SourueRsr EunopeRru

Yorumlar

Transkript

SourueRsr EunopeRru
OF
JooRNAL
SourueRsr
EunopeRru
ernBLAcKSEeStuprcs
volune 1. Nunberl.
Septenber200l
.E
Turkey:Ye$erdata
TonryandTomomw
Kemalhm.
lshmkmandclobaliralon,$ltudv on the
Fotu\ or luoRme Lovaldin cldbali.ins ltrkev
HumanRishs andDenoclatiatidniddlkGh
Politics
in the European
Contexr
'Ihe
EU\ StrteSy in rhe P!.8
A Srability
Pa( lor rh€Cau.ar$in Thcofyand
- A Supplcmentary
Practi.e
Note
Notholir
Taniand
1c ceopoliti.s
ofihc BLackSer
Region
crosroadrandconni.r,sr.Liry rnd Fo'eign
lnnuences
in [email protected]
AnAzeiiPe6pedve
Prospects
lor theFrtlre Developmentof
A FMNKCASSJOURNAL
tssN14633357
Kemalism,
lslamismand
Clobalization:A Studyon the
Focusof SupremeLoyaltyin
Globalizing
Turkey
N$! IloJr [email protected] rr
j,Nratrion,!hi.h
To.orcrdre $n
rM or *hrh n
Td:Ln ton rll
ntlrr r.Pr$atr€
P!o.e\- ld N m
thr oiioom !m
Middh IBd ro .h
BASKIN
ORAN
!iN! ft! ao$dr ar of
!r\
rufi!. of rnq$b^.
rh{dq(,
i
NTRODUOTON
PROCrssr_S
CONC
(prc{n$ $. his,(r .onefl .nound uhjlh lh. indiridnils r I g rti
$.i.r\ rsrc! ro srLd $ btril,l r .olblve .rfi, 10 onk tu lv rlk
F(oiog of Fsl-,oneshoulJiiri.r.L rxcnb-hd polgr rhreush{hrh
ni5n muLrkJ rnlr irn) Jeiift the.onftpB b[insda( io ihG pro!$rj
nd e.ordly da.nh( thL quaificdois of FsL.
Ttu r'ae$
rrtl n5 ar,.epx
Ih( irins poi't of fh. jrtu.-s i\ r,c.oi.rp, oI n.dc oI prodtrflotr
(rlP). rb. bAi5.fr snrn lrht.{otrorN
DrJ* E!o, \lp is rcnial
Ntrhin rh boun{lni-ol r nn.kdfk(,
Th s rdr ror! rlt \rt of yh .h
brmdetr eLd, ( nr tr rtr Gnd Drrc d$etoped)Mr reptrt$ rhr od
on!. s vhr peoph .i.h linc all rorh{hrd.
s mpl bt.rs. ihr
NhoL! proa$ of so.il rfJ {oiotr!. r.dyny (; sl,o(- rh vfl lilt
irldl n[a phrc unhr its botrtrdirns Ew(r rc{ Mi,io.mLr]r* 6
o\r.ohendn;JNrogy (a:r) ct s rhe irD deolosyl.liulftd
hr.hc
iom mr gr{piDlidg.lrf
n, kccr .h. socieq lnnL bsdls undcr
ih!,{ oa vin*.Ljd irdr$
dI rli5 sroupklis..Ersy ar, if ium.
poio. up toa nen FSL o knl.lpc,1,. \d..i Thc pnxc$ in rlM be
tcelal ordd spruoglroD ihr $l
lh!oDlri$ dioidnr$!!Ptd.
th lt! mainlr ,o i$ nrt.$-likc
rl,tr(b \!$ Ihc onlt rraun
r.dLntrhtcd mmcnt slrLrh m
beqns( II5.l{s! oi rlr othq
unrqne h1re.h ltN*ledg. d '
Liin. T|l .l)urch rljerentrt b{a
tu,it iUP !!ol{.1fton t(rd,
ht.uc,nu!h [isdr bee& ftrJ.
Ne* Modcoflrodudionr Nd Cohdionldrol4t r New
FocusolSuprem.Lo|1lty
Hne r n mpor.nt o k..p in mind ih,t .v.fl FsL is embotli.d in an
in$iNrion, lhnh il*|l is rpreenrd by rh. efte oI the saidlrouptlN.
To .onaetize lhis poasq l* us eke up EuFplan hi*ory (rn nteeBl
part of *fid i ihe Otonm Empirc and, forror, tIe Reptrblicof
Turk4 fom ihe Mid,ll. As6 o lhe pru*fi Jiy (se. T,ble 1 belos).
lGl ords sprung fion th. rh6 ofth€ Drrk Asc\ dditng which
onl] in*itotion th* $capcd rh. 'l.studion ol tlt Vrnd,lrtbcks,
5 mrnl) ro ir5 torE$ L[! monn'eda, Ns rht .hu(h The
(h $s rh. onlj ei{uJr
of rh. dBpenE mrrs,
rnd
ulacd immcnscveahh bainlr ttuoughthd donation.2nd
$!. Iis dersn on rhe othcr hand, was the only po$.$or or iht
. h1 Ech lnovledse of th. psiod, ledine :nd wdiing i"
rhndore b.one lhr nrcnc.$ olih. fendr lord!
i..Il'eJr(h
{s oDly nolmal th2r its cI bftrme rh. Cl of ih. period:
n.' Du#s luallnn, rc1don poinc,l up to God s thc FsL.
wa oI .oo6e iepi.snt€d by the churh. in oth{ wolds, iht
rh. mrldphe
feu&Gm io d*cDrilis,r
mdq b,nrrndinsthe landsol the manon
cLoa.'etu^ ol ttu FsL:sa,p Hr
cY(o furths Gctu,li rh* Ms rhc ason
'l( kDsh\d uP dlil n)re o' noDrchy)
)f r,,r.ry, n n 3k,r5 hrppens
liti or in.1)/.prr ,.otr,. nJ r,,r..r -r.n.,
orhdL to th. qrd .ornss ot$. hnsdomtrn$o drbL)rookrlois the
r fe€linss. d soor rnrsd or rk
hr Nhoh kinsdon rnoilrcrLind.
trl
otioorl nDosPh{e of r
',s
n, o
lJ. \r .
JL
(L{,irlh , dr ber.yotcrrnonrrb ofHobba, do longe rtaivcd his
Bstr thc Drelsrconriondrromms(niil(m o mp ft jn proF4
ro propose r .omeproamiiotr as r FsL \('iih ih. rv,leimny
r!!u or r7rl9hclrios,ndionalnmi:rheCr\asf,nnl!bo i\]?-lr r
|tHiBNrd.upnftd, lh. aari., $ FsLqls refEfred br (hen otrd
I'c nriqn bouGeoGicj
to $,hom
lnhii
rhenronopdyoin r
rh! rsln ol(heirioi rr. n!* LAoiBdd
Mer 1917.niis o q of dross \!5 chrrhrsed6y ' nc{ \11
lonmrnnm. drr ponn.dtrpro Lbourr rheFsLlphs. 2r drry$m(
.ourrics rN experen.ed
n).
Aft]t hm ofrhen.vcnnrr trc art *irnrs ,gdrtrdreir oIr fts
l\Il inrtmrioml ariinnm, nrclv erprc$edA s'ch b$ gennll\
larr.d gLdhtrr;ior lDha! 3) This phN :l n rhe antnh$s of borh
!!ad slnsn. Nrionalsptrilfn rrlloord (o!!iLLsr 6r oy()with
rll j6 rdbure:: importn'bnnftlon in d,! (oromli moiop.ll ovd
iud,inrjon $ th. miioDL ioirory Dnnrurnm in ortntrit lde, md
f rhenion * F5L.Altrhishapprns
l'rngiir (gdtinFcDtrBcd)r8!in; rhe
saN niironit boudrrns rr onr ddr.d rtr( bou4co5c rrc nos
Ii thn rh#. 3ll {e m ntre of flhe ftw MP (fthturn
-lh.
dp,hLi5m)
od lb re{ mtrk*o &e (rhesLobe). Drs cl I Dordsc
disorder"The Fsf, $is ro 6d tui1is x,waldlrhc iDdiyrduar
bur the
gusron r (o *ho \r I repk*rr ,li. LidivdMl rt'n,in! uil!!w.ctl.
L Ok qu$ron hasr,lx 5d Ld fi
Eyq iodi!dd nr dorc ao
f(s LovrlrLn) oDe.sri lj: hoD
dn Abor xr, u{ f!d\ront
'
diftir! rt red ro *tfF(f!- ri
Thc F5L shontdndrb! ontu
nrli in$Dds lt dr{l{l rn h
;rcii.d
hy thc ct, nrell r dc
sLos.,Y,rios lorrlrGsril b' aDi
{b denrirfsj and th! FsL roonr
be 5sQL (D frrt, in inrilidua
hL/sh.l,s n?nt rL, d.tri!5), h
n n difGri, Gom rhr nn dlitr
2. rLe Fsra th{n, hI Jefi'rrilD, ur
I{]'hc r|t eijil{ N]] n,.rF|
quenioD,Proh.btl dr bat lner
$ddy,",whr n tu sodtr oI th
1he rnr*q to rhis qusri,D
,N on.,br
n.!s 60th r rhr i
exds,ve. Tlie Fst onnorb. r
chhsc as i rdsutrofr lhrnse ot
i n i d e r . . D n i ( o f F s L jI n j n r
Thtr dsis wll end wh.n r n.u.
rnrrm.. dd i.{ Fn. Ea 5! I
mor PobibL) som.50. n.trx
r. rr or ol n'ch : .n5n, ihr d;{
dne{idi .f thc .hrlsr m lh. lj
ton L.h k i8hi in r.a n\ oaTrh
Th€ resotr lor ihn x s mpl.. _
rre r1r ssred f ttis c6e br i,
ore d.YeropedoE id nthci.
for
iildri
so hlr 'oriJ$de
enroycdddno.nc! s.i[ nor so h
t'l th! t;u t sa,r tuPat)ca
cl\nr.tn!i:
I O,i!'t(-nor hroh( *n[d nr
Er.r i' lriLLrLh^ uot lootrA (* L{,rJt n on\ oDt 'hc
lrLs lolil$ n, oni r ltrir 1,, hoDdlNq *o{, {lui! g(NP, rarl i
n'd-r,
on ^bor rll. q! t.els lolrlN td odddf b(rsc rslrrl
iotr, n rhe no{ IuDJm.ioLol rll
dnc.rlr rLicd n) sclrrG{
or
d,tlnt
The FSI-Jhnrild(r hc..trh6ed. ho\q {, ur[,lt
!(Li i'N 16 k shloll rot hc tuqtt(n tlir n r i .oor(Pt
Lrrr,l!!rLh, rhr al. trrli r dcrcDJrnt e.rLn. ol rrc IIP ln ha
rne- rnou\lo,rlri!! tk t\ in inLli\Ju!|.!i be.omPmdni orf5
Suhidqan(!dtr
lLh JldriA.ii
rlr F\Ln, doJrtrp|rri4nirl
( , hd, r, i' iridun n
b( *r{n
lielsheh3!Do) !,b m.trn ()- h,t nr q,l!r LllemN tr uDqu. Dd
l.
llt F\l tr drcn,Lr ndsn o\ uniqki t.]iior
b!
rc ftrn o& r
ivlrrbr dr siic* lrr tu .\fh , ,n n h r!a( n, rlt bllo$trs
qr$non. prclth i- tlt bsr (nc r b id.nifY t t FsL ii i g vro
s o . i c n : \ h i L r( h ! ! u . 3 o r r h c '
(o rh\ qu.{iu, ir !t, lr
Thc uI\*
'N h. btrrr$s hoih d rh! sni
r i r m!. hd r ud oa.orre
L\!l(i"..
The F\r ooDdr b.5tv(
t
r
lllig.
oi
rh
rhi,g! r i r$tr or
dd drarirelr io r..s.
$de r <Dijd ot Fsl., n is n i.itrnin
-ftii(jnsq,lldid
br rhl. o 3s dr! n,odr to
trL., rLc !flr ci*
cDbtuk,li! i!\'fSL
Evln h! tbd', soN ss,ncD drnt$.ft
piobrbl!
iiill
dI5$ (lnh\onrLd br th( i.Lr ltll vtr
inort
sm(
qi\r.
(
nnnrL i, h.ln
i
ot nrl, J risis. ft dncdnD oI dit 5d.nrl c, o uiilD hh(
'i
' rr "
tr] tr h roD lcftn, ngh( m Erm\orTrl'l.l
Tl( r(rri for $n n !nplr. T]ie F\r isiinrjdn dllrt MII rnd
'
thi! s! [r m{nil dvnaml\ n br deirnoD 3
rl,r IlP tr-rcJ;
s\i[lc. A so.i.. nDt
i,'. dslloold oD.. ud tr rrrlorc no!
on.cc\p.i(n.d i nori devdop(J n'd,oa\lP Gipiiilisn) r'ill'd
(aeudilrr)! r so.ieq (hs
riiLc a!traD,idorLrm
so l.3!l roii
{ror!J deno.F.Y rvill ror so Lri.
h ar
ind so on. Coing bi* r.dm r \u
(\!rnr o
su, i ht (rsii{(!loolY
r
Pnrsdph I rblve poir s rhe rnnrior
.rtrrtrr.
\b*e r|r r$v FsL is 1 fu
qucsioDoathi5pipe n ii ldllor*, z,/,/ir,pr.,r
Lntr, rdu.n
. t 1 , . . , t ? . s . . t t ) , \ . ,u t \ , - l
a'rtJ, laus ta kllnold af r .aptnat phd!.
i,, o,l,( rorJ\. rr\ rrd no,h. cnns of Tible 1, ihat iil
hrppd,Ir.otrtrrv drr nrkcs: ransiriontom phs. LF rhrs.l
,lrotrsli i telourotr 6o,n rholc (
ndoo $rc), ir'nruck'h" rlt J)funa olplNr I (rnd i! lorcedro
sd bc\ ond ihr nrlioi nI.):
This qusnoD tr npomoi boih
r muLtnuJcoI 5im,lr driind odsde
l'licrall'! b!.rNthnn
oI rh( vJ$rtn ydrld Tlkorri.rl!
btoN. ii su.h i lirrtro, th.
aD i.rsibil,i
oa r FsL proa$ d$o hed abovc rdns n, h(
t{ otrnydx|.ng!d, ^ lhc,rd cou
raniitj,n n, r.lisior, dspdrLLr ro Irhn (,r reflnsoi Tiblc l, :
\oodr i,, phs( 2. tursdr
intu'en.eol phis. r.wshs to reiu.j)
Tbe rtn hlpodrls ofttu
nl. isnfi\rch r dcydofm(ot (
npo\\ h. fd N) r.Nrns. Fn{, rmenrioned h pnrsnrh I rbo\r,
s..ond, d,.
rhe i1l' ,leyelopncnt prc.a! i! o.nrt!&libLr
elonoDi.ih ruljirsda\5 (!h(h n'ouLnc5 r1jccl rid nr Fsr) un1
ri.uLft, uodrtw.{.ni Liflf.irt, rlr! supcrd ph$ciDd {ills.e o
n rh,t rlr sd.n,! &rlhnak$a
loNaid (rnn or ' in dn$ir8 trs
T[r rollo]v'ng$dionswll\tudr ihclnrkl$ cxpqjcn!c rnd FL
pddyPr oi in lDd.rd.vrLorlL
rh. vc{m;(d rLnc(,nonl,ihL r
uin rr\iri,n tqrsri',g r]t r
ri.n rboyt rI[r I ned,ttrr. rc I
Gcrisou! .onFun .) ord(, md
ll trr re10.Orlo ns * ihL c
l0 hiDrr te2r.4rt.1d,rr rn
(o rlt nl
ui.o niotullyLeLongs
bNd on 'h. peopL.i(lm nnr{inr
I No!.nbd L9ll. ,{6dlnL!oo
2e o(oL,$ 191r. Dc.lrror oi
r Nir.h lerl. h) i{bolr on or
tiin{r ofsh.nh r !i R(t,8
3:\rril 1e24 rL,oLnror
or rLLsL
30 N!o!rnbd ie2i. ctr\trr( ot I
l 7 r i b f l , r r 1 9 2 6 , ] d o p r oor f s
! lLrr rel6. Adopfionof krnn I
l Norcrtrs r9:.8.Abotn!r of i
FR'T C'TDTONAION INDIR $^1A ISM
TURKTY:
Rrptrb|nm n*.\
dr dtre( stras5or or rl]esm, E€Hr.
otom.n
Ln,ptr.:ndsiL fh. onlr lii.nr lounny in the MuJinr vond," madetlre
Mujft Klnal, n, rvh.m th! INlirh cdnd N,tioml ,\lrnbl' lcN]\)
(rrt$k}oi
gtrr! L! rrflrim.oaAn,itl
l'urlf) ,19 4.
D Lere 3n1lcndcd n
Tlie nrkrli \vrt oa iidlplrddE
irsd
or rh!
a,aNr rell Nnh (h. d..cn thc MikEsjrtikj (da$or)
Hi\nly (reni,n.dii l9ij rh T,'
10 Nli! r93r.Lii.i,n r,s i
ll nLrt rerl. F,rndroD d rh
L.nsnrg.(rtDnlJ, le]6rlkI
invidtuB Gieek :rnies brked br dr crer I'o{ns Ir ftn, tlr
nirirni\G unds K.mil hid illo fonshrtu wft on x $o
rtrd,
moie difii.ulr - fronri agiin$ rl]e irmGs of rl]e s hn sllph as{ell s
3saln$rhrinnqm! s prelol<sd
hy l$an6(1.'
ih. !r trr5 olrir This ptucsr w,s rd iitcg.rl pd oI rhc nr{
piotoNpcoi
undtrdeveloped
coutrly rxrionrLrn,rrduri4 sb'.h
i|r Yt$mfed elne (ro$lr th. Nl,mr,v) srov. io build, in I bsnlll
f.udal$;d! a niitun hr simL,larins
n,citmosrh{r of rhc$vtf t{iih
Tl,nrxritnn, coo(rniogrlc F5l.vA e.omrLnbcdbr i tcvohnon
fron trbova ihr lim.d, Iiis, io ddsror thr {oundltnD! .I lhc ,,?d
r . l L o . o , a f ) o r J - l. d r . o t r d o . ' r ' l k ' " I { , J r , '
,, rf
Fnr,.cd
c t"t In"
rr Afrit r910.o0.rinsof rc cNA.
,0 JaqE!! re:r. 4rt.r,,f lhc fitu coniituinr dcdaied;\oyscisntr
rNqrdridiJlr 6(tongsb rhci,iioi. Thrq*rm olrdnnnfrion tr
ba*lon r rcopl. tu1ni',i\t$i',sthc roM dcs f) .rl
hc suhanr! by .d(nion, of dr
l9 ocrobs 191r. D.cLmriotrof,hr RepubLi..r'
I Mr.h l9?4. G) Abol,ror ot rhe crliphare(b) AbolnlonoI the
Nlin(q olShrrh inJ of tuligna Fotrnnrtninsrndts rcfli(m.nr
Affrln (DRA)k) Amchmetrrof rll
b n{ Depriitrre'iof ReliBious
3 April 1921.AbolnionoI i.lGiotrs.orirs.r'
r0 Novemhs192i. Closureof r.lt* (deanhlods*).'
r7 nbrurry re26.Adort on orswnr C yll Codc.
I July r9:16.Adoptionol ltllian PcnrlCode.'"
I Noltd6d 1923.,\boLnidn
dI the,&:hi.:lph$ft:nd ddpri.n of
l0 A1)lil 1923 Pro!i!,oi of r 1924 (se.oid) coinirs,on dur
dedire,l, the relig,orof lurkev s rslim,{as dele,ed.
li April 1930.Foundaiion
of the Conmineefor ihe StudvofTurkish
Hilt.ry tdao.J;
LerJ thdr(kisb Hisdli.al sd!nq).
r$ r.L ed h ,lt plosrimn( .Iftr.
Rrpubli.infeofl. \ rmr sore ofthe Six Aiio*! (p'itrcipltr.'
rl.lulr r9rr. riouodrbr of ihc Socilryfoi rhc studr of TurknL
l.anprB! tsancd o r9l6 tlrc Turknhl.insui$nSocirq)!
lebruaryl9|.
8.", (callto poyft) *tried b be $.s
J ljcbrury 1917 Lilckm enrerd in rh. .on$ittrrion(at.z)
Th. rtpubli. *1s pr cnlarlr .ntitldi.,l in dt fiell of relisn{r
SemiDnrrll kom
cdulridn. The trun,bdofsrdcDB r rheTheology
234 in l92i to 167 iD 1926rd 20 n r93r. Thc sninar (Jr,rt i
tulrlirr) *s cloied in 1941 I'edse thff {sc ',, dort sDdens
Inere sete 29 lhrnHsip (pn]s l.ad.d $hools in 1914 ILk
tru'nb{ w6 redu(d o I in 1910,and in th.3i6e ye,r dts $hools
lrom6e criola in the
u{c .losd." Relisious
couns {erc gx.LuJeJ
r910sindqehool\rndin1939inrilLaseschook,ii
IURk-Y N r|t
d lh. sloqns hid no 6i.
.inc 6uhrD rish$ sitn*i
fundy, b(trNe of ift{nal d
.nienrro hoh t,4 r.t!, r b
msr K[]\,LAL
sT PtROD: RIACTON
Ih6e reforns of sups^iruddrc, lvhnh abo Farsrolncd the bsrcrlly
teudal;6sruture of Turkkhso.i€iyin r.ub$aniirl s,y, qusd r
pf d -r,on - TIB'. , Lr "
hr etr'onruunli..ff..'i,
eiprcsron rlid CHI Ahd'L's pdry, had io $ep doM r rhe fist ii..
eGdionsio 1950. smllrcwn politi.iad dncoyncdttu ytldin3 ro
rnd eyen pro{,ting ,h. relisrousdemaDJsdl tll. nssc\ ws mos
rewnJing.Thn piorts .in b. bieflysumD'ndd* fotlows;
]\lr.dl ii l94ll, the TheoloEScmhr hd kope.ed in Ank{1i rd
r,,r fiat,? cou!*! lesbn.d in En.iries.
Oneof the fiAt J.drons oI ilE n
'rh.
b.ing lomd inidcquda, *ven relr
hntn Hatjp touKr
in 1951, rh ihrcc y.ns or
IndhtHatip s.hoak u*e roFi.d
se.onnid(gndc)<h.ol,n'l lor l.rn ofsmmmar(hish)$hool rlr
fumberof ihes shqn\ wd rc rtach20 in 1960,70in t970.Ii 1960,
sirkwsc admift.dfor dr iK tim., ilthoushl. hh women.xnmr
Fo! rhe ins rim€ ir 1973, th?s s.h.oh *eit excl.de,l lroD thc
.,t.soiy va.atior, hish lthooLr', ,nd ,hdr smduatessere thererolc
pcriiiiied io end rll bEnchesof rhe unive6itics.Thn !r ro Pro!. Io
Eern^ b.crusen w:s
be6c naN inpoldni ofdlanti.rcvolution.ry
rtligiotr3
mutrteFdte.
oI
lht
recreaftD
or
rht
the bcsiniing
114 0f rh. *me .onqnunon
D and ft
Turlnh L isu 3r
n d ) m o i f L d 1 m . , h , nr ! r t "
c.n.fr
E,rln
rhe hsd oI
ident, alur5 re.ned $Yml
hs (h. dord b prt2.h wh.
ehrertu he h3J tu D rh,t
i5m.Thisws trnheirdofuiril
P2mPhrc(con6ioiirsvetres
of t
a) ilionmentllrs obedGn..r
i'm pLi.
r rurJ^i pupur
daftntalist KDrdishscO., oi
inrt ih3 P(K, lhe (hen) Mr
lr mosqus sft
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