БВЗ aБ aГГrВach shВwiБg religiВБ s
importance. It can be said easily in point of providing happiness of human,
religiВБ has a cВБЗribИЗiВБ. YeЗ religiВБ s mВsЗ imГВrЗaБЗ cВБЗribИЗiВБ is iЗs
responding to search of meaning.
In modern psychology some psychologists say that obtaining happiness is a
cognitive process. According to Chesterton happiness is something can be
obtained by demand and effort of people (Emmons, 2009, 30). According to
SeligmaБ
, , iБ lasЗ
Мears, ГsМchВlВgМ s ВБe Вf Зhe mВsЗ imГВrЗaБЗ
141
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
discВverМ is ЗhaЗ ГeВГle caБ chВВse Зheir waМ Вf ЗhiБkiБg . FВr iБsЗaБce Зhere
caБ be a lВЗ Вf reasВБs Вf deГressiВБ aБd accВrdiБg ЗВ Beck deГressiВБ is
cВБsciВИs ЗhВИghЗ disВrder SeligmaБ,
,
. )Б Зhe same waМ, according
to Ellis our feelings define our conscious thoughts (Seligman, 2011, 103). But
accВrdiБg ЗВ FraБkl Зhe ГВssibiliЗМ Вf haГГiБess s accrИiБg is verМ lВw, frВm
Зhe mВmeБЗ Вf haГГiБess becВme aБ aim Вr aБ iБЗeБЗiВБ Bahadдr,
,
.
The criЗeriВБ which FraБkl ГИЗ, is abВИЗ hИmaБ s fiБdiБg resГВБse iБ search Вf
meaning. According to Seligman (2011, 294), about happiness the second most
imГВrЗaБЗ elemeБЗ is meaБiБglessБess. (aГГiБess is leadiБg life as
symphonious. According to this Positive Psychology, considers discovering
ГersВБal sЗreБgЗhs aБd develВГiБg Зhem as a dИЗМ… LiviБg meaБiБgfИllМ meaБs,
mВiliБg virЗИes iБ Зerms Вf serviБg a mВre sacrВsaБcЗ facЗ (Utsch, 2008, 172).
Therefore, religion which provides happiness thanks to increase of life quality,
shВИld be seeБ as a mВsЗ imГВrЗaБЗ seriВИslМ sИГГВrЗive elemeБЗ iБ hИmaБ s
search of meaning.
Csikszentmihalyi says that, people in the Middle East, although they were under
pressure, they were calm as they thought that their lives were in the hands of
GВd. (is cВmmeБЗ agaiБsЗ Зhis siЗИaЗiВБ is ЗhaЗ: sИch a ГrВГer belief was alsВ
widespread in our culture, but nowadays to find so is not possible. Most of us
have to discover the aim which will give meaning to our life by ourselves
wiЗhВИЗ his helГ Вf ЗradiЗiВБal belief… creaЗiБg meaБiБg cВБЗaiБs iБЗegraЗiБg
acЗs iБ a flВw aБd ВrderiБg miБd… ГeВГle whВ fiБd Зheir life meaБiБgfИl,
generally have an insistent aim, a meaningfully purpose in their life. This
process caБ be Бamed as reachiБg Зhe aim (Csikszentmihalyi, 2005, 246-247).
Religion shows human a goal, a way to reach this goal and difficulties which
should be overcome to walk in this way. All of these constitute flow life as
Csikszentmihalyi said. Yet this flow will not finish as there is not any degree of
limit and degree of ability, like flow which is constituted for pleasure.
Csikszentmihalyi (2011, 257) says that each person should have a goal in their
life; they have to discover his own aim. This goal is necessary for being happy
and satisfaction of life. He says that, traditional religions will not help people
about the search of meaning anymore. Neither Christianity, nor Islam, nor any
other will do this. It is possible that a new belief system will appear and give a
meaБiБg ЗВ ВИr life aБd iЗ is ЗhrВИgh evВlИЗiВБ. The qИesЗiВБs sИch as Where
we come from?, Where are we going?, Which power is shaping our life?, What is
gВВd aБd bad? will be fВИБd aБswer sМsЗemaЗicallМ bМ evВlИЗiВБ
(Csikszentmihalyi, 2005,
. YeЗ, FraБkl s ИБdersЗaБdiБg Вf search Вf
meaБiБg, is differeБЗ frВm CsiksНeБЗmihalМi s cВББecЗiБg search Вf meaБiБg ЗВ
hИmaБ s will Вf learБiБg aБd kБВwiБg. )Б facЗ search Вf meaБiБg, is ЗrМiБg ЗВ
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Sevinç, Religious Happiness in the Modern World
learБ Зhe resГВБse Вf Зhe qИesЗiВБ whМ . MВderБ science has promised that, it
will give all of the answers concerning universe to human. Nevertheless the
aБswers giveБ bМ scieБce are direcЗed ЗВ Зhe qИesЗiВБ Вf hВw , sВ ЗhaЗ ЗheМ are
narrow-scoped. As differently from science, answers of the religion are directed
ЗВ Зhe qИesЗiВБ Вf whМ aБd iЗ saЗisfies search Вf meaБiБg. )Бdeed haГГiБess,
appears as a result of realizing values suitable to the aims and carrying human
ЗВ Зhe beМВБd Вf himself… )З is ГВssible ЗВ defiБe haГГiБess as sИiЗ aБd
emotional calm which are born after realization of tendencies which give
meaБiБg… (aГГiБess is bВrБ frВm Зhe hИmaБ himself, his life aБd his
eБvirВБmeБЗ aБd Зhe esЗablished meaБiБg Bahadдr,
,
. ReligiВБ gВes
on becoming the most powerful field which provides this meaningful suit.
PsМchВlВgМ is ЗrМiБg ЗВ makiБg searches iБ Вrder ЗВ ИБdersЗaБd Зhe reasВБs
and patterns between social, moral and spiritual situations in which people live.
And religion presents him instructive behavior rules beyond analyzing the
situation of human. Against psychology which does not have to produce
solutions about overcoming moral or spiritual problem, religion says people
hВw he shВИld live SambИr,
,
. PsМchВlВgМ will БeiЗher resГВБd ЗВ
hИmaБ s everМ qИesЗiВБ БВr ГreseБЗ a ИБiqИe waМ iБ hИmaБ s search Вf
meaning. Psychology will continue to provide solutions to the crisis of
happiness of modern man. Religion; which Psychology has started to discover
with the Positive Psychology movement within this search, seems to broaden a
different horizon to psychology.
Conclusion
Most major religions accept that pleasures cannot be the real source of the
happiness, people should not run after them, real happiness can only be
provided by heading towards God and leading a virtues life. Although the
ending of a pain might provide happiness to the individual, a concluding
happiness might also inflict pain. As there is no eternal pleasure in this world,
every pleasure will be a source of pain sooner or later. Therefore, pleasures
cannot be the source of real happiness. People who think that they will be
happy by consuming, always want more and the better. Since the same amount
of pleasure may not be as satisfactory as the previous one. There is a limit of
this increase of happiness and quality and a person who reaches this limit will
have emotions such as dissatisfaction, boredom, helplessness and unhappiness.
And those who struggle for more, will be led to emotions such as ambition and
aggressiveness in addition to anger, hurting and interrupting others. Indeed,
understanding of happiness depending on pleasure may cause unhappiness and
143
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
lack of virtues. If person searches happiness in sensual pleasures, he will feel
unhappy when he cannot increase his pleasure or cannot find another pleasure.
Real happiness is not ignoring pleasures completely or running after them. Also
БeiЗher CМreБe s БВr CМБics lifesЗМle dВesБ З seem like ЗhaЗ iЗ will briБg
happiness to people. These two approaches are generally interiorized by major
religions. In spite of the fact that the opportunities which religions present us,
have been ignored by modernity for years and partially interiorized happiness
understanding of Cyrenaic school, today psychology is on the eve of a new
discovery. Positive Psychology, seems as if a field which rediscovers the things
commended by religion in order for people to become happy. Psychology has
started to acknowledge that virtues of religious origin have a considerable
importance on happiness of people. Beyond this, religion responds to search
meaning which is one of the indispensable condition of reaching real happiness
and institutes happiness. Science can not respond at this level. With all this
feaЗИre religiВБ will gВ ВБ ЗakiБg Гlace effecЗivelМ iБ hИmaБ beiБgs life. PВsiЗive
Psychology Movement which provides these to be discussed in the psychology,
have a great significance and in the position of being one of the themes which
should be studied within psychology of religion.
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146
th
ed.,
THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MEMORIZATION
(HIFZ) OF THE QUR’ÂN
AbdИllah EmiБ ÇİMEN
E-mail: [email protected]
Citation/©: Çimen, A. E., (2012). The Historical Background of
MemВriНaЗiВБ (дfН Вf Зhe QИr aБ, Journal of Intercultural and
Religious Studies. (2), 147-166.
ABSTRACT
(дfН, which meaБs ЗВ memВriНe Зhe whВle Вf Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ, has grВwБ frВm Зhe
practices and sayings of Mohammad (pbuh) in terms of being an institution. Mohammad
ГbИh , whВ has beeБ described bМ his wife as ЗВ have his mВral grВИБded iБ Зhe (ВlМ
QИr РБ has, iБ accВrdaБce wiЗh Зhis, beeБ bИsМ giviБg QИr РБic edИcaЗiВБ ЗhrВИghВИЗ his
life. He (pbuh) has encouraged the memВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ, Зhe bВВk Вf Allah
Ta ala, ИЗЗeriБg Зhe fВllВwiБg wВrds: The mВsЗ hВБВrable Вf mМ Иmmah are ЗhВse whВ
memВriНe Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ. The mИslims fВllВwiБg (im have alsВ ВbeМed Зhis advice Вf
Him tenderly and tried hard in order that they could make their children memorize the
(ВlМ QИr РБ.
In this article, we will analyse the following concepts; the significance of memorization,
memorization and memorizors, and put forward the contribution of man to the
protection of the Holy QИr РБ ЗhrВИgh Зhe iБsЗiЗИЗiВБ Вf memВriНaЗiВБ. Besides, Зhe
historical background of the institution of memorization will be investigated in order to
have aБ adeqИaЗe ИБdersЗaБdiБg abВИЗ Зhe cВrГВra Вf iБfВrmaЗiВБ abВИЗ ВИr PrВГheЗ s
(pbuh) being the first memorizor and the first teacher who had memorization
iБsЗiЗИЗiВБed aБd Зhe sЗИdies relaЗed wiЗh (is cВmГaБiВБs geБeraЗiВБ.
* Assoc. Prof. Istanbul University Faculty of Theology, Turkey.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
Introduction
The Significance of Memorization
Throughout the history, there has not been a book that has been read and
memorised as mИch as Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ (alilВvic,
, ; TarНiЗic,
,
.
Muslims have attached great importance to the memorization of the Holy
QИr РБ ГreciselМ, frВm Зhe Зime wheБ iЗ was revealed. This acЗ Вf memВriНaЗiВБ
is called hдfН. )Б facЗ, beiБg a tradition that has started with Prophet (pbuh) and
cВБЗiБИed cВБsecИЗivelМ ИГ ИБЗil БВw , (afızlık Eğitim Programı, 2010, 6;
www.diyanet.gov.tr) memorization has been one of the most significant
institutions that put forth the affection of muslims for the (ВlМ QИr РБ.
Memorization has existed and will continue to exist till the day of resurrection
as a protective institution with regard to the protecting and expanding the
message Вf Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ. AlЗhВИgh Зhere are differeБces iБ Зhe ГerceГЗiВБ Вf
memorization between the period of Prophet (pbuh) and the latter (Dartma,
2003, 59), memorization, consequently, has played a significant role with
regard ЗВ Зhe ГreserviБg Вf Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ.
Muslim scholars have found it for Muslim communities imperative that in each
regiВБ Зhere shВИld be acЗiviЗies abВИЗ QИr РБic edИcaЗiВБ. ThИs, ЗheМ have
considered it as an obligatory responsibility that in each city, village and even
each district there should exist memorizors who have memorized whole of the
(ВlМ QИr РБ, aБd Зhe ГeВГle whВ Зeach QИr РБ Zarkâshî, 1391, I, 456; Ibn
Hazm, 1404, V, 115). Some scholars have diluted this responsibility reducing it
ЗВ Зhe decree Вf farН-i kifРМah . )З has alwaМs beeБ imГeraЗive ЗhaЗ MИslim
communities have a great many memorizors in order that there will be no
cВБversiВБ aБd alЗeraЗiВБ iБ Зhe QИr РБ See Suyûtî, n.d. ),
; Abњ ZИr ah,
,
; QaББawjî,
, )),
; DimМРЗî, Б.d. ; PРlњwî, Б.d. ; Adдg“Нel,
2001, 179; Çimen, 2010, 14).
Prophet (pbuh) has not neglected teachiБg aБd haviБg Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ
memorized just as he has not neglected performing five-time prayer (See
Bukhârî, FeНРilИ l-QИr РБ, , ; Ibn Ibn Mâjah, )qРmaЗИ s-Salâh, 188; )bБ Sa d,
1985, IV, 242, VII, 365; Suyûtî, 1993, V, 477; Zurqânî, 1996, I, 169). Thanks to
that campaign of education of Him, a great many people have learned reciting
QИr РБ aБd eveБ ЗheМ have becВme memВriНВrs. OИr PrВГheЗ s ГbИh
overreacting to those who have killed fourty (Ibn Hishâm, 1411, IV, 138) or
seventy (Tabarî, 1407, II, 82) memВriНВrs iБ Bi ri Ma њБah iБ a waМ ЗhaЗ (e had
not reacted to another community before, and damning till they were perished
(Abû Dâwud, Vitr, 10; Zahabî, 1413, I, 452; Berki-Himmet, 1996, 289; Çimen,
148
ÇimeБ, The (isЗВrical BackgrВИБd Вf MemВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr aБ
2010, 34, 35) is an obvisous indication of the significance the Prophet (pbuh)
has aЗЗached ЗВ Зhe memВriНВrs aБd memВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ.
UЗЗeriБg ЗhaЗ Зhe mВsЗ hВБВrable ГersВБs Вf mМ Иmmah are ЗhВse whВ
memВriНe QИr РБ TabarРБî,
, X)),
; BaghdРdî, Б.d. )V,
, V))),
aБd Зhe maБ whВ has БВЗhiБg Вf QИr РБ iБ his memВrМ is like a wrecked aБd
rИiБed hВИse TirmiНî,
, FeНРilИ l-QИr РБ,
; DРrimî,
, FeНРilИ lQИr РБ, , Зhe PrВГheЗ Вf Allah ГbИh has eБcВИraged Зhe memВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe
(ВlМ QИr РБ sЗressiБg ЗhaЗ ЗВ shВw resГecЗ ЗВ Зhe memВriНВrs hРmilИ l-QИr РБ
wВИld meaБ ЗВ shВw resГecЗ ЗВ Allah Abњ DРwИd, Edeb,
. DРrИ l-Arkham
)bБ Abdi l-Barr, 1412, I, 131; see also Tanman, 1993, VIII, 543) in Mekka and
Ashâb-i Suffah (Tabarânî, 1983, III, 267, XXV, 106, 114; Tabarânî, 1415, VIII,
; (aМsamî,
, V))),
; Abњ NИ aМm,
, ),
, )), , ; BakЗдr,
1990, 39-43) in Masjîd-î Nabawî have beeБ Зhe ceБЗers fВr QИr РБic edИcaЗiВБ.
The importance our Master (pbuh) has attached to memorization has led the
relaЗed sИbjecЗ ЗВ cВme ВИЗ iБ Зhe esseБЗial bВВks Вf hadiЗh iБ ЗiЗles like Зhe
virЗИe Вf beiБg hРfiН MИslim, SalРЗИ l-MИsРfirîБ,
. )З is a facЗ ЗhaЗ DРrИ lArkham and Ashhâb-i Suffah, the first institutions of education founded by the
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) were majored on the education and teaching of the
QИr РБ. TherefВre, Зhe cИrricИla Вf Зhe firsЗ schВВls aБd madrasahs have
ceБЗered ВБ Зhe QИr РБ Çelebi,
, ; see alsВ ÇimeБ,
, ,
.
Thoughout the history, Muslims have tried hard i to make their children
becВme memВriНВrs aБd have made Зhe wiЗЗiesЗ aБd Зhe mВsЗ ЗaleБЗed
YдlmaН,
, Вf Зhem memВriНe Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ. MВreВver, as a sigБ Вf Зhis
admiraЗiВБ aБd aГГreciaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ, maБМ members Вf sВme families
have become memВriНВrs See Karic,
, ),
. BecaИse, iБ Зheir view, Зhe
memВriНВr is aБ embВdied QИr РБ, a maБ whВ sМmbВliНes Зhe QИr РБ . TВ Зhem,
memorization is an independent scholarship and a noble dignity. Memorizing
Зhe QИr РБ aБd beiБg a memВriНВr have been considered the greatest duty and
an honorable occupation in the sight of our people (Çollak, 2010, 9).
Among the signs of perpetuation of memorization and practicing of it in the
dailМ ГraМers caБ be referred Зhe ЗradiЗiВБs like
khaЗim KВçak, 2010,
14-19), doing mokabalah during the month Ramadan and performing tarawih
prayer with khatim. Although there is no knowledge in the sources of hadith
that our Prophet (pbuh) has had tarawih performed with khatim, the
continuous tarawih performances of Omar, (d. 23/643) Uthman (d. 35/655)
aБd Alî (d. 40/660) radМallah И-anhum) with khatim has led a perception such
as it is of sunnah to perform tarawih prayer with khatim (Yücel, 2010, 26).
149
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
I. The Concepts to Memorize (hîzf), Memorizor and Memorization
A. To Memorize (ıfz
The basic meaning of the origin of h.f.z. in Arabic language is to observe and
protect something (Ibn Fâris, 1994, 275). The opposite of ЗВ fВrgeЗ is ЗВ
memВriНe hдfН iБ Arabic laБgИage. This ВrigiБ has Зhe meaБiБgs like Зhe
following: to make a mutual contract, to reduce negligence and inattention, to
protect, to attach importance, to care for, to preserve, to understand a
scholarship or a knowledge precisely, to memorize, to read by heart, to hide
awaМ a secreЗ iБ ВБe s heart (Khalil ibn Ahmad, n.d. III, 198; Ibn Fâris, 1994,
275; Isfahânî, 1986, 177-178; Ibn Manzûr, 1994, VII, 440-441; Zabîdî, n.d. 50535054; Mîqâtî, 2007, 217. WheБ iЗ is cВБverЗed iБЗВ babИ l MИfР alah, iЗ
means to do the deeds like performing prayer, scholarship etc. continuously
Khalil ibБ Ahmad, Б.d. )),
; )brРhim, Б.d.
. )З is Иsed iБ Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ
iБ Зhis meaБiБg Bakarah, /
; AБ Рm, / ; MИ miБњБ,
/ ; Ma Рrij,
/ , bИЗ we will emГhasiНe memВriНiБg Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ, ВБe Вf Зhe
meaБiБgs Вf hдfН. )З is ИБdersЗВВd ЗhaЗ Зhis meaБiБg Вf memВriНaЗiВБ is clВselМ
interrelated to the basic meaning of the origin of h.f.z.
In short, memorization can also be described as a strict preservation of a
percepted idea and memorization of it (Jurjânî, 1405, 120). In conclusion,
memorization means not to forget something, which is possible only through
keeping it on the memory and reciting it by heart. The part of the brain wherein
hдfН, ЗhaЗ is, memВriНed, memВrialiНed aБd backed ИГ kБВwledge aБd
experieБces are Гresered is called memВrМ JИrjРБî,
,
; Demir–Acar,
1998, 127).
B. Memorizor (âfız
The ВБe whВ sЗaБds gИard fВr aБd ГickeЗs sВmeЗhiБg is called hРfiН
memВriНВr aБd hefîН . The wВrd hРfiН meaБs alsВ Зhe ИГrighЗ, wide ВГeБ
path FîrИНabРdî, Б.d.
; )bБ MaБНњr,
, V)),
; Zabîdî, Б.d.
. The
ГlИral fВrms Вf hРfiН are Зhe wВrds hИffРН aБd hafaНa . )f we are ЗВ make a
general description of hâfiz, it is used for the one who has memorized the Holy
QИr РБ as a whВle and precisely (for the other descriptions see Zamahsharî,
, ),
; Nasafî, Б.d. ),
,
; AlbРБî, Б.d. V,
; PakalдБ,
, ),
;
Bozkurt, 1997, XV, 74; Türk Ansiklopedisi, 1970, XVIII, 303; Temel, 1997, 56;
Cebeci-Ünsal, 2006, 27; Bayraktar, 20 ,
; ÇimeБ,
, ; (afдНlдk EğiЗim
PrВgramд,
, . )Б Зhe sВcieЗМ, hВwever, hРfiН has raЗher beeБ Иsed as aБ
aЗЗribИЗiВБ fВr ЗhВse whВ have memВriНed Зhe QИr РБ, reciЗed mВkabalah aБd
150
ÇimeБ, The (isЗВrical BackgrВИБd Вf MemВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr aБ
served as mИaННiБs Cebeci-Ünsal, 2006, 27). In Islamic communities, hâfiz is
cВБsidered a ЗwВ-legged aБgel whВ is aГГВiБЗed ЗВ ГrВЗecЗ Зhe QИr РБ ВБ Зhe
earЗh .
The БВИБ (efiН (њd, / ; Saba, /
ЗhaЗ hВlds Гlace iБ Allah s AsmР-i
Huthnâ (Ibn Manzûr, 1994,VII, 440) means the one who knows everything in
deЗail )brРhim, Б.d.
. (РfiН , which is aБВЗher Бame Вf Allah see YњsИf,
12/64; Hijr, 15/9; Anbiyâ, 21/82) has Зhe fВllВwiБg meaБiБgs: Зhe OБe ЗВ
whom nothing remains secret, the One who is preservative of the all deeds of
His servants, be them good or evil, the One who sustains, with His might, the
exisЗeБce Вf Зhe earЗh aБd Зhe heaveБs Yдldдrдm,
,
; ZajjРj,
,
.
Allah is Зhe mВsЗ beБeficial ГrВЗecЗВr (РfдН . YњsИf, /
Besides, iЗ has
beeБ said ЗhaЗ bВЗh (efîН aБd (РfiН have the same meaning (Zajjâj, 1974,
. )Б Зhe sВИrces, hВld Гlace Зhe sЗaЗemeБЗs like Allah is Зhe hРfiН Вf QИr РБ.
(Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 1988, I, 442; Zahabî, n.d. I, 295, II, 719; Mizzî, 1980, XXV,
; BaghdРdî, Б.d. V,
, Allah is Зhe hРfiН Вf (is bВВk. )bБ Âshњr, Б.d.
, ЗhaЗ is, (e is Зhe ГrВЗecЗВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ; Allah is Зhe hРfiН Вf (is
religiВБ. BaghdРdî, Б.d. ),
, ЗhaЗ is, (e is Зhe ГrВЗecЗВr Вf (is religiВБ.
)Б accВrdaБce wiЗh )slamic ЗradiЗiВБ, amВБg Зhe ГeВГle, sВmes beiБg Зhe
memВriНВrs Вf Зhe QИr РБ has beeБ cВБsidered a feliciЗМ Sa Рlibî, Б.d. )V,
.
There are sВme cВБceГЗs Иsed iБ Зhe seБse Вf Зhe memВriНВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ. The
ever mВsЗ familiar Вf ЗhВse are: (РfiН , (РfiНИ l-QИr РБ ZaМla î,
, )), ;
Zurqânî, 1996, I, 169), (ИffРН QИrЗИbî,
, ),
; )bБ Kasîr,
, ), ,
(ИffРНИ l-QИr РБ )bБ MИjРhid,
,
; Nawawî,
,
, (Рmil
BВНkИrЗ,
, XV,
, (РmilИ KiЗРbillРh MИБРwî,
, ))),
, (РmilИ lQИr РБ , (ameleЗИ l- QИr РБ (Abû Dâwud, Edeb, 24; Nawawî, 1983, I, 20;
QИrЗИbî,
, ),
, QИrrР BИkhРrî, FeНРilИ l-QИr РБ, ; QИrЗИbî,
, ), ;
)bБ Kasîr,
, ), , MИqrî BИkhРrî, FeНРilИ l-QИr РБ, ; Birдşдk,
, XXV,
, SРhibИ l- QИr РБ BИkhРrî, FeНРilИ l-QИr РБ,
,
, AhlИ l- QИr РБ
(Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 1992, III,127, 247; Hâkim, 1990, I, 743).
The wВrd hРfiН Иsed iБ Зhe cВБЗexЗ Вf (adiЗh schВlarshiГ, hВwever, meaБs Зhe
one who has memorized between one hundred thousand and five hundred
thousand of hadiЗh DavИdВğlИ,
, ), XL)); AМdдБlд,
,
; KaБdemir,
, XV,
; BaМrakЗar,
,
. Besides, Зhere are (afaНa aБgels whВ
memorialize the deeds of the man (Khalil ibn Ahmad, n.d. III, 198; Ibn Manzûr,
1994, VII, 440; Zabîdî, n.d. 5054).
151
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
C. Memorization
Among the above-given meanings of the origin of h.f.z., we will bring out the
ones related to memorization. In fact, the origin of h.f.z means memorizing or
readiБg bМ hearЗ wheБ Иsed wiЗh Зhe QИr РБ FîrИНРbРdî, Б.d.
; Zabîdî, n.d.
5053). WheБ we assess Зhe meaБiБg Вf memВriНiБg Зhe QИr РБ iБ Зhe ВrigiБ Вf
h.f.Н ЗВgeЗher wiЗh Зhe fВllВwiБg meaБiБgs ЗВ ИБdersЗaБd Зhe available
kБВwledge ГreciselМ aБd БВЗ ЗВ fВrgeЗ , which is aЗЗaiБable iБ Зhe same ВrigiБ,
it comes out that in memorization it is essential that one should memorize the
QИr РБ as a whВle aБd БВЗ fВrgeЗ iЗ, aБd ЗhaЗ iЗ is esseБЗial ЗhaЗ ВБe shВИld
understand what it means precisely. In terms of this structure of vocabulary,
we can describe the memorization in the first years Вf )slam as ЗВ memВriНe
Зhe QИr РБ iБ aБ ИБfВrgeЗЗable waМ aБd ЗВ ИБdersЗaБd aБd realiНe Зhe seБse Вf
iЗ ГreciselМ. )З is kБВwБ ЗhaЗ Зhe geБeraЗiВБ Вf cВmГaБiВБs ashab , as sЗaЗed iБ
the description, would not make a sheer memorization of the verses of the
QИr РБ wiЗhВИЗ aЗЗaiБiБg Зhe Гrecise seБse Вf Зhese verses. LaЗer ВБ, Зhe ГarЗ Вf
attaining the precise sense of the memorized verses, which is attainable in the
concept of memorization, has been neglected to a great extent, and the sheer
memorizatioБ Вf Зhe QИr РБic ЗexЗ has cВme ВИЗ.
The chaГЗer wiЗh Зhe ЗiЗle reciЗiБg Зhe QИr РБ bМ hearЗ BИkhРrî, FeНРilИ lQИr РБ,
that holds place in Sahih-i Bukhari puts forth the act of
memorization for consideration. Another of the concepts used in the sense of
memВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ is Зhe cВБceГЗ cem . )bБ Sa d d.
/
aБd
Kastallânî (d. 923/1517) are of this opinion. But, scholars like Nawawi defend
ЗhaЗ Зhe cВБceГЗ cem meaБs qirРРЗ , ЗhaЗ is, sheer readiБg BВНkИrЗ,
, XV,
75; Çimen, 2010, 22-23). Fakhruddin Râzî (d. 606/1209), however, has stated
ЗhaЗ Зhe cВБceГЗ Нikr caБ alsВ be Иsed iБ Зhe seБse Вf hдfН ЗВ memВriНe fВr
Зhe memВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ Râzî, 1990, XXIX, 38. For further information
see Çimen, 2010, 22).
For the acЗ Вf memВriНaЗiВБ, hafдНlдk is Иsed iБ TИrkish. MemВriНaЗiВБ is a
concept that holds a great place chiefly in hadithes and the Islamic literature. In
Зhe sВИrces, Зhe cВБceГЗ (дfНИ l-QИr РБ: TВ memВriНe Зhe QИr РБ is raЗher
used (Nahhâs, 1408, 482; Tabarî, n.d. I, 44, III, 154; Ibn Hazm, 1404, V, 115;
Zamahsharî, 1987, I, 610; Qurtubî, 1372, I, 85; Zahabî, n.d. I, 30, 110; Ibn Kasîr,
1401, III, 401; ShРЗдbî, Б.d. ; Aynî, 1972, XX, 48; Suyûtî, n.d. I, 264; Âlûsî, n.d.
XVI, 19; Zurqânî, 1996, I, 169, 171, 240).
Memorization has been described as a very noble dignity on the side of Allah.
As a in a hadith, matter of fact, this noble dignity has been described as such:
The ВБe whВ has memВriНed Зhe QИr РБ memВriНВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ is assИmed
152
ÇimeБ, The (isЗВrical BackgrВИБd Вf MemВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr aБ
to have settled the prophethood in between the two shoulders of him. Namely,
Зhe sВle differeБce is ЗhaЗ БВ revelaЗiВБ is seБЗ dВwБ ЗВ him. )bБ Kasîr, 1401, I,
428; Âlûsî, n.d. IX, 112) Our Master (pbuh) has given such a piece of good news
about the value of memoriНВrs ВБ Зhe side Вf Allah: MemВriНВrs Вf Зhe QИr РБ
are Зhe wise amВБg Зhe ВwБers Вf Зhe heaveБs. Shawkânî, 1407, 308) The
ВБe whВ memВriНes Зhe QИr РБ will iБЗercede ЗeБ members Вf his hВИsehВld
whВ are Зhe ВwБer Вf hell fire. Ibn Hajar, 1986, I, 153)
)Б Зhe OЗЗВmaБ emГire were madrasahs Вf sГecialЗМ, Бamed DРrИ l-Qurrâ,
where the scholarships of qiraah were instructed in addition to madrasahs of
DРrИ l-(ИffРН aБd DРrИ l-QИr РБ as Зhe Гlaces Иsed fВr memВriНaЗiВБ AЗaМ,
,
; SakВğlИ,
, ; Çağrдcд,
, XXV),
; YakИГВğlИ,
, ;
Çimen, 2010, 48-49. See also Ibn Hajar, 1412, VI, 707; )bБ Sa d, 1985, IV, 205;
Tanman, 1993, VIII, 543; Temel, 1997, 45). In our country, the rituals for
memorization or rituals of madrasa diploma for memorization have been
organized for centuries as a tradition for those who have completed their act of
memorization.1
II. The Contribution of Memorization and Memorizors to the Preservation
of the Qur ân
FrВm Зhe verМ iБsЗaБЗ Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ has beeБ desceБded from above and
revealed to the holy prophet (pbuh) it has been preserved up till now with a
bidirectional protection; the protection of Allah and that of the man.
A. The Preservation of Allah
The ГrВЗecЗВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ is, iБ ГersВБ, Allah Ta ala. (Bayzâwî, 1996, II, 331)
Allah has gИaraБЗeed ЗhaЗ (e will ГrВЗecЗ Зhe QИr РБ Bayhakî, 1410, I, 190).
This ГВiБЗ has beeБ exГlaiБed bМ Allah iБ Зhe ЗexЗ Вf Зhe QИr РБ as sИch: We
sent down that Zikr book , and surelʼ it is us who are preserver of it! (Hijr,
15/9)
)Б ВБe Вf Зhe QИr РБic verses abВИЗ Зhe ГreservaЗiВБ Вf Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ bМ Allah
is said as sИch: Undoubtedlʼ that Qur ân is an invaluable and lasting book.
False is neither able to draw near it from the fore, nor is it able to draw near it
from the back. )t has been sent down bʼ Allah, the wise, the most praised.
1 For information about the rituals of ratification for memorization in the Ottoman and
ЗВdaМ, see DemirЗaş,
,
; ÇВllak,
153
,
.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
(Fussilat, 41/42 FВr Зhe ГreservaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ, Зhe ГrВЗecЗiВБ Вf Allah is
enough on its own. No superstition, be it on behalf of the intermeddling of the
man or satans (IbБИ l-Jawzî, 1983, IX, 79; Nasafî, n.d. II, 238, IV, 170), will ever
be able ЗВ be ГИЗ ЗВ Зhe QИr РБ Зill Зhe daМ Вf resИrrecЗiВБ (AbИ s-SИ њd, n.d. III,
122). )З is aБ iБdicaЗiВБ Вf Allah s mercМ aБd feliciЗМ ИГВБ hИmaБiЗМ ЗhaЗ Зhe
QИr РБ will be Гreserved till the day of resurrection without ever being exposed
to any distortion and alteration (Zarkâshî, 1391, I, 236). No force will ever
posses a capability such as making an increase or decrease in it (Baqarah, 2/23;
Yûnus 10/38; Hûd 11/13; Isrâ, 17/88; Tûr, 52/34; Baghawî, 1987, III, 44).
The ВrigiБal cВГМ Вf Зhe (ВlМ QИr РБ is Гreserved iБ a sГecial Гlace, Lavh-i
Mahfuz to which no living creature can attain: No, No! The Qur ân is not, as theʼ
alluded, the verses of the mortal. It is rather an honorable Qur ân preserved in the
Lavh-i Mahfuz. (Burûj, 85/22) The Lavh-i Mahfuz, mentioned in the above
verse, is described as a sign of heavenly light (Qurtubî, 1372, IXX, 260) on the
side of Allah (Suyûtî, 1993, VIII, 421) locating over the seventh layer of the
heavens (Bayzâwî, 1996, V, 475) and disappearing not (Esed, 1999, 1255).2
As Зhe QИr РБ, iБ ГersВБ, is ИБder Зhe ГrВЗecЗiВБ Вf Allah; iБ Зhe geБeral seБse,
ЗhВse readiБg Зhe QИr РБ, Зhe memВriНВrs whВ memВriНe Зhe QИr РБ aБd Зhe
Гlaces whereiБ Зhe QИr РБ is recited are, implicitly, under the protection of
Allah as well. As a manifestation of this, at different times and in different
Гlaces, Зhe effecЗs Вf aggressive aЗЗacs ЗВward Зhe QИr РБ, Зhe memВriНВrs Вf Зhe
QИr РБ aБd Зhe Гlaces whereiБ Зhe QИr РБ is recited and memorized has
significantly disappeared in the course of time.
B. The Preservation of the Man
1. Preservation Through Reading
Stressing the pen in the first verses as in this expression: Our Lord is (e who
taught the man writing with pen Alaq, / aБd ИsiБg Зhe wВrd bВВk as Зhe
secВБd БВИБ, Зhe QИr РБ has ГИЗ fВrЗh ЗhaЗ iЗ is a haБdwriЗЗeБ ЗexЗ Yдldдrдm,
1985, 57).
Bʼ that book which is written on the thin leather! (Tûr, 52/2) Surelʼ it is a
valuable Qur ân, in a Book well-guarded. VРqд ah, / -78) And the verses
like Those verses written on honorable, divine and purelʼ pages bʼ the hands of
2 For the other descriptions about Lawh-i Mahfoz, see Ibn Hammâm, 1410, II, 389;
Baghawî î,
, ),
; QИrЗИbî,
, )XX,
; İbБ Kesîr,
, )V,
; ShawkРБî,
n.d. V, 587.
154
ÇimeБ, The (isЗВrical BackgrВИБd Вf MemВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr aБ
the invaluable scribes who are a sʼmbol of goodness. (Abasa, 80/13-16)
ВbviВИslМ iБdicaЗe Зha Зhe QИr РБ has beeБ ЗakeБ ИБder ГrВЗecЗion.
When the Prophet (pbuh) was revealed, He would have the scribes of
revelation write those revelations in no time. Revelation scribes would write
Зhe verses Вf Зhe QИr РБ ВБ leaЗhers, blades aБd flaЗ sЗВБes, wВВdeБ ГlaЗes, daЗe
branches, pots and pans, and the materials like papyrus (Ibn Qutaybah, 1397,
III, 668; Kalkashandî, 1987, II, 515; Zurqânî, 1996, I, 172, 254). The Messenger
of Allah (pbuh) would tell the revelation scribes to what point of which surah
would they put the sent ayahs (Zarkâshî, 1391, I, 234; Suyûtî, n.d. I, 167; see
also Zurqânî, 1996, I, 271).
DИriБg Зhe life Зime Вf Зhe MesseБger Вf Allah ГbИh , Зhe aМahs Вf Зhe QИr РБ
had not yet been formed as a single volume. Abûbakr (radyallahu anh) (d.
/
cВllecЗed Зhe QИr РБ briБgiБg together the handwritten ayahs the
various people owned, and put them together in a single volume. Uthman
(radyallahu anh) sent it to various cities multiplicating it (Tabarî, n.d. I, 48;
Zarkâshî, 1391, I, 236; Zurqânî, 1996, I, 179-183). For this purpose, the
mИlЗiГlicaЗed vВlИmes Вf Зhe QИr РБ were ЗakeБ ЗВ Зhe fВllВwiБg Гlaces bМ
mentioned companions: Abdallah b. Sâib (d. 70/698) to Mekka, Mughîrah b.
Shihâb to Dimascus, Âmir b. Abdulkays to Basra, Ebû Abdurrahman es-Sulemî
(d. 74/693) to Kufah (Zurqânî, 1996, I, 279; Hamawî, 1406, 36).
. Preservation of the Qur ân Through Memorization
WheБ Зhe QИr РБ was seБЗ ЗВ Зhe MesseБger Вf Allah ЗhrВИgh revelaЗiВБ, (e
would endeavour marvellously so as to memorize it. This marvellous
endeavour of the Messenger Вf Allah has reflecЗed ВБ Зhe ЗexЗ Вf Зhe QИr РБ: (O
Mohammad!) As you repeat what is revealed to you, do not budge your tonge so
as not to forget it hoping that you will learn it by heart in no time. QдМРmah,
75/16)
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would recite the ayahs revealed up to that time
to the Gabriel by heart, each year in the month Ramadan, this way he could
esЗablish well Зhe QИr РБ ВБ (is memВrМ. AgaiБ, reciЗiБg Зhe aМahs ЗhaЗ (e had
recited to Gabriel, in Masjid-i Nabawi to His companions, He would provide
them with the oppurtunity both to verificate the ayahs they had memorized and
recЗifМ Зhe haБdwriЗЗeБ ЗexЗs Вf Зhe QИr РБ ЗheМ ВwБed CaБaБ,
www.islamkent.org). The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has duplicated the
mokabalah He used to do with Gabriel in the month Ramadan of the year when
(e Гassed awaМ. This mВkabalah has beeБ Бamed arНa-i akhîrah (the last
155
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
sИbmissiВБ .
1996, I, 168)
BИkhРrî, FeНРilИ l-QИr РБ,
; ZarkРshî,
, ),
; ZИrqРБî,
Among the companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), too have been some
whВ have wiЗБessed Зhe case Вf Зhe PrВГheЗ s ГbИh reciЗiБg Зhe seБЗ aМahs ЗВ
Gabriel. It is known that Zayd b. Sabit (d. 45/665) who has been deemed
wВrЗhМ Вf Зhe ЗiЗle al-Katîb (the scribe) (Ibn Hajar, 1379, IX, 22) for having
done the act of scribing the revelations for a great many times, and has also
beeБ deemed wВrЗhМ Вf Зhe ЗiЗle AmîБ Зhe ЗrИsЗwВrЗhМ
ZИrqРБî,
, ),
262) for being the one the Prophet (pbuh) trusted, has, particularly, witnessed
arza-i akhîrah and that he has been entrusted both by Abubakr, in bringing the
QИr РБ ЗВgeЗher aБd bМ UЗhmaБ radМallah-u anhum) in multiplicating the
QИr РБ ZarkРshî,
, ),
; SИМњЗî, Б.d. ),
; ZИrqРБî,
, ),
.
The first infidels who have been introduced ЗВ Зhe revelaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ
asserЗed ЗhaЗ iЗ was MВhammad ГbИh whВ had wriЗЗeБ Зhe QИr РБ. The QИaБ
has replied that false claim of them and declared that it was of divine origin.
Besides, iБ Вrder ЗВ iБvalidaЗe Зhis argИameБЗ, iЗ is sЗressed ЗhaЗ the Qur ân has
been settled down and established in the hearts of those having wisdom
AБkabњЗ, /
aБd ЗhaЗ iЗ is available ВБ Зhe memВries Вf Зhe memВriНВrs.
As a maЗЗer Вf facЗ ЗhaЗ, Зhe QИr РБ eБlighЗeБs Зhe hearЗs Вf ЗhВse whВ have
settled it dowБ aБd esЗablished iЗ iБ Зheir hearЗs see Yдldдrдm,
, aБd ЗhaЗ iЗ
is embodied by the memorizors have ben counted among the attributes of the
QИr РБ Nasafî, n.d. III, 261). Zamahsharî (d. 538/1143) makes an explanation
related to this point as such: the existence of those having knowledge about the
QИr РБ aБd ЗhВse whВ kБВw iЗ bМ hearЗ are amВБg Зhe ГarЗicИlar aЗЗribИЗes Вf
Зhe QИr РБ. )Б addiЗiВБ ЗВ haviБg ВbviВИs aЗЗribИЗes Вf breviЗМ, verses Вf Зhe
QИr РБ have beeБ reciЗed bМ hearЗ bМ memВriНВrs cВnsisting of a great many
different folks. These two attributes are not true of any other divine book
exceГЗ Зhe QИr РБ Zamahsharî, 1987, III, 458).
FВllВwiБg Зhe PrВГheЗ ГbИh , Зhe ГreservaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ bМ meaБs Вf Зhe
man has rather come true thanks to memorization. On this account, passing the
QИr РБ ВБ frВm ВБe geБeraЗiВБ ЗВ Зhe ВЗher has cВme ЗrИe ЗhaБks ЗВ Зhe
memorizors rather than the texts and book forms (Zurqânî, 1996, I, 169, 285).
In fact, Uthman (radyallahu anh) has sent companions who were able to recite
Зhe mИlЗiГlicaЗed cВГies Вf Зhe QИr РБ iБsЗead Вf seБdiБg Зhem wiЗh a
messeБger, aБd Зhe ГeВГle have learБed hВw ЗВ reciЗe Зhe QИr РБ ВwiБg ЗВ Зhe
exclusive struggles of the above-mentioned companions (Zurqânî, 1996, I, 285).
The statemeБЗ ГraМer ЗhrВИgh chaБЗiБg ZИrqРБî,
, ), ; Ibn Hajar, 1379,
X))),
; AМБî,
, XXV,
, which hВlds Гlace iБ Зhe ever familiar
156
ÇimeБ, The (isЗВrical BackgrВИБd Вf MemВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr aБ
descriГЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ ГreseБЗs a wide scВГe Вf descriГЗiВБ ЗhaЗ iБclИdes Зhe
act of the memorizors as well. Thus, memorizors recite the book of Allah
chanting throughout their lifespans, thereby, both them and those listening to
them are assumed to have worshipped Allah.
The esseБЗial gВals Вf Зhe QИr РБ3 like testifying oneness of Allah, keeping to the
straight path, and being conscious of the day of judgement will have been put
iБЗВ ГracЗie each Зime Зhe memВriНВrs reciЗe Зhe QИr РБ. MemВriНВrs, ВБ ЗhaЗ
sense, can be interpreted to be one of the personalities who have substantiated
the rescript of Islam, which the Prophet (pbuh) used to do reciting, with the
following generations. Just as the memorizors of hadith have prevented the
distortion of it and served for making it remain original (Ibn Kasîr, 1401, III,
,
, sВ dВ Зhe memВriНВrs Вf Зhe QИr РБ ГlaМiБg a similar role in
preserving the originality of it.
III. The First Memorizor and Teacher of Memorization is The Prophet
(pbuh)
The firsЗ memВriНВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ is Зhe PrВГheЗ ГbИh (alilВviç,
,
.
(e is Зhe masЗer Вf Зhe memВriНВrs, ЗhaЗ is SaММidИ l-(ИffРН ZИrqРБî,
, ),
; see Y“cel,
, ; ÇimeБ,
,
. The PrВГheЗ s ГbИh memВriНaЗiВБ
Вf Зhe QИr РБ has ЗakeБ Гlace dИe ЗВ Зhe ГecИliar ГrВЗecЗiВБ Вf Allah. WhaЗ
makes Him different from the other memorizors is that He has been made a
memorizor by Allah (Çollak, 2010, 9). It has particularly been garanteed by
Allah ЗhaЗ (e will БВЗ fВrgeЗ Зhe QИr РБ Said,
,
.
(e is Зhe firsЗ Fam-î MВhsiБ )bБИ l-Jazarî, n.d. I, 213, 240; Suyûtî, n.d. I, 267;
Qattân, 2000, 190) and qârî whВ has reciЗed Зhe QИr РБ beaИЗifИllМ.4 Despite
beiБg a ГrВГheЗ, MВhammad ГbИh has learБed hВw ЗВ reciЗe Зhe QИr РБ frВm
Gabriel, aБd Зhe cВmГaБiВБs ashab have learБed hВw ЗВ reciЗe Зhe QИr РБ
from the Mohammad (pbuh), the first fam-î mohsin. Therefore, it is farz-î ayn to
learБ Зhe QИr РБ frВm Зhe fam-î mВhsiБ, accВrdiБg ЗВ )bБИ l-Jazarî (d.
833/1429) aБd AliММИ l-Qârî (d. 1014/1606) (Khâdimî, n.d. II, 242). Thus,
Muslim scholars are of the opinion that it will be possible to learn the recitation
of Зhe QИr РБ sВlelМ frВm ЗhВse whВ kБВw hВw ЗВ reciЗe iЗ beaИЗifИllМ aБd ЗhaЗ iЗ
is БВЗ aГГrВГriaЗe ЗВ learБ Зhe QИr РБ ВБlМ ЗhrВИgh Зhe bВВk fВrm Вf iЗ
AffРБah,
, X))),
. (eБce, iЗ is ВbligaЗВrМ iБ Зhe acЗ Вf ЗeachiБg Зhe QИr РБ
3 FВr iБfВrmaЗiВБ abВИЗ Зhe gВals Вf Зhe QИr РБ iБ deЗail see YдlmaН,
, -123.
4 Concerning Зhe MesseБger Вf Allah s beiБg Fam-i Mohsin, one more of the expressions
is Зhe cВБceГЗ Fam-i Sa adah. See TaБrдbИМrИğИ,
157
, .
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
that there be the ГracЗice Вf mИshafaha Вral ГracЗice , DРБî,
,
;
Zurqânî, 1996, I, 170, 284 which provides the teacher and the learner with
meeting face to face5. Mohammad (pbuh), on the other hand, has spread the
QИr РБ БВЗ ЗhrВИgh seБdiБg ЗexЗs, bИЗ memВriНВrs whВ has kБВwБ Зhe QИr РБ
by heart (Nelson, 1985, 3).
The very first memorizors raised by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), as a matter
of course, have been the companions around Him. In the matter of memorizing
Зhe QИr РБ, ЗheМ wВИld aГГrВach as iЗ were a competition. The companions
Иsed ЗВ reciЗe Зhe QИr РБ iБ sВ mИch ЗhaЗ МВИ wВИld ЗhiБk Вf Зhis vВice arisiБg
frВm Зheir hВИses ЗВ resemble ЗhaЗ Вf Зhe bee s ZИrqРБî,
, ),
. ThaБks
ЗВ ЗhaЗ iБЗeБsive reciЗaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ, maБМ Вf Зhem became memВrizors of
Зhe QИr РБ. The fВllВwiБg mИslim geБeraЗiВБs, as well, have Зried ЗВ keeГ Зrack
Вf Зhe cВmГaБiВБs iБ Зhe acЗ Вf memВriНiБg Зhe QИr РБ ЗakiБg acЗive ГarЗ iБ ЗhaЗ
competition.
BИЗ, Зhe cВmГaБiВБs memВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ was БВЗ a sheer
memorization and leaving out of the text as is today, they would also put the
decree of the verses they had memorized into practice throughout their lives.
Thus, it might take years for them to memorize the surahs. Seperately, as the
period of revelation was still gВiБg ВБ, Зhe ЗexЗ Вf Зhe QИr РБ had БВЗ МeЗ beeБ
completed. As the literate among the companions were few and was there a
scarcity of writing tools, there were very few companions who had the the
verses that had been sent down till that moment in full. Even the literate of the
cВmГaБiВБs didБ З ВwБ Зhe Зhe seБЗ-down verses in full. Due to such reasons,
the number of the companions who memorized the whole of the verses that
had been sent down till that moment has been smaller than expected.
There is controversy about the number of the memorizors among the
cВmГaБiВБs whВ have memВriНed Зhe whВle Вf Зhe QИr РБ. SВme have sЗaЗed
that the number of memorizors among the companions is few, while the others,
however, have stated vice versa. Some of the muhajir companions who have
beeБ deemed wВrЗhМ Вf Зhe hВБВr Вf hafîНИ l-QИr РБ memВriНВr Вf Зhe
QИr РБ dИriБg Зhe ГeriВd Вf Зhe PrВГheЗ ГbИh are as fВllВws: AbИbakr,
Omar, UЗhmaБ, Alî, Aisha, (afsa d.
-45/661-665), Ommo Salama (d.
62/681), Talha b. Obeydullah (d. 35/656), Sa'd b. Abû Wakkâs (d. 54/674),
Abdallah ibБ Mas њd d. /
, (ВНaМfa b. YamРБ d. /
, Salim MawlР
Abû Hozayfa (d. 12/633), Abû Horayra (d. 57/676), Abdallah ibn Omar (d.
5 FВr fИrЗher iБfВrmaЗiВБ abВИЗ semР ,
2012, 19.
arН aБd adР see ÇimeБ,
158
,
-
; ŞahiБ,
ÇimeБ, The (isЗВrical BackgrВИБd Вf MemВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr aБ
/
, Abdallah b. AbbРs d. /
, Amr b. al- Âs d. 3/663), Abdallah b.
Amr b. al- Âs d. /
, MИawiМah b. Abњ SВfМaБ d. /
, Abdallah b.
Zobeyr (d. 72/692), Abdallah b. es-Sâib (d. 70/698).
Some companions among ansar who have been deemed worthy of the honor of
hafîНИ l-QИr РБ memВriНВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ dИriБg Зhe ГeriВd Вf Зhe PrВГheЗ
ГbИh are as fВllВws: ObeММ b. Ka b d. /
, MВРН b. Cabal d. /
,
ZaМd b. SabiЗ, AbИ d-DardР d. /
, Macamma b. (Рrisa d. /
, AБas
b. Mâlik (d. 90/709), Abû Zayd (d. 54/673). Besides, many of the memorizors
whВ have beeБ marЗМred iБ Bi rî Ma њБa aБd YamРma, ВБe hИБdred aБd fВИrЗМ
in total, have been among the memorizors in the period of the Prophet
ZИrqРБî,
, ),
; SИМњЗî, Б.d. ),
; Aynî, 1972, XVI, 209; see also Bukhârî,
FeНРilИ l-QИr РБ, ; ÇimeБ,
, ,
.
The most significant reason about why the number of memorizors have been
few among the companions is the difference between what this very first
generation that has been introduced to the revelation understood of
memorization and that of the muslims today. While it was preliminary for the
cВmГaБiВБs ЗВ ГИЗ Зhe messages Зhe QИr РБ had brВИghЗ ЗВ Зhem iБЗВ ГrВcЗice,
just as we have mentioned above in the description of memorization, for
muslims today, however, it is preliminarМ ЗВ memВriНe Зhe wВrds Вf Зhe QИr РБ.
The generation of companions would lay too much stress on both the meaning
of Зhe wВrds Вf Зhe QИr РБ aБd ЗhaЗ Вf memВriНed ГarЗs Вf iЗ Namarî, 1387, XIV,
133).
Thus, the companions would not proceed to the next sent-down ten ayahs
unless they learned the content of the ten ayahs they had previously learned
from the Messenger of Allah precisely, (halal-haram, order-prohibiton)
(Bayhakî, 1410, II, 330; )bБИ l-Jawzî, 1983, I, 4; Qurtubî, 1372, I, 39). In this
context, Omar (radyallahu anh) is reported to have memorized the surah
Baqara completely in twelve years (Bayhakî, 1410, II, 331; Suyûtî, 1993, I, 54).
That is to say, it was only when he put the orders in the surah Baqara into the
practice in his own life that he saw himself as the memorizor of that surah (see
Çimen, 2010, 38-41). Abdallah b. Masud (d. 32/652), who has been raised
morally by the Prophet (pbuh) has made such a statement as if he had seen the
approaches of the muslims who have come hundreds of years latter toward the
memВriНaЗiВБ: We wВИld fiБd memВriНiБg Зhe QИr РБ difficИlЗ, bИЗ iЗ was easМ
for us to act accordingly. The followers, however, will find the memorization of
iЗ easМ, aБd acЗiБg accВrdiБglМ hard. Qurtubî, 1372, I, 75)
Hozayfa b. al-Yamân (d. 36/656), however, has made such a statement about
Зhis ГВiБЗ: BefВre we learБed reciЗiБg Зhe QИr РБ, we had learБed Зhe faiЗh. )Б
159
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
Зhe dВВmsdaМ will live sИch cВmmИБiЗies ЗhaЗ ЗheМ will learБ Зhe QИr РБ befВre
learБiБg Зhe faiЗh. Namarî, 1387, XIV, 133)
There is БВ dВИbЗh ЗhaЗ Зhe QИr РБ has beeБ seБЗ dВwБ ВБ Зhe ГИrГВse Вf beiБg
understood and be acted accordingly. Yet, this is a fact that in our culture, even
Зhe reciЗaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr РБ ЗhaЗ is БВЗ ИБdersЗВВd characЗeriНes Зhe reciЗer.
That is ЗВ saМ, ВИr maБ whВ reciЗes Зhe QИr РБ geЗs ГreГared fВr Зhe Зask, bВЗh
bВdilМ aБd mВrallМ. BecaИse, iБ his sighЗ, reciЗiБg Зhe QИr РБ is ЗВ cВme iБЗВ Зhe
presence of the Supreme Creator and talk to him. After the recitation had ended
and the Holy Book was picked up, the man of us, stating the words like the
following: I I am still ritually clean, I have just picked the Holy Book of Allah, do
not make me sin, do not make me gossip, do not make me tell lies expresses
ЗhaЗ he is ИБder cВБЗrВl Вf Зhe QИr РБ AkГдБar,
, .
We see that the title Sayyidul-hoffâz encounters us as a concept used for the
memorizors of hadith in the later periods (Shaybânî, 1991, I, 67; Kaysarânî,
1415, I, 203, 298; Zahabî, 1413, II, 578, XI, 122; Munâwî, 1356, I, 27; Kattânî,
1986, 129, 160).
Conclusion
Memorization is a tradition that has started with Rasulallah (pbuh) and has
existed up to now consecutively. Muslim scholars are of the opinion that in each
region, even each city and town it is imperative, at least a responsibility
eqИivaleБЗ ЗВ farН-î kifaМah fВr sВme mИslims ЗhaЗ ЗheМ memВriНe Зhe whВle
Вf Зhe QИr РБ.
The cВБceГЗ hдfН ЗВ memВriНe , which is Зhe ВГГВsiЗe Вf ЗВ fВrgeЗ is Иsed iБ
the sense of preserving, attaching importance to, keeping a secret and
memВriНiБg Зhe QИr РБ as well. (afîН Зhe memВriНВr is Иsed fВr Зhe ВБe whВ
has memВriНed Зhe QИr РБ as a whВle aБd ГreciselМ. The cВБceГЗs like hдfН ЗВ
memВriНe , hдfНИl -QИrРБ memВriНВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ , Нikr aБd cem ЗВ briБg
together) have been used for memorization.
OИr PrВГheЗ ГbИh has БВЗ БeglecЗed ЗeachiБg Зhe QИr РБ ЗВ (is cВmГaБiВБs
and having them memorize it every day continuously as how he would attach
importance to observing five-time prayer. Stressing that the most honorabble
of His ummah wВИld be Зhe memВriНВrs Вf Зhe QИr РБ aБd ЗhaЗ Зhe wise ВwБers
of the heavens would be consisted of the memorizors, He has incited
memorization, and reacted to those who martyrised the memorizors in such a
way that probably He had never acted before. Muslims have considered being
160
ÇimeБ, The (isЗВrical BackgrВИБd Вf MemВriНaЗiВБ Вf Зhe QИr aБ
Зhe memВriНВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ as Зhe greaЗesЗ service ЗВ )slam, aБd as Зhe mВsЗ
honorable struggle, throughout the history.
QИr РБ is ИБder Зhe ГecИliar ГrВЗecЗiВБ Вf Allah. This ГrВЗecЗiВБ will cВБЗiБИe
till the day of resurrection. Both the memorizors and the institution of
memВriНaЗiВБ ГlaМ a sigБificaБЗ rВle iБ Зhe acЗ Вf ГrВЗecЗiБg Зhe QИr РБ. SВ ЗВ
speak, Allah has particularly entrusted the memorizors in order that they will
Гreserve Зhe QИr РБ. The memВriНВrs serve fВr Зhe act of preserving the
esseБce Вf Зhe QИr РБ wiЗhВИЗ allВwiБg iЗ ЗВ be disЗВrЗed Вr alЗered ГassiБg iЗ ВБ
from one generation to the other. The man contributes to the protection of the
QИr РБ bМ meaБs Вf memВrМ, sВ dВes he bМ meaБs Вf wriЗiБg.
The first qârî reciЗВr , Fam-i MВhsiБ aБd hРfiН memВriНВr Вf Зhe QИr РБ is
MВhammad ГbИh . )Б Зhis resГecЗ, (e is SaММidИ l-(ВffaН , ЗhaЗ is, Зhe MasЗer
of memorizors. He has been made memorizor by Allah. Mohammad (pbuh) is
also the first teacher of memorization. The very first memorizors He has raised,
notably the four khalifs, have been consisted of some prominent companions.
Thus, a considerable number of companions from Ansar and Muhajir have been
deemed wВrЗhМ Вf Зhe ЗiЗle (РfiНИ l-QИr РБ while ВИr PrГВhet (pbuh) was in his
life.
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166
REPORTS
14th Coordination Meeting of the
Department of Religious Education
Faculties
of
Theology,
Ahmet Ali Çanakcı1
e-mail: [email protected]
14th coordination meeting of the Turkish faculties of theology, departments of
Religious Education was held in Amasya, Hamamözü Thermal Centre by the
organization of Hitit University, Faculty of Theology between 25-27 May 2012.
In the meeting, the topics of educating teachers of religion in universities,
evaluation of curriculum of theology faculties from the view of new
developments, the new situation of departments of Religious Culture and Ethics
in primary education, the status of religious education in new constitution, the
curriculum preparation process in lessons (such as religion lessons, Quran and
the life of Prophet Muhammad) in new education program (4+4+4), were
discussed from the view of religious education and teaching.
AmasМa (amamчН“ DisЗricЗ gВverБВr RemНi DEMİR, MaМВr MehmeЗ CAN)BEK,
Vice RecЗВr Вf (iЗiЗ UБiversiЗМ, PrВf. Dr. OsmaБ EĞRİ, DeaБ Вf Зhe FacИlЗМ Вf
Theology of Hitit University Prof. Dr. MehmeЗ OKUMUŞ as well as abВИЗ
scholars from some twenty universities in different areas of Turkey and some
PhD students in these universities have attended the meeting.
DeaБ Вf Зhe FacИlЗМ Вf TheВlВgМ PrВf. Dr. MehmeЗ OKUMUŞ, whВ made a shВrЗ
speech in the opening on May 26, 2012, has declared that developments would
be evaluated, educating religion lesson teachers in universities, religious
culture and ethics teaching in primary education, adapting religion lessons in
the new system (4+4+4), some directions would be made about the lessons
Зhese elecЗive lessВБs were defiБed as QИraБ, Зhe PrВГheЗ MИhammad s life
and main religious knowledge by education and training commission on 21st
June) in this conference.
Vice Rector of Hitit University and Dean of the Faculty of Theology Prof. Dr.
OsmaБ EĞRİ sЗaЗed ЗhaЗ Зhe decisiВБs giveБ iБ Зhis cВБfereБce wВИld shaГe Зhe
religious education in Turkey. He mentioned that there had been some
develВГmeБЗs eБcВИragiБg Зhemselves, ReligiВИs CИlЗИre aБd EЗhics
department at the Faculty of Teacher Training would be transferred to Faculty
of Theology, and the departments, which would be opened from then on, would
be in Faculty of Theology. Besides, he stated that they wish pedagogical
1 Phd Candidate, Necmettin Erbakan Universit, Institute for Social Sciences.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
formation lessons would be in religious education program again. He pointed
out that students would be more successful if they had pedagogical formation
lessons during their degree education. After emphasizing about connection of
religiВИs edИcaЗiВБ wiЗh Зhe real life, PrВf. Dr. EĞRİ cВБtinued to speaking as
The real reasВБ Вf Зhe ГrВblem iБ TИrkeМ is ЗhaЗ Зhe familМ degeБeraЗiВБ
becaИse Вf which we had ЗВ develВГ a religiВИs edИcaЗiВБ fВr Вld ГeВГle. ) dВБ З
know whether we can tackle with this problem and take some precautionary
measures for refreshing family institution. What kind of values must we respect
in religious education program for standing by the institution of family? How
can we apply these values in education program? We will work to answer these
qИesЗiВБs iБ Зhis meeЗiБg. AfЗer Зhis sГeech, Зhe firsЗ sessiВБ Вf Зhe meeЗiБg
started.
PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki AYD)N, whВ is a schВlar iБ ErciМes UБiversiЗМ FacИlЗМ Вf
Theology, pointed out that it will be useful if some new programs (such as
religious education, educating teachers, educating religious officials) are
founded in theology faculties.
Then attendants told their ideas:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Süleyman AKYÜREK, a scholar in Erciyes University Faculty of
Theology, stated that a new program called religion teaching must be founded.
AssВc. PrВf. Dr. MИhiЗЗiБ OKUMUŞLAR, a schВlar iБ NecmeЗЗiБ ErbakaБ
University Faculty of Theology, evaluated the situation from a different view.
He claimed that preparation classes must be abolished, the faculty of theology
must be for four years period, there must be an intense Arabic teaching in the
1st classes.
Prof. Dr. Cemal TOSUN, a scholar in Ankara University Faculty of Theology,
stated that a joint program can be applied in Religious Culture and Ethics (RCE)
program in 1st and 2nd classes. He added that there can be differences in 4th
and 5th classes according to branches. Mr. TOSUN, who pointed out that the
pedagogic formation was given as certificate before 1982 and as degree till
, sЗaЗed ЗhaЗ sЗИdeБЗs iБ TheВlВgМ FacИlЗies mИsЗБ З be rewarded as oneЗМГe degree. (e advised ЗhaЗ Зhe degrees mИsЗ be seГeraЗed as ReligiВИs
CИlЗИre aБd EЗhics, )mam Preacher, Preacher
PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki AYD)N, sЗaЗed ЗhaЗ Зhere is a БecessiЗМ Вf Бew ГrВgrams
(Preacher, Imam-Preacher, Religious Culture and Ethics, Quran Course Teacher,
Private Service Branch) in theology faculties.
Then, Prof. Dr. Recep KAYMAKCAN, a scholar in Sakarya University Faculty of
TheВlВgМ, emГhasiНed ЗhaЗ Зhe ГedagВgic fВrmaЗiВБ mИsЗБ З be giveБ as a
certificate, whereas it must be given as a degree during the university
education.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Süleyman AKYÜREK pointed out that it is necessary that
different pedagogic formation choices must be presented to students under the
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title of religion teaching, he added that there must be expressions (such as
deserves ЗВ be )mam-Preacher Вr deserves ЗВ be ReligiВИs CИlЗИre aБd
EЗhics Teacher iБ degrees.
Asist. Prof.Dr. Mehmet KORKMAZ, a scholar in Erciyes University Faculty of
Theology, stated that there must be jointed cultural and branch lessons in
theology faculties, but the formation must be given separately.
MehmeЗ GÜNAYD)N, a schВlar iБ KahramaБmaraş S“Зç“ İmam UБiversiЗМ
Faculty of Theology, stated that the transfer of Religious Culture and Ethics to
Faculty of Theology is a success and he advised that a new program called
religion teaching must be founded. Prof. Dr. Cemal TOSUN stated that some new
ГrВgrams called JВiБЗed EdИcaЗiВБ Вf ReligiВБ aБd ReligiВБs iБ Зhe WВrld
may be founded. He added that there is an intense interest to these programs.
AsisЗ. PrВf. Dr. Ş“kr“ KEYİFLİ, a schВlar iБ DВkИН EМl“l UБiversiЗМ FacИlЗМ Вf
Theology, emphasised that there are about seventy Theology Faculties in
Turkey, and he added that some questions (such as; branch separation,
employment)must be answered about these faculties.
Prof. Dr. Abdullah ÖZBEK, a scholar in Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of
Theology, expressed that Theology Faculties must be established according to
Quran, and brain (mind) education must be regarded.
At the eБd Вf Зhe sessiВБ AsisЗ. PrВf. Dr. EМ“Г ŞİMŞEK, a schВlar iБ AБkara
University Faculty of theology, stated that it is necessary to organize the
formation according to branches.
After a short break session 2 started. The place of religious education in new
cВБsЗiЗИЗiВБ was discИssed aЗ Зhe Бd sessiВБ Вf Зhe meeЗiБg chaired bМ PrВf.
Dr. Cemal TOSUN. AssВc. PrВf. Dr. MИhiЗЗiБ OKUMUŞLAR begaБ ЗВ sГeak bМ
evalИaЗiБg Зhe ЗВГic. AssВc. PrВf. Dr. MИhiЗЗiБ OKUMUŞLAR, whВ sЗaЗes ЗhaЗ
new elective lessons must be taken care of necessarily, emphasized importance
of the topic. Then, Prof. Dr. Recep KAYMAKCAN gave point to decisions taken by
ECHR, OSCE, TOLEDO and European Council about the essentiality of Religious
Culture and Ethics lessons and he gave information about religion lessons
taking place in the constitution of some European Countries (Germany,
Norway).
AssВc. PrВf. Dr. İsmail SAĞLAM, LecЗИrer Вf UlИdağ UБiversiЗМ, FacИlЗМ Вf
TheВlВgМ, deГarЗmeБЗ Вf religiВИs edИcaЗiВБ sЗaЗed ЗhaЗ ReligiВБ lessВБ is
mostly cultural contexted and Non Muslims also can also have idea about
religiВБ bМ learБiБg Зhese afЗer Зhis sЗaЗemeБЗ PrВf. Dr. Cemal TOSUN iБ ЗhaЗ
sense stresses that Religious Culture and Ethics lesson is not about religion but
mostly about culture, adding religion lesson in Germany is undertaken by
religious communities however it is by state in Turkey. Moreover he stated that
ВГЗiВБal lessВБs cВИrses has a legal sЗaЗИs aБd differeБЗ ВГЗiВБal lessВБs caБ
be allВwed. PВiБЗiБg ВИЗ a differeБЗ cВБЗeБЗ PrВf. Dr. OsmaБ EĞRİ shared Зhe
information that Department of Religious Affairs conducted a seminar in 30
169
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
different Alevi villages and an elective Alevi and Bektashi lesson is taught in
Hitit University, Faculty of Theology.
PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki AYD)N sЗaЗed ЗhaЗ makiБg Зhe QИraБ aБd The life Вf PrВГheЗ
MИhammad sИbjecЗs lawfИl, religiВИs edИcaЗiВБ has sЗarЗed aБd qИesЗiВБed if
religious education should be cross branches or above them.
Mentioning the time of beginning religious education at schools, Assoc. Prof. Dr.
S“leМmaБ AKYÜREK ИБderliБed ЗhaЗ ReligiВИs CИlЗИre aБd EЗhics lessВБ
should be taught starting from the 1st grade, correspondingly Asist. Prof. Dr.
Veli ÖZTÜRK sЗaЗed ЗhaЗ RCE lessВБ dВes БВЗ sЗarЗ aЗ Зhe Зh grade iБ EИrВГe
and it could begin right away at 1st grade and the 2nd session ended.
AfЗer a shВrЗ break sessiВБ ЗiЗled ReligiВБ lessВБ iБ Бew edИcaЗiВБal ГrВgram
(4+4+4), preparation of the syllabus of optional Quran and Prophet
MИhammad's life lessВБ sЗarЗed. The sessiВБ was chaired by Prof. Dr. Abdullah
ÖZBEK, a scholar in Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of Theology.
Prof Dr. Recep KAYMAKCAN mentioned about acquisitions in new educational
program (4+4+4) and told that it was more flexible, gave elective lesson
options and wiped away the differences in the university entrance exam. Also in
the process secondary part of Religious Vocational Schools would be opened.
MВreВver aБ elecЗive lessВБ Бamed QИraБ aБd Зhe life Вf PrВГheЗ MИhammad
and a pool of ternary elective lessons (sports, cultural, religious) would take
place, which could only possible by revising weeks hours of lessons at schools.
Mentioning this opinions about how to make elective lessons more attractive
Veli ÖZTÜRK Asist. Prof. Dr. in Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Theology,
deГarЗmeБЗ Вf religiВИs edИcaЗiВБ, sЗaЗed ЗhaЗ Зhe elecЗive lessВБ Бamed
QИraБ aБd PrВГheЗ MИhammad's Life shВИld be made mВre aЗЗracЗive bМ
eБrichiБg Зhe visИal maЗerials . AlsВ he sЗressed ЗhaЗ ГeВГle whВ kБВw Зhe
Quran by hearth should be accepted to Theology Faculties after an interview
(like talent exam in college of arts) and teacher candidates who know the Quran
bМ hearЗ wВИld make ЗhaЗ skill mВre imГВrЗaБЗ . PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki AYD)N sЗaЗed
ЗhaЗ iБ Зhe lessВБ Вf SiМer PrВГheЗ MИhammad s life a gВВd deal Вf examГles
should be given from the wars and Prophet Muhammad must be featured.
While preparing the Siyer lesson religion educators should take place and MEB
shВИld Зake Зhe maЗerials frВm DİB.
Evaluation session of the meeting was held bМ chairiБg Вf PrВf. Dr. NevНaЗ Yaşar
AŞ)KOĞLU whВ is a lecЗИreraЗ CИmhИriМeЗ UБiversiЗМ FacИlЗМ Вf TheВlВgМ
Department of Religion Education. In this session attendants proposed some
ideas. )Б Зhis resГecЗ PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki AYD)N gave a sГeech of evaluation. He
said education of religion had a problem of quality. Moreover, he said that this
kind of meetings were held every year and problems in Turkey's religion
education were interpreted. Underlining that topics debated in the meeting had
the highest consequences for the religious services in Turkey, Mr. AYDIN said
Offers aБd decisiВБs are ЗhВИghЗ ЗВ be delivered ЗВ YÖK. )З is ВБlМ ГВssible ЗВ
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Reports
fulfill Department of Religious Affairs' duty of enlightening public only by
sВГhisЗicaЗed sЗaff. After that he told that it was his wish to see Department of
Religious Affairs to work in cooperation with Faculties of Theology and
cВБЗiБИed )З is a facЗ ЗhaЗ ГrВceediБg Вf ВИr religiВИs edИcaЗiВБ has sВme
issues of quality. If we keep this job with our old knowledge and skills we may
never succeed. We have to produce a religious education which holds our
people's hand and lifts their life standards up. In this respect Faculties of
edИcaЗiВБ shВИld be reВrgaБiНed aБd shВИld develВГ Зheir ГrВgrams.
Prof Dr. Cemal TOSUN underlined that Turkey need Religious Culture and
Ethics lesson. Stating that it was his desire no one acts unknowingly when
religiВБ is cВБcerБed aБd said FaiЗh is a religiВИs maЗЗer while Зhe ВЗher ВБe is
a matter of education. Thus we concluded that religious culture and ethics
course is an issue related to education. The main purpose of this course is to
meeЗ Зhe Бeeds Вf Зhe ГeВГle regardiБg religiВБ.
After the negotiations and evaluations, the following points were decided upon
and accepted as suitable to submit to the Faculty deaneries.
1. The retransmission of Primary School RCE Departments to Faculty of
Religious Studies following the demands presented in various scientific and
academic occasions is thought to be favorable considering the integrity and
quality of higher education of religion. At the same time, the urgency of these
matters is emphasized:
a) It will be favorable to offering prefential right to instructors at Primary
School RCE Departments in Faculty of Education for being reassigned in a
suitable department or the department of religious studies; it will better to
transfer the instructors who want to be reassigned in the department of
religious studies to departments in which they have completed their doctorate
studies to avoid the confusion in religious studies,
b) The ЗraБsferred deГarЗmeБЗ s Бame will be chaБged as ReligiВИs
EdИcaЗiВБ DeГarЗmeБЗ aБd iЗ will be cВБsЗrИcЗed bМ fВИБdiБg Зhe DeГarЗmeБЗ
of Special Education Methods, the Department of Informal Religious Education
and the Department of Religious Consultancy and Guidance; and the
Department of Religious Education will be transferred to this department,
c)
The departments program will be enriched in terms of field education.
2. It is agreed that the program of Faculty of Religious Studies will be enriched
to train staff for Teaching Primary School RCE, Secondary School RCE and
Religious Vocational High School along with the fields of Informal Religious
Education, and Religious Services. In this respect;
a) Providing pedagogical formation courses within the undergraduate
program,
b) Setting the education duration for the faculty of religious studies as 5
years to enable pedagogical formation education, as secondary school teacher
171
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
training requires for a 5 year period, and to overcome the problems
encountered in the application of preparatory class,
c) During the 5 year education period, which will be constructed as 1+2+2, the
preparatory class will be abolished and the first year will be spared for the
education of Arabic and Quran, 2nd and 3rd grades will be spared for religious
studies education which will be provided to all departments, 4th and 5th grades
will be constructed according to the employment related issues along with the
religious studies education,
d) FВr cВБsЗrИcЗiВБ Вf Зhe Зh aБd Зh grades ГrВgram sЗaЗed iБ arЗicle
2/c, Secondary School RCE Teaching, Religious Vocational High School
Teaching, Informal Religious Education and Religious Services programs can be
constructed; special religious education programs can also be opened upon the
demands providing the fulfillment of the academic staff requirements,
e) It will be appropriate for students who fulfill the specified
requirements for success to complete a second program as a minor along with
their major program.
3. It is decided that it will be appropriate to certify religious studies faculties
as teacher training higher education institutions and represent them in the
committees and councils of teacher training education, and to found a
committee related to teacher training.
4. By the studies conducted on associate professorship keywords, it was found
ЗhaЗ dИriБg Зhe addiЗiВБ Вf Зhe keМwВrd Religious
Culture
and
Ethics
TeachiБg , which is ЗhВИghЗ ЗВ be sИggesЗed bМ Зhe sИb cВmmiЗЗee of Education
Sciences Associate Professorship, the keyword with code number of 6008
ReligiВИs EdИcaЗiВБ was errВБeВИslМ chaБged wiЗh ReligiВИs CИlЗИre aБd
EЗhics TeachiБg . )З is cВБclИded ЗhaЗ )БЗerИБiversiЗМ CВmmiЗЗee is ЗВ resЗiЗИЗe
Зhe keМwВrd ReligiВИs EdИcaЗiВБ aБd ЗВ sГecifМ aБВЗher cВde БИmber fВr Зhe
keМwВrd ReligiВИs CИlЗИre aБd EЗhics TeachiБg .
5. It is concluded that the field of Religion (Religious Studies), which is
specified as a subfield of Human Sciences in the Qualifications Framework for
the Higher Education Area prepared by Bologna Process, should be constructed
as an autonomous field embracing all the faculties and programs opened in the
field of higher religious education; and the basic qualifications of the field of
religious studies should be prepared according to this necessity.
6. The consensus is achieved upon the vital importance of the obligatory
constitutional state of the RCE class should prevail.
7. Along with Quran and The life of our Prophet Classes which are created by
the 4+4+4 system, it will appropriate to provide an Islamic Religious Class
which is available to assist the inter communion learning, to design the elective
religious classes which will be provided to all classes in the secondary and high
schools with a syllabus which will not tire the learners and will not be
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repetitive; and the other courses within the same framework should be
designed appropriately for different grades in an independent manner.
8. It is concluded that the 2013 Religious Education Faculty Coordination
Meeting is to be conducted by Istanbul University Faculty of Theology
Department of Religious Education.
İlahiyat Fak“lteleri Din Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı Xıv. Koordinasyon
Toplantısı
AhmeЗ Ali ÇaБakcд1
e-mail: [email protected]
Din EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд X)V. KВВrdiБasМВБ TВГlaБЗдsд
–
MaМдs
Зarihleri arasдБda (iЗiЗ ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд
ВrgaБiНaЗчrl“ğ“Бde AmasМa (amamчН“ Termal TesisleriБde gerçekleşЗirildi.
X)V. KВВrdiБasМВБ ЗВГlaБЗдsдБda, Y“ksekчğreЗimde DiБ Dersi ÖğreЗmeБi
YeЗişЗirme, İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi PrВgramlarдБдБ YeБi Gelişmeler )şдğдБda
DeğerleБdirilmesi, İlkчğreЗim DiБ K“lЗ“r“ ve AhlРk Bilgisi Bчl“mleriБiБ YeБi
SЗaЗ“s“, YeБi AБaМasa da DiБ EğiЗimiБiБ Yeri, YeБi EğiЗim PrВgramlarдБda
+ + DiБ Dersleri, Seçmeli KИr aБ-д Kerim ve (Н. PeМgamber iБ (aМaЗд
DersleriБiБ M“fredaЗ (aНдrlдk S“reci kВБИlarд diБ eğiЗimi ve чğreЗimi açдsдБdaБ
değerleБdirildi.
KВВrdiБasМВБ ЗВГlaБЗдsдБa, AmasМa (amamчН“ KaМmakamд RemНi DEMİR,
BelediМe BaşkaБд MehmeЗ CAN)BEK, (iЗiЗ ÜБiversiЗesi RekЗчr Yardдmcдsд PrВf.
Dr. OsmaБ EĞRİ, (iЗiЗ ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DekaБд PrВf. Dr. MesИЗ
OKUMUŞ,
“БiversiЗedeБ
'Мe МakдБ akademisМeБ ve bИ aБabilim dalдБda
dВkЗВra МaГaБ baНд чğreБciler de kaЗдldд.
26 Mayдs CИmarЗesi g“Б“ saaЗ . da gerçekleşeБ açдlдşЗa kдsa bir kВБИşma
МaГaБ (iЗiЗ ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DekaБд PrВf. Dr. MesИЗ OKUMUŞ BИ
ЗВГlaБЗдda diБ eğiЗimiБdeki gelişmeleriБ değerleБdirileceğiБi, Y“ksekчğreЗimde
DiБ Dersi ÖğreЗmeБi YeЗişЗirme, İlkчğreЗimde DiБ K“lЗ“r“ Ve Ahlak Bilgisi
ÖğreЗmeБliği, YeБi EğiЗim PrВgramlarдБda + + EğiЗimiБde DiБ Dersleri
UМgИlamasд ve Seçmeli KИr aБ-д Kerim ve (Н. PeМgamberimiНiБ (aМaЗд BИ
şeçmeli dersler Talim ve TerbiМe KИrИlИ BaşkaБlдğдБca
. .
Зarihinde
KИr aБ-д Kerim, (Н. MИhammed iБ (aМaЗд ve Temel DiБi Bilgiler şekliБde
belirleБdi. dersleriМle ilgili bir Зakдm МчБleБdirmeler МaГдlacağдБд belirЗЗi.
1 DВkЗВra ÖğreБcisi, NecmeЗЗiБ ErbakaБ ÜБiversiЗesi, SВsМal Bilimler EБsЗiЗ“s“.
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
(iЗiЗ ÜБiversiЗesi RekЗчr Yardдmcдsд ve İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim
Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi PrВf. Dr. OsmaБ EĞRİ ise bИrada alдБacak kararlarдБ
T“rkiМe'deki diБ eğiЗimiБiБ geleceğiБe şekil vereceğiБi belirЗЗi. SВБ НamaБlarda
keБdileriБi cesareЗleБdireБ gelişmeleriБ МaşaБdдğдБд ve DiБ K“lЗ“r“ ve AhlРk
Bilgisi Dersi bчl“mleriБiБ İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleri Бe БakledileceğiБi ve bИБdaБ
sВБra açдlacak bчl“mleriБ ise İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleri b“БМesiБde ВlacağдБд ifade
eЗЗi. AМrдca ГedagВjik fВrmasМВБ dersleriБiБ ilahiМaЗ m“fredaЗд içersiБe
serГişЗirilmesi Зekrar g“Бdeme gelir mi? diМe bir bekleБЗi içerisiБe girdiklerini,
İlahiМaЗ eğiЗimi sдrasдБda ГedagВjik fВrmasМВБ alarak meНИБ ВlaБ чğreБcileriБ
gчrevleriБde çВk daha başarдlд ВldИklarдБд belirЗЗi. DiБ hiНmeЗleri veМa
ВkИllarda verileБ diБ dersleriБiБ haМaЗдБ içerisiБdeБ Вlmasд ve g“Бl“k haМaЗЗa
karşдlaşдlaБ ГrВblemlere cevaГ vermesi gerekЗiğiБiБ чБemiБe vИrgИ МaГЗдkЗaБ
sВБra, diБ eğiЗimiБiБ aБcak В Зakdirde haМaЗî ВlacağдБд ve чБemseБeceğiБi
sчМleМeБ EĞRİ kВБИşmasдБa şчМle devam eЗЗi: "T“rkiМe'de ГrВblemiБ asдl
sebebi; aile kИrИmИБИБ ЗahriГ Вlmasд sВБИcИБda iБsaБlarдБ МeЗişЗirme МИrdИБa
veМa hИНИreviБe d“şmesi, МaБi Мaşlдlara МчБelik diБ hiНmeЗi gelişЗirmek
НВrИБda kalдşдmдНdдr. Acaba bИ ГrВblemi geriМe dчБ“k bakarak sebebiБi
ВrЗadaБ kaldдrmaМa МчБelik, aile kИrИmИБИ caБlaБdдrmaМa МчБelik sВrИБlarд
engelleyici tedbirler alabilir miyiz? Aile kurumunu ayakta tutabilecek din
eğiЗimi m“fredaЗдБda haБgi değerlere чБem vermeliМiН? BИrada alacağдmдН
değerleri m“fredaЗa Бasдl ИМgИlaМabiliriН? ЗВГlaБЗдda bИБlar hakkдБda bir karar
almaМa çalдşacağдН. BИ kВБИşmadaБ sВБra ЗВГlaБЗдБдБ biriБci ВЗИrИmИБa
geçildi.
Y“ksekчğreЗimde DiБ Dersi ÖğreЗmeБi YeЗişЗirme, İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi
PrВgramlarдБдБ YeБi Gelişmeler )şдğдБda DeğerleБdirilmesi, İlkчğreЗim DiБ
K“lЗ“r“ ve AhlРk Bilgisi Bчl“mleriБiБ YeБi SЗaЗ“s“ kВБИlarдБдБ ele alдБdдğд ve
DiМaБeЗ İşleri BaşkaБlдğд DiБ İşleri Y“ksek KИrИl ÜМesi / ErciМes ÜБiversiЗesi
İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki
AYD)N дБ başkaБlдğдБд МaГЗдğд ve serbesЗ m“Нakere şekliБde МaГдlaБ ЗВГlaБЗдБдБ
birinci oturumda AYD)N дБ, İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleriБde, DiБ EğiЗimi ABD, ÖğreЗmeБ
YeЗişЗirme ABD, DiБ Gчrevlisi YeЗişЗirme ABD gibi МeБi bчl“mleriБ açдlmasдБдБ
faМdalд ВlacağдБд belirЗmesiБdeБ sВБra m“Нakere ve ЗarЗдşma bağlamдБda sчН
alaБ kaЗдlдmcдlar çeşiЗli gчr“ş/чБeriler dile getirdiler. Bu çerçevede söz almak
isЗeМeБ ErciМes ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд
ÖğreЗim ÜМesi S“leМmaБ AKYÜREK, DiБ ÖğreЗimi adд alЗдБda МeБi bir bчl“m
açдlarak İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi чğreБcileriБe fВrmasМВБ verilmesi imkaБдБдБ
sağlaБmasд gerekЗiği ifadeleriБe Мer verdi.
NecmeЗЗiБ ErbakaБ ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд
ÖğreЗim ÜМesi DВç. Dr. MИhiЗЗiБ OKUMUŞLAR kВБИМa farklд bir bakдş açдsд
geЗirerek, haНдrlдk sдБдflarдБдБ kaldдrдlarak İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleriБiБ Мдl Вlmasд
gerekЗiğiБi, bИБa bağlд Вlarak biriБci sдБдflarдБ AraГça ağдrlдklд Вlmasд, ikiБci,
“ç“Бc“ ve dчrd“Бc“ sдБдflarдБ da БВrmal diğer dersleriБ ВkИЗИldИğИ sдБдflar
şekliБde МeБideБ МaГдlaБdдrдlmasдБдБ чБemiБe vИrgИ МaГЗд.
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Reports
Ankara ÜniversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi
Prof. Dr. Cemal TOSUN da, DKAB (Din Kültürü ve Ahlak Bilgisi) Bölümleri ve
İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleriБiБ biriБci ve ikiБci sдБдflarдБda ВrЗak bir ГrВgramдБ
ИМgИlaБabileceği biriБci sдБдfЗa AraГça ağдrlдklд, ikiБci ve “ç“Бc“ sдБдfЗa İlahiМaЗ
ГrВgramд dчrd“Бc“ ve beşiБci sдБдfЗa braБşlara ve МaБ dallara gчre aМrдm
МaГдlabileceğiБi belirЗЗi. AМrдca fВrmasМВБИБ
чБcesi serЗifika şekliБde,
e kadar diГlВma şekliБde verildiğiБi ifade edeБ TOSUN, İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi
чğreБcileriБe Зek ЗiГ diГlВma verilmemesi gerekЗiğiБi, bИБИБ DKAB, İ(L, VaiНlik
gibi ГrВgramlara aМrдlmasд gerekЗiğiБi beliЗЗi. PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki AМdдБ da bИБa
paralel olarak, 1997 öncesi Pedagojik Formasyon derslerinin verilmesinin
diГlВma baНд sakдБcalarдБдБ ВldИğИБИ ve Зek ЗiГ чğreБci МeЗişЗirildiğiБi, bИ
s“reçЗe İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleriБde farklд alaБ dallarд VaiН, İ.(.L., DKAB, KИr aБ
KИrsИ
ÖğreЗicisi,
ÖНel
(iНmeЗ
AlaБlarд…
ile
ilgili
МeБi
programlarlara/düzenlemelere ihtiyaç duМИldИğИБИ ifade eЗЗi.
Daha sВБra sчН alaБ SakarМa ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi
AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi PrВf. Dr. ReceГ KAYMAKCAN ise ГedagВjik
formasyonun, чğreБcilere serЗifika şekliБde değil de meНИБ ВlmadaБ чБce
чğreБimleriБe devam ederkeБ diГlВma şekliБde verilmesi gerekЗiğiБiБ alЗдБд
çizdi.
Doç. Dr. Süleyman AKYÜREK, DiБ ÖğreЗimi adд alЗдБda чğreБcilere farklд
ГedagВjik fВrmasМВБ seçeБekleri sИБИlmasд gerekЗiğiБi, diГlВmalarda KИr aБ
KИrsИ ÖğreЗicisi, İmam-(aЗiГ, DKAB ÖğreЗmeБi, İ(L ÖğreЗmeБi ВlmaМa hak
kaНaБmдşЗдr şekliБdeki bir ifadeМe Мer verilmesi gerekЗiğiБi belirЗЗikЗeБ sВБra
ErciМes ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi
Yrd. Doç Dr. Mehmet KORKMAZ, ilahiyat fakültelerindeki bölümlerde alan ve
geБel k“lЗ“r dersleriБiБ ВrЗak Вlmasд, fВrmasМВБИБ ise aМrд verilmesi gerekЗiği
hususunu dile getirdi.
KahramaБmaraş S“Зç“ İmam ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi ÖğreЗim Gчrevlisi
MehmeЗ GÜNAYD)N дБ, EğiЗim Fak“lЗeleriБdeki DKAB Bчl“mleriБiБ İlahiМat
Fak“lЗeleriБe bağlaБmasдБдБ bir başarд ВldИğИБИ ve bИБИБla beraber DiБ
ÖğreЗimi adдМla МeБi bir bчl“m“Б açдlmasдБдБ gerekli ВldИğИ hИsИsИБИ dile
getirmesinden sonra söz alan Prof. Dr. Cemal TOSUN, Ankara Üniversitesi
İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi b“БМesiБde YaМgдБ DiБ EğiЗimi ve D“БМa DiБleri bчl“mleriБiБ
açдldдğдБд, ilk meНИБlarдБд verdiğiБi ve bИ bчl“mlere ilgiБiБ МВğИБ ВldИğИБИ
belirtti.
DВkИН EМl“l ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim
ÜМesi Yrd. DВç. Dr. Ş“kr“ KEYİFLİ, şИaБda T“rkiМe de МeЗmiş civarдБda İlahiМaЗ
Fak“lЗesiБiБ ВldИğИБИ, bИБlarda Бe МaГдlacağдБдБ AlaБ mд?, bчl“mleşme mi?,
braБşlaşma mд?, isЗihdam mд?
sВrИlarдБдБ БeЗleşmesi gerekЗiği “НeriБde
durdu.
NecmeЗЗiБ ErbakaБ ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд
ÖğreЗim ÜМesi PrВf. Dr. AbdИllah ÖZBEK, İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleriБiБ KИr aБ a
gчre/daМalд kИrИlmasд gerekЗiğiБi ve НihiБ eğiЗimiБe чБem verilmesi hИsИsИБИ
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
dile geЗirdi. OЗИrИmИБ sВБИБda ise AЗaЗ“rk ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ
EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi Yrd. DВç. Dr. EМ“Г ŞİMŞEK, чğreБcilere
verilecek fВrmasМВБИБ bчl“mlere gчre МaГдlaБdдrдlmasдБдБ gerekliliğiБi ifade
etti.
Kдsa bir ara verildikЗeБ sВБra ikiБci ВЗИrИma geçildi. PrВf. Dr. Cemal TOSUN ИБ
başkaБlдğдБд МaГЗдğд ЗВГlaБЗдБдБ ikiБci ВЗИrИmИБda YeБi AБaМasa da DiБ
EğiЗimiБiБ Yeri kВБИsИ m“Нakere edildi. KВБИМla ilgili değerleБdirme içiБ sчН
alaБ DВç. Dr. MИhiЗЗiБ OKUMUŞLAR, g“Бdemde ВlaБ МeБi seçmeli dersleriБ
“НeriБde mИЗlaka dИrИlmasд gerekЗiğiБi belirЗerek kВБИБИБ чБemiБi vИrgИladд.
Daha sВБra PrВf. Dr. ReceГ KAYMAKCAN, DKAB dersiБiБ НВrИБlИlИğИ ile ilgili
alдБmдş Aİ(M, AGİT, TOLEDO ve AvrИГa KВБseМi kararlarд “НeriБde dИrdИ ve
baНд AvrИГa “lkeleriБiБ AlmaБМa-NВrveç aБaМasasдБda Мer alaБ diБ dersleri
hakkдБda bilgi verdi.
UlИdağ ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi
Doç. Dr. İsmail SAĞLAM дБ, diБ dersiБiБ daha çВk k“lЗ“r içerikli ВldИğИБИ ve
T“rkiМe de M“sl“maБ ВlmaМaБlarдБ da bИБlarд чğreБerek diБ ile ilgili ВlИГ
biЗeБler hakkдБda bilgi sahibi ВldИğИБИ belirЗmesiБdeБ sВБra bИ bağlamda
kВБИşaБ PrВf. Dr. Cemal TOSUN, DiБ K“lЗ“r“ ve Ahlak Bilgisi dersiБiБ diБ dersi
değil de daha çВk k“lЗ“r dersi ВldИğИБИ, AlmaБМa da diБ dersiБi cemaaЗler
“sЗleБirkeБ T“rkiМe de devleЗiБ “sЗleБdiğiБi ifade eЗЗi. AМrдca seçmeli dersleriБ
Мasal Зemele ВЗИrdИğИБИ ve farklд seçmeli derslere de Мer verilebileceğiБe
vИrgИ МaГЗд.
PrВf. Dr. OsmaБ EĞRİ ise farklд bir БВkЗaМa dikkaЗ çekerek, DiМaБeЗ İşleri
BaşkaБlдğд БдБ ВЗИН ilde Alevi kчМleriБde semiБerler verdiğiБi, (itit Üniversitesi
İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesiБde ise seçmeli Alevilik-BekЗaşilik Dersi kВБИldИğИ bilgisiБi
ЗВГlaБЗдМa kaЗдlaБlarla ГaМlaşЗд
PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki AYD)N, KИr aБ-д Kerim ve (Н. PeМgamber iБ (aМaЗд adlд
dersleriБ МasaМa girmesiМle seçmeli diБ eğiЗimiБiБ haМaЗa geçmiş ВldИğИ ve diБ
dersiБiБ ise meНheГler arasд mд? МВksa meНheГler “sЗ“ m“? Вlmasд gerekЗiği
sorusu üzerinde durdu.
OkИllarda diБ dersiБiБ başlama НamaБд ile ilgili чБemli bir hИsИsИ dile geЗireБ
Doç. Dr. Süleyman AKYÜREK, DKAB dersinin ilkokul biriБci sдБдfЗaБ iЗibareБ
başlamasд gerekЗiğiБiБ alЗдБд çiНdi ve bИ d“ş“БceМe Гaralel Вlarak Yrd. DВç. Dr.
Veli ÖZTÜRK de AvrИГa da DKAB dersiБde . SдБдf ИМgИlamasдБдБ ВlmadдğдБд ve
bИ dersiБ biriБci sдБдfЗaБ başlaМabileceğiБi belirЗЗi ve ikiБci ВЗИrИm sВna erdi.
Kдsa bir aradaБ sВБra YeБi EğiЗim PrВgramlarдБda + + DiБ Dersleri,
Seçmeli KИr aБ-д Kerim ve (Н. PeМgamber iБ (aМaЗд DersleriБiБ M“fredaЗ
(aНдrlдk S“reci başlдklд “ç“Бc“ ВЗИrИma geçildi. NecmeЗЗiБ ErbakaБ
ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi PrВf Dr.
AbdИllah ÖZBEK başkaБlдğдБda gerçekleşeБ ВЗИrИmda sчН alaБ PrВf. Dr. ReceГ
KAYMAKCAN, YeБi EğiЗim PrВgramдБдБ + + kaНaБдmlarдБdaБ bahsederek
bИ ГrВgramдБ daha esБek ВldИğИБИ, seçmeli ders imkaБд ЗaБдdдğдБд ve
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“БiversiЗeМe girişЗe farklarд kaldдrdдğдБд ifade eЗЗi. AМrдca bИ s“reçЗe İ(L ВrЗa
kдsдmlarдБдБ açдlacağдБд, KИr aБ-д Kerim ve (Н. PeМgamber iБ haМaЗд adlд seçmeli
dersleriБ ve “çl“ bir seçmeli ders havИНИБИБ sГВr, k“lЗ“rel, diБ Мer alacağдБд
belirtti. Bunun da okullarda ders saatlerinin yeniden düzenlenmesiyle
gerçekleşebileceğiБi ifade eЗЗi.
Seçmeli dersleriБ caНiГ hale geЗirilmesiМle ilgili d“ş“БceleriБi ifade edeБ DВkИН
EМl“l ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi
Yrd. DВç. Dr. Veli ÖZTÜRK, KИr aБ-д Kerim ve (Н. PeМgamber iБ (aМaЗд adlд
seçmeli dersleriБ bИ Мдl чНellikle gчrsel maЗerМal ile НeБgiБleşЗirilmesiМle
чНeБdirilmesi gerekЗiğiБi belirЗЗi. AМrдca hafдНlдk kВБИsИБИ g“Бdeme geЗirerek,
hafдНlarдБ İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleriБe m“lakaЗ МВlИ ile alдБmasдБдБ G“Нel SaБaЗlar
Fak“lЗesiБde МeЗeБek sдБavд ВldИğИ gibi ve hafдН ВlaБ чğreЗmeБ adaМlarдБдБ
diГlВmalarдБda bИБИБ belirЗilmesiБiБ hafдНlдk m“essesesiБi gelişЗireceğiБe
vИrgИ МaГЗд. PrВf Dr. M. Şevki AYD)N da T“rkiМe de KИr aБ-д Kerim eğiЗimiБde
hafдНlдk m“essesesiБde sдkдБЗд var. SiМer dersiБde ise savaşlardaБ çВk чrБek
alдБacak (Н. MИhammed чБ ГlaБa çдkarдlmalд. SiМer dersiБiБ haНдrlaБmasдБda
diБ eğiЗimcileri de Мer almalд, aМrдca MEB, DİB deБ maЗerМal ЗemiБi МaГmalд,
ifadelerine yer verdi.
TВГlaБЗдБдБ değerleБdirme ВЗИrИmИ CИmhИriМeЗ ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi
DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ÖğreЗim ÜМesi PrВf. Dr. NevНaЗ Yaşar AŞ)KOĞLU
başkaБlдğдБda МaГдldд. BИ bчl“mde kaЗдlдmcдlar çeşiЗli gчr“ş ve чБerilerde
bulundu. Bu çerçevede PrВf. Dr. M. Şevki AYD)N bir değerleБdirme kВБИşmasд
МaГЗд. DiБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗleriБiБ БiЗelik sВrИБИ МaşadдğдБд belirЗЗi. AМrдca, bИ З“r
ЗВГlaБЗдlarдБ her Мдl МaГдldдğдБд ve T“rkiМe'БiБ diБ eğiЗimi sВrИБlarдБda чБe
çдkaБ başlдklarдБ değerleБdirildiğiБi ifade eЗЗi. TВГlaБЗдda ele alдБaБ kВБИlarдБ
diБ hiНmeЗleri bakдmдБdaБ çВk чБemli sВБИçlar ВrЗaМa kВМdИğИБИБ alЗдБд çiНeБ
AYD)N, "Elde edileБ чБeri ve kararlarд raГВr haliБde YÖK'e ileЗmeМi
d“ş“Б“МВrИН. UМgИlamada s“rd“r“lebilir МaГдlaБdдrmalara ЗВГlaБЗдmдНдБ vesile
ВlacağдБд d“ş“Б“МВrИm" dedi. DiБ hiНmeЗleriБiБ dВБaБдmlд, БiЗelikli
elemaБlarla daha da işlevsel hale geleceğiБi, DiМaБeЗ İşleri BaşkaБlдğд БдБ
kИrИlИş amacд ВlaБ halkд diБ kВБИsИБda aМdдБlaЗma gчreviБiБ МeЗerli ve her
МчБ“Мle dВБaБдmlд elemaБlarla sağlaБabileceğiБi belirЗЗi. BИБИБ içiБ DiМaБeЗ
İşleri BaşkaБlдğд'БдБ İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleri ile iş birliği içiБde çalдşmaМд arНИ
eЗЗiğiБi ifade eЗЗikЗeБ sВБra şчМle devam eЗЗi: DiБ eğiЗimi faaliМeЗlerimiНiБ
БiЗelik sВrИБИ Мaşadдğд bir gerçek. DeğişeБ şarЗlar karşдsдБda d“БdeБ kalaБ bilgi
ve becerilerle biН bИ işi М“r“ЗmeМe devam edersek asla başarдlд ВlamaМдН.
DВlaМдsдМla iБsaБдmдНдБ eliБdeБ ЗИЗaБ, ВБИБ haМaЗ sЗaБdardдБд М“kselЗmesiБe
kaЗkд sağlaМaБ bir diБ eğiЗimiБi ВrЗaМa kВМamaМдН. İlahiМaЗ fakültelerinin de bu
aБlamda МeБideБ МaГдlaБdдrдlmasдБda ve ГrВgramlarдБд gelişЗirmesiБde Мarar
var.
Prof. Dr. Cemal TOSUN ise Türkiye'nin, Din Kültürü ve Ahlâk Bilgisi dersine
ihЗiМacд ВldИğИБИБ alЗдБд çiНdi. DiБ kВБИsИБda cahilce davraБдlmamasдБд arНИ
eЗЗikleriБi belirЗeБ TOSUN; "İБaБдГ iБaБmama bireМleriБ keБdileriБe bağlд,
haЗЗa Allah'дБ l“ЗfИ. Ama siН dВğrИ bilgiМi verirseБiН, iБaБmasa da iБaБaБдБ
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
iБaБcдБa saМgдlд ВlИr. İБaБmak bir diБ sВrИБИ ama diğeri bir eğiЗim sВrИБИ.
DВlaМдsдМla DiБ K“lЗ“r“ ve AhlРk Bilgisi dersiБi bir eğiЗim meselesi Вlarak
gчrd“k. BИ dersiБ esas hedefi iБsaБlarдБ diБ kВБИsИБdaki ihЗiМaçlarдБд
karşдlamak." İfadeleriБe Мer verdi.
YaГдlaБ m“Нakereler/değerleБdirmeler sВБИcИБda aşağдdaki hИsИslar
kararlaşЗдrдldд ve bИ kararlarдБ Fak“lЗe dekaБlдklarдБa sИБИlmasд ИМИБ gчr“ld“:
İlkчğreЗim DKAB Bчl“mleriБiБ birçВk bilimsel ve akademik ГlaЗfВrmlarda
ВrЗaМa kВБИlmИş ВlaБ ЗaleГlere de ИМgИБ Вlarak İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleri Бe Зekrar
akЗarдlmasд, М“ksek diБ чğreЗimiБde b“З“Бl“k ve kaliЗe açдsдБdan olumlu
değerleБdirildi. BИБИБla birlikЗe şИ hИsИslarдБ gecikmeksiНiБ dikkaЗe alдБmasд
üzerinde duruldu.
a EğiЗim fak“lЗeleriБdeki İlkчğreЗim DKAB Bчl“m“ чğreЗim elemaБlarдБa,
eğiЗim fak“lЗeleriБde ИМgИБ bir aБabilim dalдБa aЗaБma veМa ilahiМaЗ
fakülteleriБe geçmede Зercih hakkд ЗaБдБmasдБдБ Мararlд Вlacağд, İlahiМaЗ
fak“lЗeleriБe geçme isЗeğiБde ВlaБ чğreЗim elemaБlarдБдБ dВkЗВra МaГmдş
ВldИklarд aБabilim dallarдБa akЗarдlmasдБдБ ilahiМaЗ içiБde akademik aБlamda
iki başlдlдğд чБlemesi bakдmдБdaБ ИМgИБ Вlacağд,
b AkЗarдlaБ bчl“m“Б ismiБiБ DiБ EğiЗim ve ÖğreЗimi Bчl“m“ Вlarak
değişЗirilerek ÖНel ÖğreЗim YчБЗemleri AБabilim Dalд, YaМgдБ DiБ EğiЗimi
AБabilim Dalд, DiБi DaБдşmaБlдk ve Rehberlik AБabilim Dalд şekliБde
МaГдlaБdдrдlmasд ve DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim DalдБдБ bИ bчl“me akЗarдlmasд,
c Bчl“m ГrВgramдБдБ alaБ bilgisi açдsдБdaБ НeБgiБleşЗirilerek gelişЗirilmesi
uygun görüldü.
. İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleri БiБ İlkчğreЗim DKAB, OrЗaчğreЗim DKAB, İ(L Meslek
Dersleri ÖğreЗmeБlikleri ile YaМgдБ DiБ EğiЗimi ve DiБ (iНmeЗleri alaБдБa
elemaБ МeЗişЗirecek şekilde ГrВgramlarдБ МeБideБ МaГдlaБdдrдlmasд hИsИsИБda
gчr“ş birliğiБe varдldд. BИ bağlamda;
a ÖğreЗmeБlik fВrmasМВБ dersleriБiБ lisaБs ГrВgramд içersiБde verilmesi,
b OrЗaчğreЗim чğreЗmeБliği eğiЗimiБiБ
Мдllдk bir чğreБimi чБ gчrmesi
БedeБiМle чğreЗmeБlik fВrmasМВБ eğiЗimiБe imkaБ haНдrlamak ve haНдrlдk sдБдfд
ИМgИlamasдБda karşдlaşдlaБ sВrИБlarд aşmak amacдМla ilahiМaЗ fak“lЗeleriБiБ
чğreЗim s“resiБiБ Мдl Вlarak belirleБmesi,
c + + şekliБde ГlaБlaБacak Мдllдk чğreБim s“resiБde, haНдrlдk sдБдfд ilga
edilerek, biriБci МдlдБ ağдrlдklд AraГça ve KИr aБ eğiЗimiБe aМrдlmasд, . ve .
sдБдflarдБ З“m ГrВgramlarдБ ВrЗak alacaklarд ilahiМaЗ eğiЗimiБe, . ve . sдБдflarдБ
ise ilahiМaЗ eğiЗimi МaБдБda isЗihdam alaБlarд dikkaЗe alдБarak
МaГдlaБdдrдlmasдБдБ ИМgИБ Вlacağд,
d /c maddesiБde belirЗileБ . ve . sдБдflarдБ МaГдlaБdдrдlmasдБda OrЗaчğreЗim
DKAB ÖğreЗmeБliği, İ(L Meslek Dersleri ÖğreЗmeБliği; YaМgдБ DiБ ÖğreЗimi ve
DiБ (iНmeЗleri PrВgramlarдБдБ ВlИşЗИrИlabileceği, akademik kadrВ МeЗerliliği
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vb. şarЗlar МeriБe geЗirildiği ЗakЗirde ihЗiМaçlar dВğrИlЗИsИБda чНel diБ eğiЗimi
gibi ГrВgramlarдБ da açдlabileceği,
e
. sдБдf sВБИ iЗibariМle, belirleБecek başarд şarЗlarдБд МeriБe geЗireБ
чğreБcileriБ ВkИdИklarд ГrВgram МaБдБda ikiБci bir ГrВgramд МaБ dal Вlarak
alдГ serЗifika ile ЗamamlamasдБдБ ИМgИБ Вlacağд değerleБdirildi.
. İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗeleriБiБ чğreЗmeБ МeЗişЗireБ М“ksek чğreБim kИrИmИ Вlarak
Зescil edilerek чğreЗmeБ eğiЗimi ile ilgili kИrИlacak kВmiЗe ve kВmisyonlarda
ЗemsiliБiБ sağlaБmasд ve diБ чğreЗmeБi eğiЗimi ile ilgili kВmiЗe
ВlИşЗИrИlmasдБдБ ИМgИБ Вlacağд değerleБdirildi.
. DВçeБЗlik aБahЗar sчНc“kleri “НeriБde МaГдlaБ çalдşmalar sдrasдБda EğiЗim
Bilimleri Doçentlik alt komisyonunun önerisi ile gündeme geldiği ЗahmiБ edileБ
DiБ K“lЗ“r“ ve Ahlak Bilgisi ÖğreЗmeБliği aБahЗar sчНc“ğ“Б“Б ekleБmesi
sдrasдБda
kВdlИ DiБ EğiЗimi aБahЗar sчНc“ğ“ sehveБ çдkarдlmдş МeriБe
aМБд kВd ile DiБ K“lЗ“r“ ve Ahlak Bilgisi ÖğreЗmeБliği aБahЗar sчНc“ğ“
МaНдlmдşЗдr. ÜAK дБ bИ МaБlдşlдğд
kВdИБИ DiБ EğiЗimi sчНc“ğ“Бe iade
eЗmek, DiБ K“lЗ“r“ ve Ahlak Bilgisi ÖğreЗmeБliği sчНc“ğ“ içiБ ise aМrд kВd
belirlemek sИreЗiМle d“НelЗmesiБiБ НВrИБlИ ВldИğИ hИsИsИБda fikir birliğiБe
varдldд.
5. Bologna süreci çerçevesiБde haНдrlaБaБ Y“ksek ÖğreЗim YeЗerlikleri alaБlarд
içerisiБde Beşeri Bilimler alЗдБda Мer alaБ DiБ İlahiМaЗ alaБдБдБ, М“ksek diБ
чğreЗimi alaБдБda açдlaБ З“m fak“lЗe ve ГrВgramlarд kaГsaМacak şekilde
müstakil bir alan haline getirilmesi ve ilahiyat temel yeterliklerinin buna göre
haНдrlaБmasдБдБ ИМgИБ Вlacağд gчr“ş“Бe varдldд.
6. DKAB dersinin anayasal zorunlu statüsünün devam etmesinin hayati önemi
bИlИБdИğИ “НeriБde gчr“ş birliği sağlaБdд.
. + + sisЗemi ile ВrЗaМa çдkaБ МeБi dИrИmda KИr aБ-д Kerim ve Hz.
PeМgamberimiНiБ (aМaЗд dersleriБiБ МaБдБda meНheГler arasд чğreБmeМe
m“saiЗ bir İslam diБ dersiБiБ kВБИlmasдБдБ ИМgИБ Вlacağд; ВrЗaВkИl ve liselerde
З“m sдБдflarda ВkИЗИlacak seçmeli diБ dersleriБ чğreБciМi bдkЗдrmaМacak ve
ЗekrardaБ kaçдБдlacak bir mИhЗeva ile ГlaБlaБmasд; aМБд çerçevede kВБИlacak
diğer dersleriБ birbiriБdeБ bağдmsдН Вlacak şekilde aМrд sдБдf seviМeleri içiБ
d“ş“Б“lmesi ИМgИБ bИlИБdИ.
. TВГlaБЗдda
Мдlд DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dallarд KВВrdiБasМВБ ЗВГlaБЗдsдБдБ
İsЗaБbИl ÜБiversiЗesi İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi DiБ EğiЗimi AБabilim Dalд ЗarafдБdaБ
d“НeБleБmesi kararlaşЗдrдldд.
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REVIEWS
Ali Ayten, Psikologların Din ve Tanrı Görüşleri, Psikoloji ve Din, İstanbul: İz
Yayıncılık,
,
sayfa.
G“l“şan Göcen1
e-mail: [email protected]
Psikoloji uzun bir geçmişe fakat kısa bir tarihe sahiptir.
Filozof Ebbinghaus
İБsaБдБ mИЗlИlИğИ ve hИНИrИ, hem diБiБ hem de ГsikВlВjiБiБ ВrЗak gaМesidir.
DiБ ve ГsikВlВji, iБsaБдБ МerМ“Н“ macerasдБda ilk g“БdeБ bИg“Бe heГ birarada
ВlmИşЗИr. FakaЗ iБsaБa kaЗkдda bИlИБdИğИ içiБ hiçbir НamaБ değeriБi
kaМbeЗmeМeБ bИ iki haМaЗî чğe, baНeБ çalдşmalarдБд ИМИm içiБde s“rd“rmeМi
başarmдş, baНeБ de birbiriБi dдşlaМaБ haЗЗa sИçlaМaБ Зaraf dИrИmИБa
gelebilmişlerdir.
PsikВlВjiБiБ Зarihi, iБsaБдБ ЗarihiМle eş ВlmasдБa karşдБ ГsikВlВji deБiБce
mВderБ ГsikВlВji aБlaşдldдğдБdaБ ГsikВlВji ЗarihiБiБ FreИd la başladдğд
d“ş“Бcesi hРkimdir. BИБdaБ dВlaМд FreИd ИБ diБe bakдşд ile mВderБ
ГsikВlВjiБiБ diБe bakдşдБдБ aМБд ВldИğИ d“ş“Бcesi МaМgдБdдr. BИ МaklaşдmдБ
tamamen МaБlдş ВldИğИ sчМleБemeМeceği gibi, dВğrИ ВldИğИБИ sчМlemek de
mümkün görünmemektedir.
MВderБ ГsikВlВji diБe her НamaБ МakдБ ilgi gчsЗermiş, diБ ve TaБrд iБaБcд
ГsikВlВglarдБ ilk ele aldдğд kВБИlar arasдБda Мer almдşЗдr. GeБel Вlarak ГsikВlВji
tarihine bakдldдğдБda М“Нlerce Мдl чБce sВrИlmИş sВrИlarдБ g“Б“m“Нde de
kВБИşИlИМВr ve ilgi gчr“МВr Вlmasд, hem bИ kВБИlarдБ ihЗiМaç Вlarak devam
eЗЗiğiБi hem de ГsikВlВjiБiБ kВБИ ve meЗВЗlarдБda gelişimsel bir devamlдlдk
ВldИğИБИ gчsЗermesi bakдmдБdaБ чБemlidir. İlk dчБem iБsaБд içiБ merak ve
araşЗдrma kВБИsИ ВlaБ diБ ve TaБrд iБaБcд ile diБiБ iБsaБlar “НeriБdeki eЗkisi,
g“Б“m“Н ГsikВlВji ve diБ ГsikВlВjisi çalдşmalarдБda da geБişçe bir Мer
ЗИЗmakЗadдr.
Psikoloji tarihini din ve Tanrı inancı üzerinden ele alan Ali AМЗeБ, alaБдБ
çalдşaБlarд ve kВБИБИБ meraklдlarд içiБ ГsikВlВji - diБ gчr“şleriБiБ b“З“Б“Б“
rahaЗlдkla gчrmeleriБi sağlaМacak bir чНeЗ sИБmakЗadдr. AМЗeБ, ГsikВlВji Зarihi
içerisindeki bir çok psikolog ve ekolün içerisinden sadece psikoloji-diБ adдБa
önemli gчr“leБ kчşe başlarдБda dИrmakЗa ve g“Б“m“Нe ИНaБaБ s“reci sade ve
aБlaşдlдr bir dille aБlaЗmakЗadдr.
1
DВkЗВra ÖğreБcisi, AБkara ÜБiversiЗesi, SВsМal Bilimler EБsЗiЗ“s“.
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
MВderБ ГsikВlВjiБiБ ilk НamaБlarдБdaБ iЗibareБ arЗaБ diБ-ГsikВlВji çaЗдşmasд
g“Б“m“Нe geliБceМe kadar çeşiЗli Мaklaşдmlarla farklд s“reçlerdeБ geçmişЗir. Bu
s“reç içerisiБde kimi НamaБ k“s, kimi НamaБ barдşдk bir şekilde МВl almaМa
devam eden din-ГsikВlВji ilişkisi ВlИmlИ Мa da ВlИmsИН З“m şarЗlara karşдБ
iБsaБ içiБ her НamaБ чБemiБi ve değeriБi kВrИmИşЗИr.
Ali AМЗeБ iБ Psikoloji ve Din adlд kiЗabд, mВderБ ГsikВlВji ЗarihiБde diБ ve TaБrд
kВБИsИ “НeriБde çalдşaБ, diБiБ ve diБdar iБsaБдБ ЗaБдmд, diБî davraБдşдБ
gelişimi, mВЗivasМВБИ ve kчkeБi “НeriБde ЗeВri gelişЗireБ alЗд чБemli ГsikВlВğИБ
William James, Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Abraham Maslow
ve Victor Frankl gчr“şleriБiБ Мer aldдğд Мararlд bir çalдşmadдr. KiЗaГ, akademik
bir kВБИ Вlarak da ele alдБabilecek bir kВБИМИ aМrдБЗдМa iБmedeБ her kesimdeБ
ВkИМИcИМa hiЗaГ edebileБ alЗд makaledeБ ВlИşmИşЗИr.
Psikolojide söz sahibi olan psikolВglarдБ gчr“şleri чНeЗleБirkeБ aМБд НamaБda
ele alдБaБ her ГsikВlВğИБ ВrЗaМa kВМdИklarд d“ş“БceleriБde sadece Мaşadдklarд
ВrЗamдБ değil, keБdi чНel МaşaБЗдlarдБдБ da eЗkili ВldИğИ d“ş“БcesiМle
biМВgrafileriБe de Мer verilmekЗedir. AМrдca her makale, ВkИМИcИlarдБ kВlaМca
Иlaşabilmeleri ve Зemel ВkИmalar МaГabilmeleri içiБ bчl“m sВБlarдБda В
bчl“me aiЗ kaМБakçaМla sВБlaБdдrдlmakЗadдr.
AМЗeБ, kiЗabдБдБ ilk bчl“m“Бe diБ ГsikВlВjisiБiБ чБc“ ГsikВlВğИ Вlarak da kabИl
edilen William James la (1842başlamдşЗдr. James дБ ГsikВlВjik
МaklaşдmдБa, farklд meЗВЗlardaБ ВlИşaБ МчБЗemiБe, iБsaБa karşд h“maБisЗ
МaklaşдmдБa ve diБe bakдşдБa değiБeБ AМЗeБ, James дБ diБî ve misЗik Зecr“be
ЗaБдmдБa ve sВБ Вlarak da diБ ve TaБrд d“ş“БcesiБiБ geleceği ile ilgili
gчr“şleriБe Мer vermişЗir. AМЗeБ e gчre James д ГsikaБaliН ГsikВlВglarдБdaБ
aМдraБ eБ чБemli чНellik, diБî feБВmeБleri deБeМsel bir Мaklaşдmla iБcelemesi ve
diБiБ kчkeБiБdeБ çВk ГraЗik faМdasд “НeriБde dИrmasдdдr s.
.
GeБelde ГsikВlВji ve felsefe alaБдБda eserler vereБ James дБ ilk eseri
ГsikВlВjiБiБ Зemel ГreБsiГleriБi ВrЗaМa kВМdИğИ Psikolojinin İlkeleri (1890)
eseri ve daha sВБra Dinî Tecr“benin Çeşitliliği
adlд eseriМle diБ
ГsikВlВjisiБiБ aБa kВБИlarд diБî Зecr“be, diБî feБВmeБ, misЗisiНim, dИa, diБ
değişЗirme, diБ ve rИh sağlдğд gibi kВБИlarд ele alaБ ve bИ kВБИlarд deБeМsel bir
şekilde iБceleБmesiБiБ чБ“Б“ açaБ William James, bИ çalдşmalarдМla bir
d“ş“Б“r ve filВНВf Вlarak heБ“Н В dчБem r“şd“Б“ isГaЗ eЗmemiş diБ
psikolojisinin kurucusu olarak kabul edilmektedir (s.19).
İlke Вlarak ГragmaЗik bir Мaklaşдm sergileМeБ James a gчre bir eМlemiБ iМi Мa da
kчЗ“ Вlmasд, geЗirdiği Мarara gчre belirleБdiği içiБ ВБa gчre diБ ve diБî Зecr“be
eğer kişiМe faМda sağlдМВrsa değerli ve aБlamlдdдr s.
James, diБî Зecrübeyi
iБcelemek içiБ (Н.İsa, (Н.MИhammed ve BИda gibi diБî чБderleriБ bireМsel
Зecr“beleri “НeriБde çalдşmдşЗдr. Ç“Бk“ FreИd diБi Oedipus Kompleksin de, Jung
kollektif bilinçdışında ele alдrkeБ, James ise bireʼsel tecr“be olarak ele
almakЗadдr. FakaЗ James ile başlaМaБ diБî Зecr“beБiБ ЗaБдmlaБma s“reci,
ГsikВlВjik çalдşmalarдБda meЗВЗ Вlarak gчНlem ve deБeМ МВlИБИ kИllaБaБ, iБsaБ
davraБдşlarдБд eЗki-ЗeГki şekliБde ele alaБ, diБî davraБдşд da diğer davraБдşlar
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Reviews
gibi basit psikolojik bir sürecin sonucu Вlarak gчreБ davraБдşçдlarдБ da eЗkisiМle
sekЗeМe Иğramдş, James дБ başlaЗЗдğд МerdeБ daha da ИНak Мerlere dВğrИ
s“r“kleБmişЗir.
AМЗeБ e gчre çВk чБemli çalдşmalara чБc“l“k edeБ James дБ, ГsikВlВjiБiБ
içerisiБde FreИd gibi diБe ВlaБ bakдşдБд kИrИmsallaşЗдran bir ekolünün
Вlmamasд, ВБИБ biliБç, НihiБ, self keБdilik gibi kВБИlara geЗirdiği gчr“şleriБi
ve kИllaБdдğд meЗВЗlarдБд sisЗemaЗik bir şekilde ВrЗaМa kВМmamasдБdaБ
kaМБaklaБmakЗadдr s. .
DiБiБ ГsikВlВjiМle eБ çeЗiБ çaЗдşmalarдБдБ ВldИğИ ГsikaБaliНde din, bir
БevrВНdИr. AМЗeБ ikiБci makale Вlarak Nevroz Ve Yanılsama Olarak Din
başlдğдМla diБ-ГsikВlВji ilişkisiБiБ kiliЗ ismi ГsikaБaliНiБ kИrИcИsИ Вlarak biliБeБ
Sigmund Freud a (1856Мer vermekЗedir. PВНiЗiviНmiБ МВğИБ eЗkisiМle
psikanalist psikВlВglar diБi iБdirgemeci bir Мaklaşдmla ele alarak, iБsaБ
haМaЗдБdaki МeriБi БesБel bir şekilde чlçmeМe çalдşmдş, şekliБi ve МeriБi
değişЗirmek isЗemişlerdir.
PsikaБalisЗ ГsikВlВglarдБ başдБda geleБ FreИd a gчre diБ, baНeБ saГlaБЗд
nevrozu; bazen bebeklik arНИlarдБдБ ЗaЗmiБi, baНeБ de bir МaБдlsamadдr. DiБ ve
TaБrд hakkдБdaki gчr“şleriБi sдrasдМla; Bir Nevroz Olarak Din de diБi
davraБдşlar ile saГlaБЗдlд davraБдşlar arasдБda bir bağ kИrarak s.
, Totem Ve
Tabu: Dinin İlkel Kaʼnakları adlд eseriБde ise iБsaБдБ evreБdeki МeriБiБ
evrimsel bir bakдş açдsдМla ele alarak s.
, Bir Yanılsama Olarak Din de
gerçek ВlmaМaБ bir iliНМВБ ВlaБ diБiБ НamaБla bilimiБ de kaЗkдsдМla ВrЗadaБ
kalkacağд d“ş“БcesiМle s.
ve Dine Yapılan Son Eleştiri Musa Ve
Tektanrıcılık eseriБde de МahИdilik ve hrisЗiМaБlдk ile ЗВЗemiНm arasдБda
beБНerlik kИrarak ele alaБ s.
FreИd И, diБ-ГsikВlВji “НeriБde eБ çВk çalдşaБ
psikolog olarak da görmek mümkündür.
Üç“Бc“ makale Вlarak Arketip Olarak Din Ve Tanrı başlдğдМla Гsikanalizin
ikiБci adamд Вlarak biliБeБ Carl Gustav Jung a (1875-1961) yer veren Ayten,
JИБg ИБ arkeЗiГ ЗaБдmдБд ve diБ- ГsikВlВji ilişkisiБe ВlaБ МaklaşдmдБд ВЗИrЗЗИğИ
kollektif biliçdışı kavramдБд ele almakЗa, diğer МaБdaБ da JИБg ИБ diБe ve
dindar insana bakдşдБд ve geleceğiБ diБ gчr“ş“Бe dair d“ş“БceleriБi
akЗarmakЗadдr.
AМЗeБ, JИБg ИБ sisЗemiБde TaБrд БдБ ve diБiБ kчkeБiБiБ kВllekЗif biliБçdдşдБdaki
arkeЗiГlere bağlaБdдğдБд aБlaЗmakЗadдr. FreИd diБi, ill“НМВБsal bir isЗek Вlarak
görürken, Jung dini, ruhuБ bir МaБsдmasд ve ГsikВ-ЗeraГik bir gerçeği Вlarak
gчrmekЗedir. JИБg her iБsaБda чНe dчБ“ş Вlarak gчr“leБ ВlgИБlaşma ve rИhsal
diБgiБliği, bir bireМleşme s“reci Вlarak gчrmekЗe diБi ise bИ s“reciБ eБ чБemli
faktörü olarak kabul etmektedir.
Psikanalizin kИrИcИsИ saМдlaБ FreИd ИБ keБdisi diБe karşд ВlИmsИН Зavдr
ЗakдБmдş Вlsa da, çağdaşд ВlaБ diğer чБemli ГsikВlВg JИБg, diБe karşд ВldИkça
ВlИmlИ bir ЗИЗИm içerisiБdedir. TaБrд Мд ve diБi bir arkeЗiГ Вlarak ele alaБ JИБg,
evreБsel ve kalдЗдmsal biliБçdдşд mahНeБi ВlaБ kabИl eЗЗiği kollektif bilinçdışı
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
kavramд ile iБsaБдБ ikili МaГдsдБdaБ b“З“Бl“ğe bireʼleşmeʼe dВğrИ ilerlemesiБi
içereБ aБaliЗik ГsikВlВjisiМi ВlИşЗИrmИşЗИr. AМЗeБ e gчre JИБg aslдБda kИrdИğИ
aБaliЗik ГsikВlВji ile farklд diБsel gчr“şleri ГsikaБaliН ile birleşЗirmek
istemektedir (s. 87).
TaБrд Мд iБsaБ içiБ чБemli bir ИБsИr Вlarak gчreБ JИБg a gчre TaБrд, bireМsel bir
Зecr“beБiБ “r“Б“d“r. BireМ, TaБrд Мд ЗeВlВjik bir kavram Вlarak kabИl eЗmeН,
TaБrд bireМsel bir Зecr“beБiБ “r“Б“ ВldИğИ içiБ kişi ВБИ keБdi НihБiБde
hisseder s.
. DiБdar iБsaБд iБcelerkeБ feБВmeБВlВjik bir Мaklaşдm
sergileМerek, bireМsel Зecr“belerdeБ МararlaБmasдБa rağmeБ JИБg, FreИd ИБ
МaklaşдmдБд eleşЗiriМВr ВlmasдБa rağmeБ ВБИБ gibi diБi iБdirgemeci bir
Мaklaşдm içiБde ele almдşЗдr s.
. SВБ Вlarak AМЗeБ, JИБg ИБ sИbjekЗif ve
ГsikВlВjik bir gerçeklik ВlmasдБдБ dдşдБda TaБrд БдБ varlдğд kВБИsИБda açдklama
МaГmakЗaБ kaçдБdдğдБд ve kВБИda bir biliБemeНci Зavдr sergilediğiБi
belirtmektedir (s. 87).
Dini bir arketip olarak ele alaБ JИБg ЗaБ sВБra dчrd“Бc“ makale Вlarak Otoriter
Dine Karşı (“maniter Din başlдğдМla ГsikaБaliНiБ içerisiБde diБ ve TaБrд
gчr“şleri ile чБe çдkaБ Erich Fromm a (1900Мer vereБ AМЗeБ, FrВmm ИБ
iБsaБ gчr“ş“Бe, iБsaБдБ sahip olma ve olma arasдБda Мaşadдğд s“rece,
sevgiБiБ iБsaБ “НeriБdeki eЗkisiБe ve vicdaБдБ gelişimiБe değiБmekЗe, diБ ve
TaБrд gчr“ş“ çerçevesiБde FrВmm ИБ otoriter ve hümaniter din aМrдmдБa Мer
vermektedir.
AМЗeБ iБ belirЗЗiği “Нere FrВmm a gчre iБsaБ, fiНМВlВjik ve biМВlВjik ihЗiМaçlarд
ВlaБ ve bИБlar dВМИrИldИğИБda ГrВblemsiН haМaЗ МaşaМaБ bir varlдk değildir.
FrВmm davraБдşçдlarдБ ve ГsikaБaliНiБ iБsaБ ЗaБдmlarдБд vicdaБ, sevgi ve akдl
gibi чНellikleriБi ihmal eЗЗiği içiБ МeЗersiН Вlarak gчrmekЗedir s.
. OБa gчre
önemli ВlaБ şeМ, iБsaБдБ diБe Мa da TaБrд Мa МчБelmesi değil, sevgiМi Мaşamasд
ve hakikaЗi d“ş“Бmesidir s.
. FrВmm diБiБ varlдğд Мa da МВklИğИМla değil,
daha çВk diБiБ Бe З“r bir diБ ВldИğИМla ilgileБmekЗedir.
FrВmm, iБsaБlarд varВlИşlarдБda Мer alaБ keБdilerine ve dünyaya yönelik
ЗИЗИmlarдБд belirleМeБ sahiГ Вlmak Мa da Вlmak Вlarak adlaБdдrdдğд iki
МчБelimle ele almakЗadдr. SahiГ Вlma МчБelimiБdeki iБsaБlardaki sahiГ Вlma
hдrsд, kişiБiБ ahlРki ve iБsaБî МчБleriБiБ “sЗ“Бde herşeМiБ чБ“Бe geçmişЗir.
Olma МчБelimiБde ВlaБ kişilerde ise mИЗlИlИk, sevme, ГaМlaşma ve verme
чБemlidir. FrВmm a gчre sahiГ Вlma МчБelimiБdeki kişiler varlдklarдБд
saklaМarak, Вlma МчБelimiБdekiler elleriБdekiБi ГaМlaşarak mИЗlИ ВlИr.
AМЗeБ e gчre FrВmm iБsaБlarda ВlИşaБ diБî ihЗiМacдБ kчkeБleriБi, dВğalarдБdaБ
kВГmalarдБдБ МaraЗЗдğд sдkдБЗдМд МeБme isЗekleriБde bИlmakЗadдr. DiБ, iБsaБlarд
haМaЗlarдБdaki sдkдБЗд, çelişki ve hИНИrsИНlИklardaБ kИrЗarmakЗa kдsacasд iБsaБa
Зeselli vermekЗedir s.
. İБsaБдБ gelişimiБe eБgel Вlarak gчrd“ğ“ ВЗВriЗer
diБ ile iБsaБдБ ГВaЗaБsiМelleriБi çдkararak aБlam vereБ h“maБiЗer diБ
aМrдmдБд МaГaБ FrВmm içiБ МiБe eБ чБemli чğe, iБsaБдБ mИЗlИlИğИ, iМiliği ve
daha da önemlisi kendisidir.
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AМЗeБ beşiБci makale Вlarak h“maБisЗ ГsikВlВjiБiБ kИrИcИsИ Abraham
Maslow un (1908-1970) Gerçek Dindar: Kendini Gerçekleştiren Bireʼ başlдğдМla
iБsaБ gчr“ş“Б“, ihЗiМaçlar Гiramidi ile ГsikВlВjik gчr“ş“Б“, keБdiБi
gerçekleşЗireБ iБsaБдБ чНellikleriБi, keБdiБi aşma ve dВrИk deБeМim Зecr“besiБi
ele alarak din ile ilgili gчr“ş“Б“ ele almakЗadдr. MaslВw a gчre iБsaБ, s“rekli
Вlarak varlдğдБд iБşa edeБ bir s“reç içerisiБdedir. BИ s“reç içerisiБdeki iБsaБдБ
isЗikameЗi ise d“r“sЗl“ğe, sevgiМe, diğergamlдk, БeНakeЗ ve cesareЗ gibi iМi
değerlere МчБelikЗir s.
. FreИd ИБ kчЗ“ ЗabiaЗlд iБsaБ МaklaşдmдБa karşд
çдkaБ MaslВw a gчre iБsaБda ВrЗaМa çдkaБ ГsikВlВjik rahaЗsдНlдklar, iБsaБдБ
dВğasдБдБ değişЗirilmesi, reddedilmesi ve МaşaБmasдБa eБgel ВlИБmasд ile
ВrЗaМa çдkmakЗadдr.
AМЗeБ MaslВw ИБ iБsaБдБ Мaşam hedefleri Вlarak gчrd“ğ“ ihЗiМaçlarдБд
sдБдflamasдБdaБ bahsederek, MaslВw ИБ ihЗiМaçlar hiМararşisiБe Мer
vermekЗedir. İçerisiБde fiНiksel, biМВlВjik ve sВsМal ihЗiМaçlarдБ sдralaБdдğд
ГiramiЗЗe eБ “sЗ ihЗiМacд keБdiБi gerçekleşЗirme ihЗiМacд Вlarak gчreБ MaslВw,
TaБrд ve diБ hakkдБdaki gчr“şleriБi de iБsaБдБ biМВlВjik МaГдsдМla bağlaБЗдlд
Вlarak ele almakЗadдr. OБa gчre diБ, iБsaБдБ dВğasдБda vardдr ve dВğa“sЗ“ bir
aБlam ЗaşдmaН. AМЗeБ iБ belirЗЗiği “Нere MaslВw, diБleri kuralcı ve mistik ,
diБdarlarд da d“zen insanı ve mistik insanı Вlarak ele almakЗa ve misЗik
diБdarд gerçek diБdar Вlarak gчrd“ğ“Б“ sчМlemekЗedir s.
.
BИg“Бlerde МВğИБ ilgi gчreБ değerlerle ile ilgili Вlarak MaslВw, varlık
değerleri Вlarak ВrЗaМa aЗЗдğд iМilik, dВğrИlИk, adaleЗ, sadelik, Б“kЗedaБlдk gibi
değerleriБ diБî bir БiЗeliği ВldИğИБИ sчМlemekЗe ve bИ değerleri eБ iМi şekilde
МeriБe geЗireБ bireМleriБ, diБdar iБsaБlar ВldИğИБИ ifade eЗmekЗedir.
AМЗeБ kiЗabдБдБдБ sВБ makalesiБi Bilinçdışı Tanrı ve Bilinçdışı Dindarlık adlд
makalede dini iБsaБ içiБ sВБsИН bir aБlam kaМБağд Вlarak ele alaБ ViМaБa lд
psikolog Victor Frankl a (1905-1997) yer vererek bitirmektedir. Logoterapi
ismiБi verdiği ГsikiМaЗrik МaklaşдmдМla iБsaБlarдБ haМaЗдБд aБlamlaБdдrmaМa ve
МaşamalarдБa БedeБler sИБmaМa çalдşaБ FraБkl, MaslВw gibi iБsaБдБ iМi ЗabiaЗla
МaraЗдldдğдБda hemfikir Вlsa da davraБдşд, içg“d“lerle ve ihЗiМaçlarla
açдklamasдБa karşд çдkmakЗadдr. AМЗeБ iБ akЗardдğдБa gчre FraБkl, iБsaБ
haМaЗдБдБ aБlamдБд “ç şekilde keşfedebileceğiБi sчМlemekЗedir. BИБlarд bir
eМlemi gerçekleşЗirmek , bir değeri ВrЗaМa kВМmak , acд Мaşamak Вlarak
açдklaМaБ FraБkl a gчre haМaЗЗa aБlamдБ kalmamasд dИrИmИБda varВlИşsal
bВşlИk ВlИşmakЗadдr s.
. FraБkl a gчre mВderБ iБsaБдБ eБ b“М“k Зrajedisi
ise, TaБrд algдsдБda ВrЗaМa çдkaБ МabaБcдlaşma ve dИМarsдНlaşmadдr s.
.
DiБ ve TaБrд gчr“şleriБi Bilinçdışı Tanrı isimli kiЗabдБda ЗВГlaМaБ FraБkl a
gчre GiНli TaБrд, BiliБçdдşд TaБrд ve BiliБçdдşд DiБdarlдk Вlmak “Нere “ç TaБrд
kavramд vardдr. Gizli Tanrı kavramдБa gчre iБsaБ TaБrд Мa iБaБsa da ВБa
ИlaşmaН ve ВБИБla kВБИşamaН. BИБИБ içiБ iБsaБ-TaБrд ilişkisi biliБçdдşдБda
gerçekleşmekЗedir ki bИ da Bilinçdışı Tanrı kavramдБa deБk gelmekЗedir.
Ulaşдlmadдğд ve kВБИşИlmadдğд içiБ biliБçdдşдМla ileЗişim kИraБ iБsaБдБ TaБrд ile
ilişkisi ise Bilinçdışı Dindarlık Здr. AМЗeБ FraБkl дБ bИrada TaБarд БдБ biliБçsiН
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
ВldИğИБИ kasЗeЗmediğiБi, BiliБçdдşд TaБrд kavramдМla TaБrд Мa bir Мer ЗaМiБ
eЗme d“ş“БcesiБde de ВlmadдğдБд belirЗmekЗedir s.
.
FraБkl, iБsaБдБ diБi iБaБcдБд Зercih eЗmesiБiБ bir hakkд ВldИğИБИ sчМlemekЗedir.
OБa gчre diБler keБdileriБi k“lЗ“r aracдlдğдМla iБsaБlara ИlaşЗдrдr iБsaБlar da
чНg“r iradeleriМle ЗercihЗe bИlИБИrlar s.
. İБsaБlara g“veБ ve aБlam vereБ
diБiБ чБemiБe ve gelecekЗe de her НamaБ varВlacağдБa iБaБaБ FraБkl a gчre
iБsaБlдğдБ geleceğiБde kИrИmsal diБdeБ bireМsel diБe dВğrИ bir dчБ“ş“m
ВlacakЗдr.
MВderБ ГsikВlВjiБiБ alЗд чБemli ГsikВlВğИБИБ gчr“şleriБdeБ s“Н“leБ diБ ve
TaБrд d“ş“БceleriБi чНeЗlemeМe çalдşaБ AМЗeБ bИ kiЗabд ile ГsikВlВji ЗarihiБiБ,
iБsaБдБ Мaşam ser“veБi gibi heБ“Н ЗamamlaБmдş ve sabiЗleБmiş ВlmadдğдБд,
s“rekli bir gelişim içerisiБde ВldИğИ bir keН daha gчsЗermiş ВlmakЗadдr.
PsikВlВji ve DiБ adlд kiЗabд ile AМЗeБ, şimdiБiБ şekilleБmesiБde geçmişiБ
etkisini bilmenin, pek çok psikolВğИБ çalдşmalarдБda kИllaБdдğд ЗekБiği ve
d“ş“БceМi aБlamaМд kВlaМlaşЗдracağдБд ve ГsikВlВjiБiБ geleceği/geleceğiБ
ГsikВlВjisi hakkдБda biНe iГИçlarд verebileceğiБi de ifade eЗmekЗedir.
PsikВlВjiБiБ içerisiБde birçВk чБemli kişiБiБ diБ ve TaБrд gчr“şleri ve
МaklaşдmдБdaБ bahseЗmek m“mk“Бd“r. ElbeЗЗe sдБдrlaБmдş bir çalдşma ВldИğИ
içiБ чБe çдkaБ isimlere Мer verilmesi de makИl karşдlaБacak bir dИrИmdИr.
FakaЗ diБ ГsikВlВjisiБde haklд bir “Бe sahiГ ВlaБ diБ ve ЗaБrд МaklaşдmдБд
çalдşmalarдБa МaБsдЗaБ, diБdarlдk чlç“m“ çalдşmalarд ile ЗaБдБaБ GВrdВБ
AllГВrЗ ИБ bИ kiЗaГ içerisiБde Вlmamasд dikkaЗimiНi çekeБ bir hИsИs ВlmИşЗИr.
FakaЗ МiБe de ГsikВlВglarдБ diБ ve TaБrд ile ilgili d“ş“БceleriБi karşдlaşЗдrдГ
değerleБdirmek adдБa bИ kiЗabдБ, hem akademik çalдşaБlara hem de
meraklдlarдБa g“Б“m“Н ГsikВlВji aБlaМдşдБдБ diБ ve TaБrд aБlaМдşдБд b“З“Б
Вlarak gчrebilme ve aБlama fдrsaЗд sИБmasд bakдmдБdaБ Мararlд bir çalдşma
ВldИğИБИ sчМlemek m“mk“Бd“r.
Recep Alpyağıl der. , Türkiye’de Bir Felsefe Gelen-ek-i Kurmaya Çalışmak,
Feylesof Simalardan Seçme Metinler,
İz Yayıncılık, İstanbul,
,
Sayfa ve İz Yayıncılık, İstanbul,
,
Sayfa .
Şenol Korkut1
e-mail: [email protected]
ReceГ AlГМağдl bИ iki kiЗaГЗa, МakдБ Зarih felsefecileriБiБ “НeriБde МaşadдğдmдН
cВğrafМada filВНВfИБ МeЗişme kВşИllarдБa ve felsefeБiБ Бasдl МaГдlabileceğiБe
dair meЗiБleriБi derleМerek, d“ş“Бce d“БМamдНda ИНИБ НamaБdдr eksikliği
1 Yrd. Doç. Dr., Eskişehir OsmaБgaНi ÜБiversiЗesi, İlahiМaЗ Fak“lЗesi.
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Reviews
gчНlemleБeБ чБemli bir bВşlИğИ dВldИrmИşЗИr. BИ vesileМle AlГМağдl, bИg“Б
baНдlarдБдБ isimleri dahi ИБИЗИlmaМa М“Н ЗИЗmИş A daБ Z Мe ВБlarca d“ş“Б“r,
filozof, münevver, feylesof2 ve alim sдfaЗlarдБд haiН fig“rleriБ d“БМasдБa чНg“Б
bir bakдş açдsд ile МeБi bir ГeБcere açдМВr. BИ derlemeleri, З“rdeşleriБdeБ aМдraБ
birçok sebep var. Müellif, öncelikle aМБд kВБИlИ mevcИЗ aБЗВlВji ve derlemeleriБ
içeriğiБiБ b“М“k ВraБda kВlaМlдkla ИlaşдlabileБ malИmaЗlardaБ ВlИşЗИğИБИ ve
her defasдБda birbiriБi ЗakiГ ve Зekrar eЗЗiğiБi, bИg“Б iЗibariМle bИ МaМдБlarдБ
sВrgИlaБmasд haЗЗa aşдlmasдБдБ НarИri ВldИğИБИ ЗesГiЗ ediyor. Buna mukabil
bчМlesiБe bir МaГдЗ içiБ farklд “БiversiЗelerde çalдşдlmдş lisaБs, М“ksek lisaБs ve
dВkЗВra ЗeНleriБe ИlaşmaБдБ, akademi dдşдБda Бeşredilmiş dergileri Зarama
ЗiЗiНliğiБiБ, k“З“ГhaБeleriБ ЗВНlИ raflarдБda aЗдl kalmдş meЗiБleri karдşЗдrma
НahmeЗi ve cesareЗi gчsЗermeБiБ gerekli ВldИğИБИ sчМl“МВr. MeЗiБ seçkisiБdeki
БesБel ЗИЗИm ise, iki eser bВМИБca ГergeliБ açдlarдБд devraldдğдmдН miras
БamдБa daha faНla geБişleЗiМВr. BИraМa kadar g“Нel fakaЗ bИБdaБ sВБrasд
önemli.
AlГМağдl дБ seçkisiБi чНg“Б kдlaБ başka bir sebeГ var: KiЗabдБ k“БМesiБde geçeБ
seçme meЗiБler Зamlamasд her Бe kadar, aБdдğдmдН З“rdeki derleme ve
aБЗВlВji liЗeraЗ“r“Б“ haЗдrlaЗsa da T“rkiМe de Bir Felsefe GeleБ-ek-i Kurmaya
Çalдşmak kalдbд çчН“mleБdiğiБde, kВБИМla ilgili МaНдlarдБ БedeБ derleБdiği,
ilgili bağlamda Бasдl bir geleБek ВlИşЗИrabileceği ve Бasдl bir geleceği
şekilleБdireceği kВБИsИБda derleМeБ iБ БiМeЗ ve savlarдБд başlaБgдçЗa
vИrgИlИМВr. BИ ЗabiriБ mahiМeЗiБi ise her iki kiЗabдБ başдБda dercedilmiş iki
dibacede ve seçkide Мer alaБ simalara МчБelik ЗaБдЗдm МaНдlarдБda bИlabilmek
m“mk“Б. T“rkiМe deki Felsefe FaaliМeЗleriБe Bir PrВlВgВmeБia ve Bir
PrВЗreГЗik başlдklд чБ МaНд, bir чБsчНdeБ daha чЗe bağlamдБda bИ esere geleБek
ile gelecek arasдБda bir bИlИşma ve sВrgИlama НemiБi ЗaМiБ ediМВr. T“rkiМe БiБ
d“ş“Б haМaЗдБdaki geçmiş, şimdi ve gelecek arasдБdaki b“М“k kВГИşa МчБelik
ЗesГiЗ; bir Бevi bИБИ НВrИБlИ kдlдМВr. BИ ЗesГiЗiБ sağlamasд kВlaМca МaГдlaБ
gerekçesi ise, МakдБ dчБemiБ Paris merkeНli d“ş“Бce НihБiМeЗiБiБ geЗirdiği
kВlВБМal PiННa EЗkisi ile geleБeğiБdeБ meЗafiНik çдkarma çabasдМla felsefeМe
МчБeleБleriБ amaБsдН bir kargaşa areБasд Вlmasдdдr. BчМlelikle sчН kВБИsИ
PrВlВgВБeБia ve PrВЗreГЗik girişimiБi МaНar, KaБЗçд aБlamda, arЗдk bИБdaБ
sonra böyle olmalд şekliБde değil de ArisЗВЗelesci aБlamda felsefeМe çağrд ve
МeБideБ başlamaМa dair НВrИБlИ bir sВrИmlИlИk Вlarak algдlaБmasдБд isЗiМВr.
BИ БedeБle seçkide Мer alaБ simalara aiЗ biНde БedeБ felsefe ve filВНВf МВk
Зemalд meЗiБler, geçmiş-şimdi-gelecek adдБa mevcИЗ felsefe çevreleriБe, felsefe
k“rs“leriБe ve felsefe cemiМeЗleriБe çağrдda bИlИБaБ bir k“lliМaЗ Вlarak, bir
bakдma geri dчБ“МВr. ÖМle ki AlГМağдl дБ daha başlaБgдçЗa feylesof, hakim ve
hükema sдfaЗlarдБa çağrдşдm ВlsИБ diМe МaГЗдğд irВБi; biНlerin kökenleri
bakдmдБdaБ felsefeМle işЗigal edeБleri hakiki, ʼalancı, sahte ve boş filozof
aМrдmlarдБa değiБ ИНaБaБ bir sчНc“k dağarcдğд ve evreБiБe Бe kadar
МabaБcдlaşЗдğдmдНa ЗИhaf bir чrБek Вlarak ЗemaМ“Н ediМВr.
2
BИ МaНдМд ВkИМarak baНд d“НelЗmeler МaГmama vesile ВldИğИ içiБ PrВf. Dr. İlhaБ KИЗlИer
hВcamдНa Зeşekk“r ederim.
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Seçkideki baНд meЗiБler T“rkiМe de felsefe МaГabilmeБiБ imkРБlarдБa dair
vahim ve bir В kadar da gerekçesiН bir içerik arНederkeБ, baНдlarд ise mevНИБИБ
k“Бh“Бe vakдf bir ЗarНda bИ imkРБlara МчБelik g“çl“ Зahliller ВrЗaМa kВМИМВr.
BИБИБ içiБ МaНar haБgi Зarafa deБk d“şerse d“şs“Б derlemedeki metinlerin, bu
“ç НamaБ dilimi açдsдБdaБ hesaГlaşдlmasд gerekeБ bir alaБ ВldИğИБИ
d“ş“БmekЗedir, haklдdдr. BИ mirasla hesaГlaşдlmalдdдr ç“Бk“ TaБНimaЗ
чБcesiБiБ reddi, bir felsefi d“ş“БceБiБ dВğmasд, Мaşamasд ve devam eЗmesi içiБ
zorunlu postüla olan metafiНik/БaНari ЗemelleriБi bИdamдşЗдr. KeНa bИ ВlgИ
felsefeБiБ dВğasд içiБ asдl ВlaБ ВkИl ve ekВl kИrИmИБИБ devredeБ çдkarдlmasдБa
МВl açmдşЗдr. ÖrБeğiБ bИ ЗВГraklar/k“rs“ler -hala g“БcelliğiБe şahiЗ ВldИğИmИН
şekliМle- T“rkiМe de felsefi faaliМeЗiБ aБcak
МдlдБda başladдğд gibi bir
algдБдБ keБdisiБe ВЗВriЗerlik alaБlarд açЗдğд Зravma ve şВklarla ИНИБ s“re
m“cadele eЗmeМe marИН bдrakдlmдşЗдr.
BИ БedeБle AlГМağдl дБ derlemesiБde gчreceğimiН gibi
. М“НМдl T“rk
d“ş“БcesiБde filВНВf Вlma ГВЗaБsiМeli ЗaşдМaБ şahдslarдБ neden bizde felsefe
ʼok?, neden bizden filozof çıkmıʼor?, neden bir Aristoteles ve Kant uzmanımız
yok?, nasıl bir filozof ʼetiştirebiliriz? şekliБde Зelif eЗЗikleri МaНдlarдБ baНдlarд
чБce ВlgИМИ ЗesГiЗ edelim şekliБdeki bir fikir saБcдsдБдБ “r“Б“ ВlmasдБa
rağmeБ maalesef baНдlarд da bИ sВrИmlИlИğИ ВmИНlarдБa almakЗaБ НiМade işiБ
egНersiНiБi МaГarak bИБdaБ eБЗelekЗ“el bir haН çдkarma maБЗдğдБdaБ başka bir
şeМe hiНmeЗ eЗmiМВr. BИ meseleМe kдМдsдБdaБ kчşesiБdeБ ilgi dИМaБ bir ВkИr
özellikle geleБek meselesi bakдmдБdaБ БegaЗif bir mevkide ВlaБlarдБ
meЗiБleriБde bahseЗЗiğimiН maБНaraМд iНleМebilecekЗir. Ç“Бk“ bИg“Б aМБд
dчБemdeБ kalkarak maБЗдk, eГisЗemВlВji, ВБЗВlВji haЗЗa bilim felsefesi ile ilgili
salЗ чНg“Б МaНдlardaБ ВlИşaБ bir derleme МaГsak bИ kadar kaГsamlд bir seçkiМe
ИlaşabileceğimiН kИşkИlИdИr. AlГМağдl дБ bИ bağlamda МaГЗдğд çağrд ise geБiş bir
çevreБiБ m“dahil Вlabileceği kВlekЗif bir d“rЗ“М“ ЗeЗikleМebilir, ЗeЗiklemelidir
de. YВksa şahiЗ ВldИğИmИН gidişaЗ ВdИr ki sВБ iki asдrdдr МВğИБ olarak
ЗarЗдşдlmдş bir kВБИ Вlarak БedeБ felsefe ve filВНВfИmИН МВk şekliБdeki
kдvraБmalarдБ,
. asдrda bИ sefer de БedeБ arЗдk şiir ve şairimiН МВk
şekliБdeki bahse kВБИ asдl ГrВblemle beraber МaМgдБlaşacağдБд sчМlemek ş“Гhe
götürmez bir meseledir. MeЗafiНik/БaНari bВМИЗlarд her geçeБ g“Б Зarihsel
malНeme ve НeБgiБlik sЗaЗ“s“Бe iБdirgeБeБ bir d“ş“Бme şekliБiБ, baНд
alaБlarдБda eskisi kadar veМa ВБdaБ daha faНla sahih ve ВЗВriЗer ВlabileceğiБe
dair bir gчr“ş, aБcak iМimserlikle açдklaБabilir. BИ БedeБle T“rkiМe de felsefe
şiir “НeriБdeБ ilerlediği içiБ biНdeБ filВНВf değil şair çдkдМВr чБermesiБiБ eБ aН
T“rkiМe de ГВНiЗif bilimler gelişmediği içiБ felsefe ВlmИМВr Мa da Felsefe
aБcak ЗasavvИfИБ evreБ ve НemiБiБe МerleşЗiğiБde МeБideБ dirilecekЗir
şekliБdeki чБermeler kadar МaБlдş ВldИğИБa, keНa bИ З“r МВrИmlarдБ geleБeğiБ
haklarдБд ve halkalarдБд Зek З“rde çчН“mleme ИğraşдБdaБ başka bir şeМ
ВlmadдğдБa işareЗ edelim. D“ş“Б haМaЗдmдНдБ içiБde bИlИБdИğИ hal ve ahval
bizleri, bu metinlerin sadece felsefeБiБ geleceği açдsдБdaБ değil, edebiМaЗ,
ilahiМaЗ ve saБaЗ gibi diğer alaБlar bakдmдБdaБ da kaМda değer ВldИğИ
kanaatine götürmektedir.
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ZaЗeБ AlГМağдl дБ da bağlamдБda “НeriБde чБemle dИrdИğИ şeМ; bir geleБek
ВlИşЗИrma meselesidir. BИ maБada geleБ-ek; geçmişle gelecek arasдБdaki
ilişkiБiБ НВrИБlИlИğИБa evrilmekЗe, geçmiş ve geleceğiБ iç içeliğiБi veМa
birbirleriБiБ alaБдБda işlevsel Вlarak dВlaşmasдБд içermekЗedir. GeleБ-ek
geçmişЗe gele-nin, gele-ceğe dчБ“k bir ekiБiБ ВldИğИБИ sчМlemekЗedir. Geçmiş
miras g“Б“m“Нe/bИg“Бe ekleБerek aБcak чНg“Б ve sisЗemaЗik bir d“ş“Б
dağarcдğд ВlИşЗИracakЗдr. BчМlelikle bИ cВğrafМadaki aБlamдМla hikmeЗe, Бerede
bдrakдlmдşsa ВradaБ başlaБacakЗдr. AlГМağдl bИ şarЗlarд haiН bir geleБek ЗarifiБiБ,
alдşдlagelmiş ЗaБдmlarдБdaБ farklд ВldИğИБИ, ç“Бk“ bИg“Бe değiБ geleБeğiБ
aБlam ve чБemiБdeБ sчН edeБleriБ, geleceğiБ bИ geleБekle Бasдl iБşa
edileceğiБe dair hiçbir eser vermedikleriБi, daha da чБemlisi bчМlesiБe bir
araМдş içiБde de ВlmadдklarдБд bildirmekЗedir.
ÖrБeğiБ (ilmi ZiМa ÜlkeБ iБ
МдlдБda bir FРrРbî БiБ BaЗд daki mВderБ
siМaseЗ filВНВflarдБдБ чБc“s“ ВldИğИ şekliБdeki iddialarдБдБ dчБemi iЗibariМle
ИМgИБ bir МaklaşдmдБ МaБsдmasд ВlabileceğiБi, fakaЗ
li Мдllarla geliБdiğiБde
hala beБНer eşleşЗirmeleriБ МaГдlmasдБдБ heГ aМБд kдsдr dчБg“Б“Б çevresiБde
dВlaşmakЗaБ başka чНg“Б bir bВМИЗИ içermediğiБi; ВМsa şimdi/bИg“Б adдБa
arЗдk bИ iddialarдБ meЗБe dчБ“şЗ“r“ld“ğ“ Зakdirde aБlamlд ВlabileceğiБi
dilleБdirmekЗedir. BИ bağlamda karşдlaşЗдrmalд d“ş“БceМi g“çl“ ve aБlamlд
kдlacak ИБsИr; Зaraf ВldИğИБИН şeМiБ siНdeki МaБsдmasд değil, В şeМiБ БesliБiНe
açЗдğд kaБallarдБ ЗдkaБдГ ЗдkaБmadдğд meselesidir.
AlГМağдl bИg“Б/şimdi geleБekЗeБ bahseЗmeБiБ birisi ЗВГЗaБ baЗдşд geЗirecek
diğeri ise felsefe adдБa bir sдçrama gerçekleşЗirecek iki aБlamд ВldИğИБИ; eğer
geleБek ile geçmişЗe kalaБдБ bahsedilmesi dИrИmИБda bИБИБ bir çчk“ş,
kВГmaksдНдБ devam edeБ çВklИ bir b“З“Б Вlarak aБlaşдldдğдБda ise maБidar ve
işlevsel ВlabileceğiБi ileri s“rmekЗedir. DВlaМдsдМla g“Б“m“Нde geleБek
kavramдБa vИrgИ МaГmaБдБ felsefe açдsдБdaБ НВrlИklarд vardдr aБcak bИБdaБ
maksaЗ bИ cВğrafМadaki felsefe faaliМeЗleriБdeki kчkeБe ve kчkeБsiНliğe ilişkiБ
bir sВrИБИ gчr“Б“r kдlmakЗдr. ŞИ halde geleБ-ek, klasik aБlamдБda
geleБekselcilik, milli Вlmak ve mИhafaНakarlдk değildir. AМБд şekilde )). Cild iБ
чНsчН“Бde aМrдБЗдlд bir şekilde Зahlil edildiği gibi, geleБ-ek felsefede ancak bir
kaБВБ ve ВЗВriЗe МaГдldдğд ВraБda gerçek aБlamдБд bИlmИş ВlacakЗдr. YaБi
geleБek; felsefeciБiБ “НeriБde kВБИmlaБdдğд Зarihsel birikimi dikkate almak
biliБci ve şИИrИdИr. YalБдН felsefi bir geleБ-ek iБşa edebilmek içiБ de seçkiМe
kВБИ ВlaБ МakдБ dчБem k“lliМaЗдБд geriМe dВğrИ bir rehberlik ve ilham НemiБi
Вlarak işlevsel kдlmak ve ihМa eЗmek gerekir. BИ НemiБde Baha Tevfik e ВldИğИ
kadar İsmail FeББi Мe de aМБд ВraБda Мer açmak НarИridir.
BИ geleБek şemasдБda merkeНdeБ çevreМe dВğrИ deriБ halkalar vardдr. BИrada
sВrИБ ВlaБ ise halkalarдБ Зek bir şekilde ele alдБmasдБdaБ kaМБaklaБmakЗadдr.
İşlevsel kдlдБdдğдБda bИ З“rdeБ bir geleБek idraki, Зardedilmesi Tanzimatla
başlaМдГ CИmhИriМeЗ dчБemiБde Нirve МaГaБ klasik meЗafiНiği ve БaНariМaЗд
МeБideБ biНe bağдşlaМabilecekЗir. Eski YИБaБ felsefesiБiБ ve mВderБ felsefeБiБ
ЗemelleriБiБ meЗafiНik araМдşд ВldИğИ arЗдk felsefe çevreleriБiБ МadsдБamaН bir
ВlgИsИdИr. DescarЗes iБ МчБ“Б“Б mВderБ felsefeМe mi МВksa skВlasЗiğe mi
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
dчБ“k ВldИğИ hala ЗarЗдşmalдdдr. Zira mВderБ BaЗд felsefesi sağlam bir skВlasЗik
ЗemeliБde МeşermişЗir. KeНa BaЗд felsefesi Зarihi, filВНВflar arasд bir bağlaБЗдlar
ağдdдr ve НiБciriБ herhaБgi bir aşamasдБda halkaБдБ birisi çekildiği НamaБ halefselef birkaç filВНВf keБdiliğiБdeБ d“şmekЗedir. BИ БВkЗada AlГМağдl aБдlaБ bağдБ
Бasдl kИrИldИğИБa dair ). Cildde (Иme-Kant, II. Cildde de Heidegger-Gadamer
ilişkisiБi Вdak bir mevНИ Вlarak чБ“m“Нe sergilemekЗedir. ÖrБeğiБ eğer (Иme,
keБdisiБiБ de ifade eЗЗiği gibi KaБЗ д skВlasЗik ИМkИlarдБdaБ ИМaБdдrmasaМdд Бe
KaБЗ diМe bir filВНВf ВlacakЗд Бe de KaБЗ дБ asдl filВНВf kisvesiБi kaНaБdдrdдğд
(Иme ВlacakЗд. AМБд şeМ (eidegger-Gadamer ilişkisi içiБ de geçerlidir. AlГМağдl a
gчre bИ bağ kИrma Зelaşesi, TaБНimaЗ ЗaБ beri T“rkiМe de hiçbir НamaБ
araБmadдğд içiБ T“rkiМe de bir filВНВf МeЗişmemişЗir ve araБmadдğд s“re de
МeЗişmeМecekЗir. BИ БedeБle şimdiБiБ/bИg“Б“Б KaБЗ дБ (Иme içiБ, Gademer iБ
Heidegger içiБ МaГЗдğдБд чrБeğiБ sadece bir meЗafВr Вlarak KemalГaşaНade içiБ
МaГmak НВrИБlИlИğИ vardдr.
AlГМağдl bahse kВБИ bağ kИrma МчБЗemiБde ise Derrida БдБ МaГдbВНИmИБИБ
faМdalд bir meЗВЗ ВlacağдБд d“ş“БmekЗedir. BИg“Б“Б/şimdiБiБ Derridacд
aБlamda geçmişi hafдНasдБda Мaşamasд gereklidir. YaГдbВНИm sadece bir eleşЗiri
veМa МВk eЗme değil, k“lЗ“rel miras “НeriБe çalдşmaБдБ bir МВlИ ve МчБЗemi
Вlmalдdдr. YaБi bИrada amaç MВlla FeБari, DavИd KaМseri, TafЗaНaБi, C“rcaБi,
KemalГaşaНade ve GeleБbevi Мi mИhafaНakar bir içg“d“Мle kВrИma biçimi değil,
ВБlarдБ d“ş“Бce dağarcдğдБdaki işleМeБ ve işlemeМeБ ИБsИrlarд ВrЗaМa
kВМmakЗдr. OБlarдБ МaГдЗlarдБdaki gerilimler, çelişkiler ve heЗerВjeБlikler ВrЗaМa
kВБИldИğИБda, bИ bağ b“М“k ВraБda дşдğдБд şimdi ve geleceğe gчsЗerecek,
felsefe de bИ ЗВГraklarda TaБНimaЗ ЗaБ beri kaМbeЗЗiği meЗafiНik НemiБiБe
ВЗИrmИş ВlacakЗдr. GeçmişimiНde birçВk filВНВf vardдr lakiБ bИБlarдБ filВНВf
merЗebesiБe çдkabilmesi şimdi ve bИg“Б başka filВНВflarдБ çдkmasдБa bağlдdдr.
Başka filВНВflarдБ çдkmasдБдБ da bИБlara bağlд Вlmasд bir çelişki
ВlИşЗИrmamakЗadдr. BИ Вlmadдğд Зakdirde haБgi НemiБde, haБgi З“rde ВlИrsa
ВlsИБ d“ş“Бce alaБдБdaki БaНari/felsefi g“d“kl“k ve sefaleЗ hiçbir НamaБ
МakamдНд bдrakmaМacakЗдr. EveЗ bir adama filozof demekle o adam filozof olmaz
gerekçesi KВБevi sчН kВБИsИ ВldИğИБda dВğrИlaБmasд kВlaМdдr; fakaЗ sчН
kВБИsИ KemalГaşaНade ise ГrВblem bИg“Б“Б bakдşдБdadдr.
Peki Бe ВldИ da bИ m“mk“Б ve m“mbiЗ bağ asдrlarca kИrИlamadд? AlГМağдl дБ
sчМlediği şeМ МeriБdedir: AslдБda CИmhИriМeЗ dчБemi felsefe d“БМasд BaЗд
merkeНli d“ş“Бme şekli ile sчН kВБИsИ meЗafiНik ve БaНari alaБa bağ kИrma
girişimleriБiБ birer m“cadele areБasдБdaБ başka bir şeМ değildir. Daha da чЗesi
чНelde Paris SдkдБЗдsд Вlarak adlaБdдrдlaБ bИ d“ş“Бme kaЗegВrileri, keБdisine
чМle egemeБ ve Зahakk“m alaБlarд açmдşЗдr ki, sчН kВБИsИ bağ aБcak
mИhafaНakar, milliМeЗçi ve Мerlilik sчМlemleriБiБ arasдБda giНleБmiş veМa hiç de
kaale alдБmaМaБ ve kВvИşЗИrИlaБ bir alaБda sчБ“kleşЗirilmişЗir. MevНИ şИdИr:
Pozitivizm, Knottçu nosyonla ifade edilmiş bir Зasvir Вlarak kВlВБМal PiННa
EЗkisi ve bilim felsefesi d“ş“Бce d“БМamдНдБ БaНari/meЗafiНik kВllarдБд
g“Б“m“Нe geldiği şekliМle s“rekli OrЗaçağ jargВБlarд eЗrafдБdaБ iЗelemiş,
dВlaМдsдМla arЗдk БeredeМse bИ haНiБeБiБ aБa membağдМla bir bağ kИrmaМд
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imkРБsдН bir hale s“r“klemişЗir. BИg“Б“Б Paris iБiБ ise (arvard, Yale, OxfВrd
gibi МeБi adlarд vardдr ve bИБlar ivme kaНaБarak bir kabИs gibi d“ş“Бce
d“БМamдНa çчkmekЗedir. BИ З“r kВlВБМal PiННa EЗkisi Бe m“Бdemiç şahдslarдБ
en gözlemlenen açmaНд ise şИdИr: Bir МaБdaБ Бe keБdileriБe keБdi alaБlarд ile
ilgili ИlИslar arasд aЗдflar МaГдlдr, Бe ИlИslar arasд bir derlemede Мerleri ВlИr Бe
de bir semГВНМИmИБ ВБИr kВБИğИ Вlarak Зakdim edilirler; чb“r МaБdaБ keБdi
indlerinde ne Harvard, Yale, Oxford vb. çevreleriБ s“НgeciБdeБ geçmemiş bir
MВlla FeБari БiБ bilimsel değeri vardдr, Бe bИ merkeНlerde dВkЗВra МaГmamдş
ВlaБlara bir aЗдf МaГarlar ВradakilerdeБ daha ileri bilimsel çalдşmalar ВrЗaМa
kВБИlsa bile , Бe de bИ ЗВГraklarдБ ilmi merasimleriБe ЗeГeden bakmadan
işЗirak ederler. Bakalдm; Зasvir eЗЗiğimiН maБНaraБдБ dдşдБda kalaБlar heГ
T“rkiМe ИНmaБд değil midir ve keБdi “lkeleriБi daha iМi ЗaБдЗmak adдБa BaЗдlд Мд
b“М“k bir НahmeЗЗeБ kИrЗarmдş değiller midir? VeМa БedeБ KaБЗ д, Gadamer i,
(eidegger i baЗдlд bir felsefe ЗarihçisiБdeБ daha iМi bildiği halde, aМБeБ BaЗд da
ВldИğИ gibi biНdeБ beМБelmilel bir KaБЗ ИНmaБд veМa daha da чЗesi klasik
meЗafiНiğimiНiБ b“М“k ВraБda babasд saМдlaБ bir ArisЗВЗeles ИНmaБдmдН
çдkmamдşЗдr? AlГlМağдl şimdilerde başka bir kИşağдБ Foucault üzerinden
keşfeЗЗiği GeВrges DИmeНil iБ, Мдllarca “БiversiЗelerimiНde ders vermiş bir hВca
ВlmasдБa rağmeБ БedeБ ЗaБдБmadдğдБд sВrgИlaМarak şИБlarд ekliМВr: BИg“Б
baЗдlд filВНВflarдБ dahi T“rk d“ş“БcesiБde bir mevki ediБebilmeleri içiБ, bu
filВНВflarдБ geleБeğimiНiБ haБgi kademesiБde veМa kaЗegВrisiБde aБlam
kaНaБdдğд чБemli ve haМaЗi bir ИБsИrdИr.
AlГМağдl a gчre bИ maБНara vicdaБдmдНa bir kaЗegВrik imГeraЗif şekliБe
b“r“Бerek şИБИ emreЗmekЗedir? KeБdiБi bil ve sev: BИ ЗВГraklarda Parisli
d“ş“Б“rleriБ gчrd“ğ“ rağbeЗiБ ВБda biriБi keБdi değerlerimiН gчrm“ş ВlsaМdд,
felsefe alaБдБda dИrИm bИg“Бk“БdeБ çВk farklд ВlИrdИ . AlГМağдl дБ geleБ-ekle
чБerdiği şeМ, DeБkel iБ beБНeri girişimleri iЗhamдБдБ bir gerekçesi Вlarak Batı
felsefesini hiçe saʼarak onun arkasından dolaşmak, dediği şeМ değildir. AksiБe bИ
Зeşebb“s Derrida, RicaВИr gibi AvrИГa felsefesiБiБ МakдБ filВНВflarдБdaБ
m“lhem bir МчБЗemle ilişkilidir. BИ БedeБle AlГМağдl bir bakдma Derrida БдБ
МaГдbВНИmИ PlaЗВБ, ArisЗВЗeles, KaБЗ vb. “НeriБde deБeМerek, bИБlarдБ
felsefesiБdeki çalдşaБ ve çalдşmaМaБ МчБleriБi ЗesГiЗ eЗЗiğiБi, çalдşaБ МчБleri de
g“Бcel kдlarak felsefi geleБeği s“rd“rd“ğ“Б“ bildirmekЗe, bИg“Б aМБд şeМiБ şiir,
ЗasavvИf ve kelam alaБдБa ИМgИlaБmasд gerekЗiğiБi ileri s“rmekЗedir.
DВlaМдsдМla bИ З“r bir PrВlВgВmeБa veМa PrВГreГЗik iБ dili bИrhaБi değil
haЗabidir, m“ellife gчre. YaБi БaНariМaЗ veМa meЗafiНikle bağдmдНд kИrmasд
чБerileБ МaГдbВНИmИБ ИМgИlaБacağд “ç alaБ vardдr: İbБ R“şd sВБrasд kelam,
ЗasavvИf ve edebiМaЗ şiir . BИ meЗВЗ, geleБeğiБ halkalarдБд merkeНdeБ çevreМe
dВğrИ Зek З“rde çчН“mlemeБiБ açmaНlarдБa d“şmeМecek, bilakis biННaЗ bИ
geleБeğiБ bИg“Б içiБ aБlamlд ve aБlamsдН bВМИЗlarдБд ЗesГiЗ ederek şimdi ve
gelecek adдБa ВradaБ БaНariМaЗ ve meЗafiНiği kВЗaracakЗдr. Bu görev, mümkün
bir İsЗaБbИl OkИlИ БИБ dВğmasдБa vesile ВlacakЗдr haЗЗa bИ ВkИlИБ m“mk“Б
ЗalebeleriБiБ bВМБИБИБ bВrcИdИr. (emeБ belirЗelim ki, AlГМağдl дБ МaГЗдğд bИ
çağrд ve ГrВje de aБcak maБЗдkЗa, eГisЗemВlВjide, meЗafiНikЗe/ВБЗВlВjide, ahlak
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ve siyaset felsefesiБde чrБek meЗiБ ve çalдşmalar Вlarak Бeş eЗ eЗЗiği Зakdirde
bir başlaБgдç Вlarak gerçekleşiГ gerçekleşmeМeceğiБe dair biНlere iГИçlarд
verecektir.3
ÖЗe МaБdaБ bИ işe başlamaБдБ da bir чБşarЗд Вlarak TaБНimaЗ ЗaБ g“Б“m“Нe
T“rkiМe de БedeБ felsefe veМa filВНВf МВkЗИr veМa vardдr “НeriБe МaНдlmдş
meЗiБleri ВlИmlИ ve ВlИmsИН чrБekleri ile aБlaМдГ, idrak eЗmek gerekliliğidir.
BчМlelikle чБerileБ s“reciБ МВl hariЗasд geçmiş çelişkilere ve açmaНlara d“şme
riskiМle karşдlaşmaksдНдБ berraklaşacakЗдr.
AlГМağдl дБ чБ-sчНleriБe bИ şekilde değiБdikЗeБ sВБra şimdi seçkiМe kВБИ ВlaБ
meЗiБlerle ilgili malИmaЗlara geçebiliriН. KiЗaГlarдБ ). Bчl“mleriБiБ kИrgИlaБдşд
aşağдdaki gibidir:
I. Bölüm:
.SeçkiМe kВБИ ВlaБ feМlesВf simasд
. M“ellifiБ ilgili
değerleБdirmeleri
sima БдБ
felsefe
. BelirleБeБ sima daБ чrБek meЗiБler
geleБeğimiНdeki
kВБИmИБa
dair
. BИ sima hakkдБda МaГдlaБ çalдşmalardaБ, МВrИmlardaБ ve ЗaБдЗдm
МaНдlarдБdaБ ВlИşaБ seçkiler.
II. Bölüm: Gelen-ek-ler başlдğд alЗдБda felsefe ve filВНВfИБ dВğasд, МeЗişme
kВşИllarд ve bИ bağlamda МakдБ dчБemiБ ЗasvirleriБe dair seçilmiş meЗiБler,
ЗarЗдşma Б“veleri, felsefi akдmlar ve değerleБdirme МaНдlarд.
D“БdeБ BИg“Бe, T“rkiМe de, Felsefi GeleБ-ek ve Gele-cek ÜНeriБe D“ş“Бm“ş
D“ş“Б Adamlarд adlд biriБci bчlümde, Babanzade Ahmed Naim, Hans
ReicheБbach, ZiМa GчkalГ, MehmeЗ EmiБ Erişirgil, (ilmi ZiМa, (“seМiБ BaЗИhaБ
ve Arda DeБkel gibi МakдБ ЗarihiБ kalb“r“sЗ“ felsefeci ve d“ş“Б adamlarдБдБ
kВБИМla ilgili meЗiБleri Мer almakЗadдr. Ş“ГhesiН bИ meЗiБleri aБdдğдmдН ЗarНda
bir gelen-ekçilik ЗarafЗarlarд ile felsefeМi BaЗд merkeНli Вlarak МaГma
ЗarafЗarlarдБдБ mИЗlak bir m“cadelesi Вlarak bчl“mlememek gerekir. FakaЗ
чНellikle baНд isimler “НeriБdeБ bИ alaБda bir НihiБ çaЗдşmasд ВldИğИБdaБ da
kendi kanaatlerinizi soyИЗlaМamaНsдБдН.
ÖrБeğiБ seçki, biliБçli bir şekilde BabaБНade Ahmed Naim ve (aБs ReicheБbach
“НeriБe МaГдlaБ Зahliller ve ВБlarдБ meЗiБleri ile başlamakЗadдr. BИ karşдlaşЗдrma
bir dчБ“ş“m“Б de iНd“ş“mlerdir ç“Бk“
МдlдБa kadar geleБeksel meЗafiНik
rabдЗa bir şekilde s“rekliliğiБi devam eЗЗirmişkeБ, BabaБНade Ahmed Naim iБ
3 BИ çerçeveМe kдsmeБ dahil edebileceğimiН чrБek çalдşma fВrmlarд ve meЗВЗlarдБa
МaНarдБ diğer eserleriБde şahiЗ Вlmak -bir başlaБgдç Вlarak- mümkündür. Bkz. Enver
G“lşeБ, Bir Felsefe GeleБ-ek-i БiБ İБşa İmkРБд ÜНeriБe , Ayraç Dergisi, AğИsЗВs-2011, ss.
7- . BИ makalede G“lşeБ, aБdдğдmдН derlemeleriБ ). Cild iБiБ de dahil ВldИğИ AlГМağдl дБ
diğer çalдşmalarдБд bahse kВБИ bağlam ЗemeliБde kaГsamlд bir ВkИmaМa Зabi ЗИЗИМВr.
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DarИlf“Б“Б daБ ihraç edilerek МeriБe (aБs ReicheБbach дБ geЗirilmesi, aslдБda
T“rkiМe de felsefeБiБ kчkleriБdeki meЗafiНik m“mk“Бl“kЗeБ, maБЗдkçдГВНiЗiviНme dВğrИ riskli bir dчБ“ş“m geçirmesine ve kendisini dar bir alan
içiБe hasreЗmesiБe sebeГ ВlmИşЗИr. BabaБНade БiБ DarИlf“Б“Б daki iki
чğreБcisi NiМaНi Berkes ve MaciЗ Gчkberk iБ
lд Мдllardaki haЗдralarдБda
mevkisi iЗibariМle kчЗ“ bir fig“r Вlarak,
li Мдllardaki haЗдralarдБda ise
saМgдБ bir şekilde МadedilmesiБi içЗeБ içe felsefedeki bИ b“М“k kВГИşa МчБelik
bir haМдflaБma Вlarak algдlamak gerekir. AМrдca, bИ haМдflaБmalarda чБceleri
iddialд ВldИklarд şeМlerde bir З“r başarдsдНlдğдБ iНd“ş“mleriБi de gчrebilmek
mümkündür. BundaБ sВБra Бe ВlmИşЗИr? ÖБcelikle, felsefe, k“rs“ geleБeğiБi,
ВkИl ve ekВl Вlma БiЗeliğiБi, МiБe geleБeğiБ iki чБemli aМağд ВlaБ ЗasavvИf ve
edebiМaЗla ilişkisiБi kВГarmдşЗдr. ÖМle ki bИ ВlgИ TaБНimaЗ чБcesiБi ВldИğИ
kadar, RдНa Tevfik, Filibeli AhmeЗ EfeБdi, Elmalдlд (amdi YaНдr, MehmeЗ Akif
ErsВМ, MehmeЗ İННeЗ, MИsЗafa ŞekiГ TИБç, haЗЗa ZiМa GчkalГ gibi sВБ dчБem
OsmaБlд d“ş“Б“rleriБiБ “r“Бleri ВlaБ meЗiБleriБde gчНlemleМebileceğimiН
“Нere, felsefeБiБ aБдlaБ З“rdeki çВk bВМИЗlИ d“ş“Б daireleriБde БчbeЗleşe gezen
mercekleriБi ГИslaБdдrmдşЗдr. Sağda ve sВlda felsefeМi ideВlВjik bir çarГдşma
areБasдБa çevireБ sembВl isimler de bir bakдma k“rs“ geleБeğiБe vИrИlaБ bИ
keЗleriБ bir sВБИcИ değil midir?
BИ БedeБle biНde БedeБ felsefe МВk babдБda aБdдğдmдН m“elliflerin
sВrgИlamalarд, aБaliНleri ve bir bakдma fikir saБcдlarд, daha sВБraki dчБemlerde
bИ З“rdeБ sВrgИlamalarдБ ВldИkça чЗesiБde ve bir В kadar da deriБliğiБde
kalmakЗadдr. ÖrБeğiБ AlГМağдl дБ İslРmi ilimler ile felsefe dallarд arasдБda
disiГliБler arasд çalдşmaБдБ Бasдl ВlabileceğiБe dair bir чrБek Вlarak sИБdИğИ
Elmalдlд (amdi YaНдr д чНellikle ilahiМaЗ çevreleriБiБ МeБideБ dikkaЗle ВkИmasд
gerekir. KeНa, YaНдr a Dar“lf“БИБ da maБЗдk dersleri Зevdi edilmesi ВlaМдБд
halihaНдrda Dar“lfunun a sokaktan hoca toplamışlar şeklinde ʼorumlaʼanların,
YaНдr дБ bИ gчreve biБaeБ Paris Зe mВderБ İБgiliН maБЗдkçдlarдМla ilgili ders
kiЗabд araМдşдБa girdiğiБi haЗдrlaЗmak gerekir ki İsmail Kara Мa gчre, YaНдr bчМle
bir gчrevi icra eЗmek içiБ ArisЗВ maБЗдğдБдБ М“Н“Бe bile bakmayacak kadar
birikim sahibidir.
İkiБcileМiБ felsefe, k“rs“ geleБeğiБi, ВkИl ve ekВl Вlma чНelliğiБi kaМbeЗmişЗir.
BИ ВlgИ, Бe BaЗд “БiversiЗeleriБde gчr“ld“ğ“ gibi hВcasд, чğreБcisi, imkРБlarд,
dВБaБдmд, akademik чНg“rl“k ve disiГliБi ile ЗВГМekњБ bir МeЗişme/МeЗişЗirme
kВşИllarдБa hiНmeЗ eЗmişЗir Бe de eski kчkleriБdeБ МeБi bir iБşa s“reci
başlaЗabilmişЗir. (“seМiБ BaЗИhaБ дБ ÜБiversiЗelerimiНiБ Akademik İçМ“Н“ Бe
dair akЗardдğд vahim ЗablВlar bИg“Б b“М“k ВraБda geçerliliğiБi kВrИmakЗadдr.
Fakat BatuhaБ bИБИБ asдl ve kчkl“ sebebiБiБ Бe ВlacağдБд hiçbir НamaБ
sВrgИlamamдşЗдr. BИ ВlgИ, lisaБs ve lisaБs“sЗ“ çalдşmalara da b“М“k ВraБda
МaБsдmдşЗдr. ÖrБeğiБ haБgi k“rs“Б“Б haБgi alaБda ИНmaБ ВldИğИ veМa bir
geleБek ВlИşЗИrdИğИ kВБИsИБda чНellikle М“ksek lisans ve doktora
çalдşmalarдБda bir dağдБдk gчНlemleБmekЗedir. Ne bИ bчl“mler kВВrdiБasМВБ
amacдМla belirli dчБemlerle ЗВГlaБЗдlar ЗerЗiГ eЗmişler Бe de bИ alaБda bir
işbчl“m“ ve işbirliği gerçekleşЗirmişlerdir. BirbiriБdeБ habersiН çalдşma
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Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
örnekleri, lisans-yüksek-lisans-dВkЗВra çalдşmalarд bВМИБca чğreБcileriБ daldaБ
dala, dönemden döneme kВГИk kВГИk geНiБmeleri, lisaБs“sЗ“ birikimiБ
dВkЗВra sВБrasдБda g“Б М“Н“Бe çдkacak şekilde ЗerЗiГ edilememesi gibi her
defasдБda dilleБdirileБ ГrВblemler ve bИБlara БИmИБe Вlabilecek şekildeki
Зelifler. AБladдğдmдН kadarдМla bИ vahim ЗablВ asдl dramaЗik sВБИçlarдБд (ilmi
ZiМa ve NИreЗЗiБ TВГçИ gibileriБiБ bireМsel haМaЗ hikaМeleriБde gчsЗermişЗir.
(ilmi ZiМa da gчreceğimiН gibi CИmhИriМeЗ bИ Нeki ve çalдşkaБ erbabдБa, eБ
verimli Вlabileceği dчБemlerde, keБdisiБe daha faНla hiНmeЗ edecek bir bilim
dalд Вlarak aБcak Зarih МaНдmд ve sВsМВlВjideБ kaГд açmдş ki bИralardaБ da
М“Нakд ile çдkmдşЗдr , NИreЗЗiБ TВГçИ МИ ise isЗeБildiği gibi bir d“НeМ ve
НihБiМeЗЗe FraБsa daБ dВkЗВralд dчБmediği içiБ akademiБiБ dдşдБda ЗИЗmИşЗИr.
BИБa rağmeБ bИ dчБemde AlГМağдl дБ da işareЗ eЗЗiği gibi filВНВf diМebileceğimiН
Зek sima varsa В da (ilmi ZiМa Вlmak dИrИmИБdadдr. BИ iki şahsiМeЗiБ gerek
kВБИМla ilgili seçileБ meЗiБleriБde gerekse dдşarдdaki ana eserlerinde bunu
gчrebilmek m“mk“Бd“r. (ilmi ZiМa БдБ fikir kИl“Гleri, ЗaБдЗдm МaНдlarд ve
dergiler babдБdaki serНeБişleri bчМlesiБe bir ahval ve araМдşдБ “r“Б“ Вlsa gerek.
Buna Hareket başЗa Вlmak “Нere ЗamameБ ferdiМeЗçi bir aНimle T“rk d“ş“Бce
d“БМasдБda ekВl ve ВkИl ВlmИş dergileri eklemek gerekir.
. М“НМдl T“rk
d“ş“БcesiБiБ ileriki asдrlar içiБ aМБeБ BaЗд daki gibi bir RчБesaБs Вlabilme
ГВЗaБsiМeli ЗaşдdдğдБд dilleБdireБleriБ, TВГçИ БИБ seçkide Мer almдş RчБesaБs
algдsдБa dair meЗiБiБe ciddiМeЗle eğilmeleri laНдmdдr.
Keza, bИ bчl“mde Arda DeБkel iБ seçileБ meЗiБleriБe aМrд bir ihЗimam
gчsЗermek gerekir. Bakalдm: İslРm d“ş“Бce Зarihi, felsefe içiБde saМgдБ Мeri
ВlaБ bir daldдr fakaЗ AvrИГa felsefesiБiБ dдşдБdaБ dВlaşacağдН diМe . ve .
ММ дБ İslam felsefesi ЗabaБдБdaБ МВla çдkma ГrВgramд, aМБд felsefi girişimiБ ВБ
М“НМдl чБcesiБdeБ başlamaМд içerdiği içiБ, keБdi amacдМla çelişeБ bir şeМdir bИ
minval üzere İslamcдlar bir şeМiБ almaşдğд Мa da dдşдБda Вlmak ile ВБИБ
gerilerinde olmak kavramlarдБд birbirleriМle karдşЗдrдМВrmИş gibi dИrИМВrlar .
BИ maБЗдk “НeriБe kИrИlmИş bir İslamcд reçeЗe, T“rkiМe de heБ“Н emekleМeБ
felsefeМi daha aМaklarд “НeriБde dВğrИlmadaБ чld“rebilir , derken benzeri
З“rdeБ laflar edeБ diğerleriБe gчre DeБkel keБdi felsefi evreni ve gerekçeleri
bakдmдБdaБ ЗИЗarlдdдr. SaБдМВrИm bИ Зasvir, AlГМağдl дБ bИg“Б/şimdi
geleБekЗeБ bahseЗmeБiБ birisi ЗВГЗaБ baЗдşд geЗirecekЗir diğeri ise… чБermesi
ile чrЗ“ş“МВr. KeНa AlГМağдl bИ БВkЗada МИkarda da bahseЗЗiğimiН gibi AvrИГa
felsefesiБiБ arkasдБdaБ dВlaşmak gibi bir БiМeЗ ile değil, чЗeki çalдşmalarдБda da
gчreceğimiН gibi AvrИГa felsefesiБiБ geldiği aşamadaki filВНВflarдБ evreБiБdeБ
m“lhem bir şekilde bчМle bir МчБЗem “НeriБde kalem ВМБaЗдМВr. AslдБda kaМgaБ
bir zemin üzerine kИrИlaБ bИ МчБЗemde НВrИБlИ ГВsЗ“la şИdИr; geleБek dВğrИ
işleЗildiğiБde aБcak geleБ-ek olabilecektir.
Seçki БiБ Gelen-ek-ler başlдklд )). bчl“m“Бde ise “ç başlдk alЗдБda МiБe МВğИБ bir
okuma listesi var. Değerlendirme Yazıları mezkur dönemin feylesof veya d“ş“Б
adamlarдБдБ birbirleriБiБ felsefi МчБЗem ve ЗeВrileriБi ЗaБдЗaБ МaНдlarдБa
hasredilmiş. ÖrБeğiБ MehmeЗ İННeЗ i, FilВНВf İННeЗ diМe sИБaБ bir (ilmi
ZiМa БдБ, ZiМa GчkalГ i çдğдr açдcд Вlarak Зakdim edeБ ZiМaeddiБ Fahri
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FдБdдkВğlИ БИБ, (aБs ReicheБbach дБ T“rkiМe deki eЗkileriБi irdeleМeБ ArslaБ
KaМБardağ дБ kВБИМa has meЗiБleriБi ВkИmak m“mk“Б. GeleБ-ek
kдsmд
Felsefe ve Milli ʼet Meselesi Бe aМrдlmдş. BИ aşamada ZiМa GчkalГ, PeМami Safa
ve İ. (akkд BalЗacдВğlИ başЗa Вlmak “Нere aБдlaБ eБaБiМeЗ çizgisindeki fikir
adamlarдБдБ kВБИМa dair meЗiБleriБe Мer verilmiş. Gelen-ek
kдsmдБda ise
FraБsдН filВНВfИ BergsВБ И ЗakiГ edeБ MИsЗafa ŞekiГ TИБç ИБ şahsдБda bИ
dчБemdeki BergsВБcИ eЗkilere dair Зelifler kaГsama alдБmдş. T“rkiМe de bir
dönem takip ediliГ daha sВБra birdeБbire sчБ“kleşeБ bir akдm Вlarak
BergsВБcИlИğa dair meЗiБleri ВkИМaБ bir karî БiБ НihБiБde isЗer isЗemeН
g“Б“m“Нe dair baНд sВrИ işareЗleriБiБ çağrдşдm МaГmasд Вlasдdдr. D“Б
BergsВБ daБ harekeЗle bir felsefe harekeЗi ВlИşЗИrmaМa çabalaМaБlar ile bugün
aМБд şeМi Gadamer, ZiНek, LacaБ, haЗЗa Derrida “НeriБdeБ МaГmaМa çalдşmaБдБ
beБНerlikleri ve farklarдБдБ irdeleБmesi aМrд bir mesele Вlarak чБe çдkдМВr. Ya
da keşke MИsЗafa ŞekiГ TИБç ИБ BergsВБ “НeriБdeБ МaГabildiği şeМleri bИg“Б
Hegel, Marks, CВmЗe, Gadamer, ZiНek ve LacaБ дБ ЗakiГçisi ВldИğИБИ sчМleМeБler
bИ isimler “НeriБdeБ МaГabilselerdi, demekЗeБ keБdiБiНi alamдМВrsИБИН. BИ
bağlamda T“rkiМe БiБ PВНiЗiviНm algдsд ile MarksiНm algдsдБдБ birbirleriБe
sчМleМecek faНla bir şeМleri Вlmasa gerek.
KiЗabдБ )). cildiБdeki meЗiБler sВБ dчБem OsmaБlд m“БevverleriБdeБ AhmeЗ
M“Бif Paşa БдБ SВkraЗ ve PlaЗВБ hakkдБdaki ЗeЗkikleri ile başlдМВr. Münif
Paşa БдБ bИ iki aБЗik YИБaБ filВНВfИБИ algдlama ve aБaliН biçimiБi, başka
ЗВГraklarda ve başka НamaБlarda Мaşamдş filВНВflarдБ bir geleБek şemasдБda
keБdileriБe Бasдl bir НemiБ iБşa edebileceğiБe, чНg“Б bir diliБ aБlam
dağarcдğдБda keБdileriБe Бasдl geleБeksel alaБlar açabileceğiБe ve keБdiБe чНg“
bir d“ş“Бce sisЗemi açдsдБdaБ Бasдl aБlamlaБdдrдlacağдБa dair örnek metinler
Вlarak МeБideБ ВkИmak l“НИmИ hissediМВrsИБИН. BИ geleБekle ЗaБдşmasд asдrlar
чБcesiБe daМaБaБ SВkraЗ ve PlaЗВБ И чrБeğiБ bir RaНî, KiБdî ve FРrРbî БiБ
sИБИm şekli ile M“Бif Paşa БдБ sИБИm şekli karşдlaşЗдrдldдğдБda meramдmдН
daha sarih olacakЗдr.
İlerleМeБ saМfalarda CricВr ChИmariaБ дБ
ЗarihiБde FraБsдНca daБ
T“rkçe Мe МaГЗдğд fakaЗ ИНИБ s“re ИБИЗИlmИş felsefe Зarihi çevirisiБiБ içerik ve
kaderiБe dair malИmaЗlarд, МiБe beБНer З“r“Б bir чrБeklemesi Вlarak Ali
SИavi БiБ Tarih i Efkâr başЗa Вlmak “Нere felsefe ser“veБiБiБ bВМИЗlarдБд,
DescarЗes iБ Metot Üzerine Konuşmalar adlд eseriБi ilk defa T“rkçe Мe
kaНaБdдraБ İbrahim EЗhem MesИЗ DirvaБa БдБ çeviri ЗekБiği ve “НeriБe
dercedileБ МaНдlarд, Baha Tevfik iБ БedeБ OsmaБlд БдБ Kierkegaard д
ВlabileceğiБe dair ЗesГiЗ ve değerleБdirmeleri; bИ babda Tevfik ЗeБ seçme
МaНдlarд, MehmeЗ Ali AМБi БiБ чНellikle İslРm felsefesi çalдşmalarд ve
milleЗlerarasд felsefe kВБgreleriБdeki sИБИmlarдБdaБ kalkдlarak ЗesГiЗ edilmiş
bir olgu olarak gelen-ek meselesiБiБ eБ чБemli simalarдБdaБ birisi ВldИğИБa
dair kaБaaЗ ve чrБek МaНдlarд, MИsЗafa Rahmi BalabaБ дБ
МдlдБda БeşreЗЗiği
Küçük Felsefe Tarihi adlд eseriБiБ БedeБ dИrdИğИ Мer bakдmdaБ değerli ve bir В
kadar da b“М“k ВldИğИБa dair МВrИmlarд ve bИ bağlamdaki БИmИБe МaНдlarдБд
b“М“k bir heМecaБ ve aНimle ВkИМВrИН. Gelgelelim BabaБНade ile başЗa
195
Journal of Intercultural and Religious Studies
ЗasfiМesiБdeБ БasibiБi almasд bakдmдБdaБ birçВk МчБdeБ aМБд kaderi ГaМlaşaБ
İsmail (akkд İНmirli Мe. İНmirli “НeriБe Sabri (iНmeЗli ЗarafдБdaБ МaГдlaБ
FraБsдНca bir dВkЗВra ЗeНiБiБ ВldИğИБИ, adдБa kaГsamlд bir semГВНМИmИБ
ЗerЗiГ edildiğiБi ve BaМram Ali ÇeЗiБkaМa БдБ İБsaБ YaМдБlarд БdaБ çдkaБ İzmirli
İsmail (akkı: (aʼatı, Eserleri, Gör“şleri adlд çalдşmaБдБ МakдБda İБgiliНce siБiБ
de БeşredileceğiБi AlГМağдl daБ чğreБiМВrИН. İНmirli БiБ seçkiМe dahil edileБ
meЗБi ise, kaleme aldдğд sВБ Зelif ВlaБ fakaЗ МeЗiriБce eЗ“З edilmemiş bir meЗiБ
olarak T“rkeli Evlâdı ile Çıraklarının Yeni Felsefe ile M“nasebetleri.
BИ risalede İНmirli birçВk baЗд filВНВfИБИБ ЗeВrileriБiБ aslдБda kчkeБ Вlarak
M“sl“maБ filВНВf ve bilimcilerde Бeş eЗ eЗЗiğiБi iddia ederek, mВderБ dчБemde
sдkça dilleБdirileБ bИ eşleşЗirmelere bir Бevi чБc“ bir meЗiБ haНдrlaМarak,
aМrдБЗдlд bir eБvaБЗer sИБИМВr. ÖrБeğiБ SГiБВНa БдБ varlдk deliliБiБ iНiБi İbБ
SiБa daБ, ilim ЗarifiБi RaНî deБ, vahdeЗi v“cИdИБИ, ЗabiaЗi ЗРbia ve ЗabiaЗi
maЗbИasдБд ЗamamдМla İbБ Arabî deБ aldдğдБд, keНa KВГerБik iБ BaЗlamМИs
БaНariМesiБiБ МeЗersiНliğiБe dair keşifleriБi de İbБ TИfeМl, NasirИddiБ TИsî,
KИdbeddiБ ŞiraНî БdeБ ilham alarak gerçekleşЗirdiğiБi ileri s“r“МВr. BчМlelikle,
M“Бif Paşa, Ali SИavi ve AhmeЗ MiЗhaЗ Зa gчr“leБ beБНer imalarд daha
sistematik bir hale getirerek, bu tür bir perspektiften kendisine seçkide yer
açдМВr. Lugatçe-i felsefe, Maddiʼʼun Mezhebinin İzmihlali, Kitabı-ı izale-i ş“kuk,
Vahdet-i vücud ve İbn Arabi, ve Büyük Filozoflar adlд eserleriБ sahibi İsmail
FeББi ErЗИğrИl ise, eser adlarдБdaБ da aБlaşдlacağд gibi seçkide keБdiБe МiБe
FeББi de ВldИğИ gibi keБdiБe чНg“ bir mevki ediБiМВr. FeББi, İslРm felsefesinin
klasik dчБemiБe daМaБarak bir felsefe sчНl“ğ“ МaНarak, НamaБдБ revaçЗa bir
akдmд Вlarak maЗerМaliНme karşд bir reddiМe Зelif ederek ve vahdeЗ-i vücud
ГrВblemi eЗrafдБda İbБ Arabi gibi ЗasavvИf d“ş“БcesiБe МчБ vereБ bir şahsд
çalдşarak, Мaşadдğд dчБemiБ felsefi ВrЗamдБa ВrijiБal bir ГersГekЗifЗeБ
МaklaşmaБдБ bir БИmИБesi Вlarak sИБИlИМВr. BИБИБ МaБдБda FeББi БiБ baЗд
felsefesiБe İslРm k“lЗ“r“ açдsдБdaБ Мaklaşarak,
filВНВfИБ felsefi gчr“şleriБi
irdelediği Büyük Filozoflar adlд sВБ eseriБiБ, ihmalkarlдkЗaБ veМa kasдЗlд bir
şekilde baskд s“reciБde Бasдl kaМbВldИğИБИБ hikaМesiБi de ВkИМВrИН. EkleБeБler kдsmдБda МiБe (ilmi ZiМa ve FдБdдkВğlИ БИБ, FeББi hakkдБdaki
МВrИmlarдБд bИlИМВrИН.
İlerleМeБ saМfalarda Mehmed ServeЗ BerkiБ iБ ZiМa GчkalГ fikriМaЗд ve bИ d“ş“Б
şekliБiБ ardдl Бesillerde НemiБiБdeБ kaМdдrдlarak Бasдl bir işleМişle ele
alдБdдğдБda dair ЗesГiЗleriБi, МiБe ve FдБdдkВğlИ БИБ BerkiБ hakkдБdaki
МВrИmlarдБд, NИsreЗ (дНдr дБ felsefe ve geleБek ilişkisiБi sВrgИladдğд lakiБ
diГlerde kalmдş “ç МaНдsдБд, T“rk Felsefe CemiМeЗi БiБ “МeleriБdeБ birisi ВlaБ ve
чmr“ bВМИБca liselerde felsefe mИallimliği МaГaБ (aЗemi SeБih SarГ дБ
da
ZekeriМa Kadri ile birlikЗe kaleme aldдğд Umumi Filozofi: Epistemologie-ontologie
adlд kiЗaГЗaБ seçme Гasajlarд ve bИ Гasajlardaki felsefi kavraМдş ve ГrВblemlere
Б“fИН чrБekliğiБi, CИmhИriМeЗ ЗarihiБde T“rkiМe de ilk felsefe dВkЗВrasдБд
МaГmдş ВlaБ ZiМa SВmar дБ FelsefesiН T“rk “Б BiliБmeН İБsaБ Kaderi başЗa
Вlmak “Нere felsefe ve filВНВflИğa dair baНд МaНдlarдБд ve keБdisi hakkдБdaki
МВrИmlarд, ЗakiГ ediМВrИН. Gelgelelim daha МakдБ dчБemiБ feМlesВf simalarдБa.
196
Reviews
BИ bчl“mde (amdi RagдГ AЗademir iБ hem PlaЗВБ ve ArisЗВЗeles ЗeБ МaГЗдğд
çevirilerdeki m“Зercim kimliğiБe hem de meЗВЗ, ilmiБ kВşИllarд ve filВНВflarдБ
indinde felsefe ЗaБдmlarдБa, dair МaНдlarдБa şahiЗ ВlИМВrИН. Ve başka bir sima:
MaciЗ Gчkberk. T“rkiМe de lisaБs d“НeМiБde felsefe Зarihi ВkИmИş birçВk
чğreБciБiБ aklдБda Мer eЗmiş bir eser vardдr: MaciЗ Gчkberk iБ Felsefe Tarihi.
AlГМağдl, MaciЗ Gчrberk iБ felsefede bir gelenek kurma bahsinde daha negatif
bir fig“r ВldИğИБИ sчМledikЗeБ sВБra bИБИБ gerekçeleriБi Felsefe Tarihi adlд bИ
kiЗabд, bir МaБdaБ З“rdeşleri ile karşдlaşЗдrarak diğer МaБdaБ da kiЗabдБ T“rkçe
açдsдБdaБ birçВk sВrИБИ barдБdдrdдğдБд ЗesГiЗ ederek ortaya koyuyor. Takibeden
saМfalarda Gчkberk hakkдБdaki değerleБdirme МaНдlarд Мer alдМВr ki, bИБlarд
gчrd“kЗeБ sВБra Gчkberk iБ bИ kiЗabдБa БedeБ МaМgдБlдk kaНaБdдrдldдğдБa dair
kaБaaЗlerimiН bir defa daha Гekişmiş ВlИМВr. AslдБda kiЗabдБ İslam felsefesine
dair de bir bчl“m“Б ВldИğИ kiЗabдБ biriБci baskдsд ile ikiБci baskдsдБд dil
açдsдБdaБ karşдlaşЗдraБ bir МaНд felsefe kavramlarдБдБ geleБeğimiНdeki
ser“veБiБe dair ilgiБç ВlacakЗдr.
BИ bчl“mdeki seçkiБiБ sВБ simasд CИmhИriМeЗ dчБemiБde felsefede alaБдБda ilk
dВkЗВra ГaМesiБe laМдk ВlmИş bir kadдБ Вlarak KРmИraБ BiraБd. AlГМağдl,
BiraБd дБ DilЗheМ ve RickerЗ “НeriБe ilk çalдşmalarд МaГarak bИ alaБdaki чБc“
eserleri “reЗЗiğiБi, bчМlelikle ЗiБbilimleri alaБдБda T“rkiМe de sВБraki
çalдşmalara da ИМgИБ bir НemiБ iБşa eЗЗiğiБi, fakaЗ bИ alaБda da bir geleБek
kИrИlamadдğдБд, ç“Бk“ aБдlaБ çalдşmalarдБ ИНИБ s“re gчН ardд edildiğiБi
vИrgИlИМВr. Tabii ki BiraБd “НeriБe МaГдlaБ değerleБdirme МaНдlarд ve Зabii ki
МiБe bИ babda (ilmi ZiМa БдБ BiraБd hakkдБdaki МВrИmlarд.
İkiБci Cild iБ İkiБci Bчl“m“Бde, GELEN-ek ) başlдğд ve Cumhuriyet Dönemi
Feʼlesoflarından Filozofun ve Felsefenin Kimliğine Dair Tartışmalar adд ile МiБe ).
cilЗЗeki ilgili bчl“mdeki МaНдlarдБ devamlдlдğд sağlaБmдş. Felsefede Usûle Dair,
Türk Felsefe Cemiʼeti nde Başlaʼan Radikal Bir Tartışma, İzmirli İsmail (akkı ve
Peʼami Safa Arasında başlдklд kдsдmlarдБ alЗдБda bИ alaБdaki m“Бakaşalarд bИ
sefer somut örnek metinler halinde okuyabilmek mümkün.
İkiБci Cild iБ “ç“Бc“ Bчl“m“, ). Cilde ZeМl başlдğд alЗдБda ele alдБmдş. BИ
bчl“mde ). Cild de Мer alaБ FдБdдkВğlИ БИБ, Erşirgil iБ, (ilmi ZiМa БдБ kВБИМla
ilgili daha ileri meЗiБleri ve değerleБdirme МaНдlarд seçkide Мer bИlmИş. Tabii ki
BergsВБcИlИğa dair МaНдlar da bИ bчl“m“Б bir НeМl ВlmasдБa aМrд bir reБk
kaЗдМВr.
SВБsчН Вlarak bчМlesiБe bir eseri bИg“Бe/şimdiМe kaНaБdдrdдğд içiБ AlГМağдl a
Бe kadar Зeşekk“r eЗsek aН kalдr. FakaЗ eБ g“Нel Зeşekk“r“, bИ meЗiБleri birer
muhasebe köprüsü olarak telakki ederek hikmet ve metafizik kökenlerimize
ИlaşmaМa vesile kдlacak, МiБe bИg“Б ve şimdi adдБa m“mk“Б bir kВlekЗif biliБciБ
verebileceğiБi de ekleМelim.
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