Münich filminde Mimari Temsillerin Çözümlemesi

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Münich filminde Mimari Temsillerin Çözümlemesi
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH
8/21/09
2:49 PM
Page 2
MÜN‹H
Filminde Mimari
Temsillerin
Çözümlemesi
Space: Theory & Criticism
Ders veren: Doç.Dr. Aytanga Dener
Haz›rlayan: Efe Korkut Kurt
Çal›flma: ‘Münih’ isimli sinema filmi
Filmin Türü: Gerilim / Dram / Tarihi
Yönetmen: Steven Spielberg
Senaryo: Tony Kushner, Eric Roth, George Jonas (Kitap)
Görüntü Yönetmeni: Janusz Kaminski
Müzik: John Williams
Yap›m: 2005, ABD , 164 dk.
Oyuncular: Eric Bana (Avner), Daniel Craig (Steve), Ciarán
Hinds (Carl), Mathieu Kassovitz (Robert), Hanns Zischler
(Hans), Ayelet Zurer (Daphna), Geoffrey Rush (Ephraim),
Mathieu Amalric (Louis), Moritz Bleibtreu (Andreas), Michael Lonsdale (Papa), Yvan Attal (Tony)
Efe Korkut Kurt*
Girifl
Çal›flma Münih isimli filme ait alt-metinleri mimari ve mekansal göstergeleri ile
de¤erlendirmeyi içermektedir. Bu yönden filmin içeri¤i çerçevesinde mimari
ba¤lamda 3 ana bafll›kta gruplanan konular, filmin farkl› bölümlerinde bulunan
sahnelerdeki benzer unsurlar›n ortaya
konulmas›yla aç›lmaktad›r. Her bir sahne mekansal ifadenin filmin anlat›m›na
ve hikayesine katk›s› ve birlikteli¤i ile ele
al›nm›fl, yorumsal olarak ifade edilerek
herhangi bir kaynak kullan›lmam›flt›r.
Filme Genel Bak›fl
Y›l 1972… Dünyan›n en büyük spor organizasyonu olimpiyatlar, Münih’te,
70’lerin ruhuna uygun olarak bar›fl havas› içinde bafll›yor. Her ülke baflar› ve
madalyalar beklerken Münih’ten gelen
bir haber dünyay› sars›yor. Kendilerini
‘’Kara Eylül’’ olarak tan›tan bir grup Filis-
tinli terörist ‹srailli atletlerin kald›¤› yatakhaneyi basm›fl, 2 sporcuyu katlettikten
sonra 9 kifliyi rehin alm›flt›r. Talepleri rehinelerle beraber Münih Havaalan›’na
götürülmektir.
Alman hükümeti hayati bir karar al›r ve
rehineleri kurtarmak için düzenlenen
operasyon bir faciaya dönüflür ve tüm rehineler öldürülür. Bunun üzerine ‹srail
Hükümeti bir karfl› terör grubu oluflturarak Avrupa’da bulunan örgütle ve olayla
ba¤lant›l› kiflilere suikastlar bafllat›r. Bu
suikastlar, karfl› fliddeti üretecek ve hem
suikastç›lar›n iç dünyalar›na hem de çevrelerine yay›lan bir y›k›m› meydana getirecektir.
Filmin anlat›m dili ve
k›sa felsefi çözümlemesi
Münih Filmi güncelli¤ini koruyan global
düzeydeki siyasi ve toplumsal bir konuya
tarafs›z olmasa da çok yönlü bir bak›flla yaklaflmaya çal›flm›fl bir film. Bu aç›dan olaylar dizininin siyasi yönünün
üzerine çok fazla durmadan, sürükleyici bir macera filmi format›n› koruyan
bir tarihi dram türü ortaya konulmufl.
Film fliddet olgusunun kendi kendisini
üreten ve toplumlar›n kan ba¤›na ba¤l› ç›karlar›n›n ve var olufllar›n› sürdürme çabalar›n›n yaratt›¤› çat›flmay›, bireyler üzerindeki etkilerini de vurgulayarak ele alm›fl.
Bu aç›dan filmde belli olgular özellikle vurgulanarak, bunlar ikili karfl›tl›klar› ile ortaya konulmufl. Bunlardan özelikle dikkat çekenleri ve mimari ifadelerle de güçlendirilmifl olanlar›, do¤um-ölüm, dostluk/kardefllik - düflmanl›k, medeniyet – ilkellik gibi kavram
ikilileridir.
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH
8/21/09
2:49 PM
1. Bölüm - 1. Sahne
1. Bölüm:Ifl›k, Mekan ve Mimari
Filmde ›fl›k kimi sahnelerde iç mekana d›flardan süzülerek ve kuvvetli bir flekilde
girerek ve güçlü gölgelerin oluflmas›n›
sa¤layarak kullan›lm›fl. Böylece kimi sahnelerin anlam›na görsel bir katk› ve bilinçalt› göndermeler için kullan›lm›fl görünmektedir.
1. Sahne:
Kahraman›m›za devletin yetkilileri taraf›ndan görevinin aktar›ld›¤› sahne. Bu
sahnede tafl bir tarihi yap› modern bir
ayd›nlatma sistemi ve d›flar›dan gelen
do¤al ›fl›k ile ayd›nlat›lmaktad›r. Burada
bir taraftan Orta Do¤u’nun modernize
olmufl bir ortam›nda oldu¤umuz ifade
edilirken di¤er taraftan genç kahraman›m›z ile devleti temsil eden büyükleri aras›ndaki sembiyotik iliflki mimarinin içine
süzülen tanr›sal bir ›fl›k ile vurgulan›yor.
Böylece kilise mimarisinde s›kl›kla kullan›lm›fl olan(özellikle Gotik mimaride)
›fl›k, burada da devleti tanr›sal, yüce,
kapsay›c›l›¤›na göndermede bulunmaktad›r. Üstlerinin yafl ve tav›rlar› ile bu etki güçlenmektedir. Böylece kahraman›m›z babas›n›n (devletin) sözünü dinleyen
bir çocuk rolüne kaymakta ve bundan
sonraki bölümlerde yapacaklar› ile ilgili
2. Bölüm - 1. Sahne
Page 3
1. Bölüm - 2. Sahne
sorumlulu¤u ortadan kalkarak, seyircinin
kolayca özdeflim kurabilece¤i bir niteli¤e bürünecektir.
2. Sahne:
‹lk suikast›n betimlendi¤i bu sahne yukar›da aç›klanan benzer ö¤eleri yine
›fl›k ve mimari dil ile güçlendirerek ortaya koymaktad›r. Asansör bofllu¤undan süzülerek gelen ›fl›k suikast› ilahi
bir havaya sokarak estetize etmektedir.
Yine baba figürüne gönderme yapan
öldürülen kifli, ödipal anlamda baba
katline gönderme yapmaktad›r. Bu da
vicdan›n temelini oluflturan yasa/baba
figürünün katli ile kahramanlar›m›z›n iç
dünyalar›nda ilk yara olarak ortaya
ç›kmaktad›r.
3. Sahne:
Ayr›l›k sahnesi Avrupa’n›n görkemli demir ve camdan yap›lm›fl tren istasyonlar›ndan bir tanesinde betimlenmifl. Bu
sahnede ›fl›¤›n gökyüzünden mekana girifli ayr›l›k kavram›n›n ölüm kavram›yla
olan benzerli¤i aç›s›nda yine tanr›sal bir
ifade aç›s›nda kullan›lmaktad›r. Kahraman›m›z bu sahnede flefkatli bir bebe¤in
rolüne geçerek çocuk rolünden yetiflkin
rolüne geçmektedir.
2. Bölüm - 2. Sahne
1. Bölüm - 3. Sahne
2. Bölüm:Metafor olarak Mutfak
Filmde mutfak mimari bir unsur olarak temel bir felsefi gönderme için kullan›lmaktad›r. Mutfak bir yandan ailenin birlikteli¤ini yaflam/beslenme ba¤lam›nda en
fazla sembolize eden mekan oldu¤u için
kullan›l›rken di¤er taraftan besleyen anne figürünün gönderme yap›ld›¤› bir bilinçalt›na iflaret etmektedir. Bu aç›dan
anayurt kavram› ile anne kavram› bir tür
efllefltirmeye maruz kalmaktad›r. Filmin
bir sahnesinde annesiz büyümüfl kahraman›m›z için ‹srail’i bir anne olarak görmüfl olmas› ifade edilmesi benzer bir vurguya iflaret etmektedir.
1. Sahne:
Bu sahne kahraman›m›z›n hamile efli ile
Münih olaylar›n› dehfletle izledikten sonra mutfa¤›n önünde geçen bir diyalogdan oluflmaktad›r. Mutfa¤› di¤er mekanla ay›ran kemerimsi geçifl dairesel formuyla diflil bir göndermeyi bar›nd›rmakta, kad›n›n hamileli¤inin alg›lan›fl›n› sinema dili ile mimari bir unsur kullanarak
güçlendirmekte ve vurgulamaktad›r. Ayr›ca evin dekorasyonu ve tafl›d›¤› simgeler (duvardaki Kudüs ifllemesi gibi) bu kemerle oluflturulmufl bölüntüler ile ortak bir
Ortado¤u kültürel ça¤r›fl›mlar›n› güçlendirmektedir.
2. Bölüm - 3. Sahne
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH
8/21/09
2:49 PM
2. Bölüm - 4. Sahne
Page 4
2. Bölüm - 4. Sahne
2. Sahne:
4. Sahne:
Bu sahnede kahraman›m›z yüksek gelir
grubuna hitabeden bir haz›r mutfak dükkân›n›n vitrininden bakmaktad›r. Burada
geçen diyalogda iyi bir mutfa¤›n ne kadar pahal› oldu¤u vurgulanmakta, bu da
Bu sahnede mutfaktaki yemek yapma eylemi aç›kça vahflete ve fliddete bir gönderme niteli¤inde ortaya konmaktad›r.
Mutfakta b›çaklar, atefl vs. gibi öldürücü
ve tehlikeli aletlerin bulunmas› ve kullan›lmas› bu fikre katk›da bulunmaktad›r. Ayn› sahnenin devam eden bölümünde ise
elektriklerin kesilmesi ile mum ›fl›klar› ile
ayd›nlat›lan ortam, bir taraftan medeniyetin sembolü elektri¤i kapatarak bir
göndermede bulunurken, di¤er taraftan
mumlar alt›nda yenen yemek bir tür ilkel
ayin atmosferi vermektedir.
ailesinin iyi bir hayat sürmesini isteyen
her kiflinin ödemesi gereken bir bedel
olarak ortaya konulmaktad›r. Sahnenin
devam›nda betimlenen Paris atmosferi
ve süs köpe¤i burjuvazinin sembolik ifadesi ile mutfa¤a ait pahal›l›k imaj›n› güçlendirmektedir.
3. Sahne:
Mutfakta geçen ve birlikte yemek yap›lan bu sahnede ikili aras›nda geçen
sahnede aile kavram› vurgulanmakta,
yemek yapman›n vahfli ve ilkel taraf›
hissettirilmektedir. Kahraman›n elinin
yak›n plan irdelendi¤i bölüm ayr›ca
ifadelidir. Alman düflünürü Kant eli
beynin bir uzant›s› olarak ele almaktad›r. Bu aç›dan el, medeniyeti yapan ve
y›kan bir araç olarak ikili anlam›yla
ifade bulmaktad›r. Yine ayn› sahnede
ailenin reisi niteli¤indeki flah›s, filmin
di¤er sahnelerinde betimlenen bir baba figürüne benzer bir flekilde ba¤lanmaktad›r.
3. Bölüm - 2. Sahne
3. Bölüm: Y›k›m
1. Sahne:
Cumbal› bir kâgir yap› bombalanmaktad›r.
2. Sahne:
K›br›s’ta “Olimpic Hotel” isimli bir otel
bombalan›r. Otel dokunun büyük ölçüde tarihi ve küçük ölçekli yap›lardan
oluflan çevreye k›yasla, hacimli, betonarme bir yap›d›r. Bölgenin modern mimari üslubunun dönemsel olarak ta tipik
bir örne¤i bu yap›n›n bombalan›fl› bir
önceki cumbal› yap›ya oranla çok daha
ciddi bir hasar yaratmaktad›r. Bunun
3. Bölüm - 2. Sahne
3. Bölüm - 1. Sahne
ad›m ad›m ikiz kulelerin y›k›m›na giden
yolda modernite fikrine bir darbe niteli¤inde oldu¤u düflünülebilir. ‹ç mekan
çekiminde tümüyle harap olan ve duvarlar› çöken yap› bir tür medeniyetin
ve modernizmin çöküflüne gönderme
yapmaktad›r. Burada kahraman›m›z›n
yanlar›na gitti¤i ç›plak genç çift bu y›k›nt›lar›n aras›nda Adem ile Havva’y›
an›msatmaktad›r.
3. Sahne:
Filmin son sahnesinde kahraman›m›z kötü baba figürü (devlet) ile bir diyalog yaflamaktad›r. Bu diyalog New York Manhattan’› siluet olarak gören yap›sallaflmam›fl bir peyzajda geçmektedir. Bu düzensiz do¤al alan ile gökdelenlerin yükseldi¤i yar›m ada aras›nda z›tl›k iliflkisi
filmin temelini oluflturan ikili karfl›tl›klara
mekansal bir gönderme niteli¤indedir.
Sahnenin son resmi olarak kadraja giren
‹kiz Kuleler’in silueti ça¤›m›z›n en önde
gelen simge binalar›n› filme katarak güçlü bir mesaj vermektedir.
(ITÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü - Mimari Tasar›m Doktora Program› “Space: Culture &
Identity” dersi için yap›lm›fl çal›flmadan
al›nt›d›r.)
3. Bölüm - 3. Sahne
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH
8/21/09
2:49 PM
Analysis Of
Architectural
Representations
In The Movie
MUNICH
Page 5
Entry
Part 1: Light, Space and Architecture
The work is containing the ideas of the
Light is used in some scenes strongly ma-
film which are expressed or strenghten by
king strong shadows in the interior space.
the use of architecture. These ideas are
Thus, it seems to be used for addition to
shown in three groups according to the
the meaning of some scenes and as refe-
content and different scenes in the diffe-
rence to the subconscious.
rent part of the film are selected in that
context. All the scenes are taken into con-
Scene 1
sideration with their contribution to the
The mission is given to our hero from his
sub-text and symbolic meaning and ex-
superiors. In that scene, the space which
pressed with free comments in a systemic
is an old Stone building is lightened by
way without using any reference.
the natural light entering from the high
windows and a modern style lighting ele-
Plot
ment hung to the ceiling. We feel that we
The film begins with a depiction of the
are in an eastern country (expressed by
events of the Munich Massacre in 1972,
the style of the old building) which is a mo-
followed by a recreation of the news cove-
dern country (expressed by the modern
rage interspersed with snippets of real fo-
lighting element). The symbiotic relation of
otage. The film opens with a recreation of
our hero with his superior (the govern-
the kidnappers' entrance to the Olympic
ment) is expressed by the light comes from
Village and the initial assault on the apart-
the windows as a sign of divine cover of
ment building.
the father. In that sense, the light which is
used for divine meanings especially in
The operation which was made to survive
gothic architecture is used in the same
the hostages turn into a disaster and all
way here. As our hero gets in to the role
the hostages were killed. After that, Israel
of the child, his responsibility on the
Government organizes a counter-terror te-
events will decrease so that the spectator
am and sends the team to Europe to assas-
is able to identify himself with him without
sinate the people related with the organi-
feeling guilty.
zation and the incident. The assassination
was going to produce the contrary violen-
Scene 2
ce and appear enlarging destruction both
In that scene which the first assassination
Program: Architectural Design/ PhD
inward the team members and their surro-
puts the same kind of elements mentioned
Lesson: Space: Theory & Criticism
Lecturer: Ass. Prof. Dr. Aytanga Dener
undings.
above by the help of light and architectu-
Prepared by: Efe Korkut Kurt
Title: ‘Munich’ the movie
The Expression Style and the Short Ideational Analysis
through the apartment hole makes the as-
Sort of the Film: Phys / Drama / Historic
Director: Steven Spielberg
The movie Munich is approaching to a
ming of the elevator shows the coming
global subject which is very actual trying
end of the old man. Again, the figure of
not to take side. In this direction the film
the father is expressed by the help of the
tries to be an adventure film as a historical
divine sign of the light coming into the
drama getting rid of the political pronunci-
space from outside (from the top). The first
ation. The film takes the violence fact as
cut of our hero’s conscience is done which
something produces itself and the benefits
is created by the law/father in Freudian
of the societies linked with blood connec-
theory.
Scenario: Tony Kushner, Eric Roth, George Jonas (Novel)
Image Director: Janusz Kaminski
Music: John Williams
Production: 2005, ABD , 164 min.
Actor/Actresses: Eric Bana (Avner),
Daniel Craig (Steve), Ciarán Hinds
(Carl), Mathieu Kassovitz (Robert),
Hanns Zischler (Hans), Ayelet Zurer
(Daphna), Geoffrey Rush (Ephraim),
Mathieu Amalric (Louis), Moritz Bleibtreu (Andreas), Michael Lonsdale (Papa), Yvan Attal (Tony)
re. The light comes from the upper floors
sassination in a hymn atmosphere. The co-
tion and their effort to exist as something
conflictive and its effects on individuals.
Scene 3
In this direction some facts are emphasi-
The separation scene is described in a
zed in particular and expressed as binary
big, historic train station in Europe. The
oppositions. Some of these which are con-
light comes from the glass ceiling as the
cept couples strengthen by the architectu-
divine meaning of the light as death,
ral images; birth-death, friendship-hosti-
which is a concept resembles the separa-
lity, civilization- primitiveness.
tion. Our hero becomes an adult from a
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH
8/21/09
2:49 PM
Page 6
child and now the power of light and arc-
pregnant woman so that she is pointed
Scene 4
hitecture is behind him.
with the use of cinematic language. Besi-
In that scene, the action of cooking is ma-
des, the arch shape of the separation is in
king a reference to the violence and wild-
Some of the agents come to question them-
a harmony with the Middle Eastern cultu-
ness in the kitchen. The use of the deadly
selves - bombmaker Robert declares that
ral signs of the couple’s house decoration
and dangerous tools like knives and fire
"we're losing it [our Jewish righteousness];
(like the carpet on the wall with the pictu-
etc. contribute to this idea. The cut of the
I'm losing my soul" as the group goes over
re of Jerusalem) which is showing that we
electricity as the sign of civilization and the
a laundry list of violence that has spun off
are in Israel.
huge dinner made with the light of the
Scene 2
mosphere after the killings.
from their own mission of retribution.(
Murphy, M, C, Electronic Intifada)
In that scene our hero is looking at a ready
Part 2: The Kitchen as a Metaphor
made kitchen shop which addresses the
The kitchen is used in the film as an archi-
high income groups. In the dialogue, the
tectural element for a main philosophical
sign. The kitchen is used as the savage
space of the human being in the whole living place and showing the wholeness of
the family in the meaning of feeding necessity. In the other way the kitchen has the
sign of the feeding mother figure in the subconscious. In that direction the concept of
motherland matched with sign of the mother. In one of the scenes, our hero is described as someone who was grown without a mother and always saw Israel as his
mother.
The film has deep love for Israel, and contains a heartfelt moment when a mother reminds her son why the state had to be founded: "We had to take it because no one
would ever give it to us. Whatever it took,
whatever it takes, we have a place on
earth at last." (Ebert, R, 2005)
Scene1
In that scene, the picture of our hero is
with his pregnant wife in front of the kitchen after watching the Munich killings.
The oval arch shape of the separation of
cost of a good kitchen is expressed as the
cost of a family’s survival. The Paris picture in the coming after this scene and the
dog in the man’s hand as the sign of the
rich and the bourgeois strengthen the reference of the expensive kitchen.
The same debate is going on right now in
America. If it is true that civilizations must
sometimes compromise their values, the qu-
candles is expressed as a ceremonial at-
"All this blood, all of it comes back to us,"
says Robert, the first to bail from the mission. And the most seasoned agent among
them soberly states, "Each time we kill we
create six more," noting that the new leaders replacing the assassinated Black September leadership are that more extreme and for some of them, "Black September is
not violent enough." ( Murphy, M, C,
2006)
Part 3: Destruction
Scene 1
estions remain: What is the cost, and what
An old building with a bay window made
is the benefit? Spielberg clearly asks if Isra-
of stone is bombed. Only the windows are
el has risked more than it has gained.
broken into pieces.
(Ebert, R, 2005)
Scene 3
In that scene which is happening in the
kitchen, the meaning of the family is expressed and the wildness and primitiveness in cooking is perceived. The part
which the hand of our hero is focused on
is also meaningful. Kant discusses the hand
as the organ of the brain. In that Picture the
hand is shown as the implement that builds
and demolishes the civilization as a binary
opposition. The figure of the father is lin-
the kitchen from the living room gives a re-
ked with the other figures of father mentio-
ference to the female and the shape of the
ned in the pervious scenes.
Scene 2
A Hotel called the “Olympic Hotel” (the name refers to the Olympic games in ancient
history) in Cyprus is bombed. The hotel building is a massive structure with a typical
modern style compare with the surrounding buildings which are mostly in smaller
size and more classical style. The effect of
the bomb is making a very serious damage to the building when we compare with
the old building in the pervious bombing.
In that way, the idea of modernity is stroke
with the use of modern style architecture.
The Picture interior part of the building after the bombing shows all the demolished
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH
8/21/09
2:49 PM
Page 7
walls (on which some cultural signs are put
to show the location) as the sign of the destruction of civilization and modernity. The
nude boy and girl in these ruins are recalling Adam & Eve taking us back to the star-
are in New York, standing against a
Manhattan skyline where the Twin Towers
still soar. Steven Spielberg seems to ask if
what Avner did contributed to what was
to happen in New York almost 30 years
carry out more murders of innocents, presumably because of the assassinations. At
the end of the film, the camera lingers on
the before 9/11 Manhattan skyline, dominated by the twin towers of the World Tra-
ting point of the civilization.
later. And Spielberg, without mentioning
the word 'Iraq', clearly w ants audiences
to make that connection, too. The 'war on
terror', he implies, is one more event in
the escalating 'eye for an eye' tragedy
that can be traced back to Munich and
de Center. The film is crafted to demonstrate that violence breeds violence in the long
run as well as in the short run.
elberg seems to rage, as he tries to make
you know what a bomb really does when
beyond.
other American film-makers - and not only
In reality, Saddam's crimes had little to
do with Palestine and nothing to do with
those with a Jewish background like his
it explodes in a busy hotel or what bullets
do to a body. There was some of that rage
in Saving Private Ryan, but Munich is mo-
says: 'Eighty-five per cent of the American
re deadly, more selective, in what it decides you have to see.” (Ascherson, N,
population still thinks that Saddam was
2006)
to explain why Spielberg wanted so
“It's a one-eyed giant of a movie. It has fearful power. Its enormous noise and unsurpassable effects made a hard-boiled preview audience cower the night I saw it. Spi-
the Twin Towers. But, as Macdonald
directly involved in 9/11.' And that helps
badly to make this film at this particular
Scene 3
moment. My guess is that he is aiming not
In that last scene of the film, our hero has
a dialogue with his superior who was fi-
just at United States policy but at the mil-
gure of bad father/ deep government.
The dialogue is happening on a soft land-
donald again: ' Many Americans will
scape which is not structural with the
magnificent silhouette of Manhattan,
ut America in 2006.' (Ascherson, N,
lions in his country who applaud it. Macwatch this and think that this is really abo2006)
NYC. There is an opposition between the
identity of the spaces, on which one of
them is an irregular ground and the other
is an urban area with huge skyscrapers
giving the symbol of the civilization. This
opposition of the identity of the spaces is
giving reference to the conceptual oppositions that are read as the philosophical
text pieces of the film. The last Picture of
the film is the Twin Towers which are demolished as the continual of the violence
between two sides expressed during the
whole film.
In the last shot of Munich, Avner and his
Mossad controller part in enmity. They
Conculution:
Spielberg told a Los Angeles Times interviewer that answering aggression with aggression "creates a vicious cycle of violence with no real end in sight." He said much
the same thing to Time magazine; "a response to a response doesn't really solve
anything. It just creates a perpetual-motion
machine." And his film frames for the viewer exactly this bleak vision of unending
and unendable violence. Palestinian terrorists murder Israeli athletes to put their cause before the world. Israeli counterterrorists
assassinate Palestinian terrorists involved
with those murders. Palestinian terrorists
Spielberg aims swinging blows at some
very big moral and political targets, which
own - prefer to avoid. Often he connects.
His characters and, indeed, the film itself,
say things about the Middle East, the IsraelPalestine conflict and Israeli attitudes which
go right off the Hollywood reservation.
Kevin Macdonald praises Spielberg's courage. 'He's the most important Hollywood
director of his era. And yet he's making
political points, really remarkable statements about a serious issue. He's saying
that revenge helps nobody, that violence
can only lead to violence, that an eye for
an eye is not the way forward. That's a lot
to say in conservative America, considering it's a film made by Universal Pictures
and trying for a wide audience.' (Ascherson, N, 2006)
Bibliography
Ascherson, N, (2006), "A master and the
myths of Munich", The Observer
Lane, A, (2005), “The Other”, The New Yorker
Murphy, M, C, (2006), "Munich": Spielberg's
thrilling crisis of conscience”, The Electronic Intifada
Eber, R, (2005), “Munich”, Chicago Sun-Times
*Efe Korkut Kurt
U&L Architect
(ITU Architectural Design/PhD)

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