giri imcilik kongresi

Yorumlar

Transkript

giri imcilik kongresi
K1rg1zistan-Tlirkiye Manas Oniversitesi Yaymlar1: 86
Kongreler Dizisi: 11
KIRGIZiSTAN·TURKiYE MANAS ONiVERSITESi
iKTiSADi VE IDARiBiLiMLER FAKULTESi
Kb1Pfbi3CKO·TYPEL!K Ii YH BEPC TET «MAHAC»
CllAKYJlbTET 3KOHOM KYnPABJlEH fl
ULUSLARARASI
•
•
•
•
•
•
GIRI IMCILIK KONGRESI
ME>KAYHAPOAHbliii KOHrPECC
<<nPEAnPIIIHMMATEnbCTBO>>
Uluslararas1 Kongre Bildirileri
MaTepiii8Jlbl Me:>KJ].yHapOJJ.HOfO KOHrpecca
25 27 Mayns 2006 Bi§kek-K1rgazistan
25-27
Mas:a
2006, cPIIWKeK,
Kbnprbi3CTaH
Kugtzistan-Tiirkiye Manas Universitesi Yaytnlan: 86
Kongreler Dizisi: 11
H3.l.J;aHHB Kbrprbi3CKO-TypeuKoro yuusepcuTeTa «Manac»: 86
CepuB KoniJJepeuuuii: 11
Ktrgtzistan-Tiirkiye Manas Universitesi
·
iktisadi ve idari Birimler Fakiiltesi
ULUSLARARASI GiRi iMCiLiK
KONGRESi
Khlprbi3CKO-TypeuKuii yuusepcuTeT «Manac»
<IJaKyJibTeT 3KOHOMHKH u Ynpasneuu.H
ME)K YHAPO HbLM KOHrPECC
«llPE ITPHHHMATE bCTBO»
25-27 Mayts 2006, Bi kek
25-27 MaB 2006 r., linmKeK
YK 334
6EK 65.5
6 64
BiLiM KURULU: P 9f. Dr. Sahavet GURDAL-KTMU, Prof. P.r. Cusup PiRiMBAEV- KTMU, Prof. Dr. J?ilt;:.k
YILMAZCAN- KTMU, Prof. Dr. Tursunova S.A.-Kugtz Milli Universitesi, Prof. Dr. Kamc;tbekov T.K.-BDIGU,
Doc;. Dr. Kenan OZDEN- KTMU 1.D01;. Dr. Belkts OZKARA- KTMU, Doc;. Dr. Hilseyin A AY- KTMU. Doc;.
Dr. Serna SAKARYA- Bogazir;i Universj.tesi, Doc;:. Dr. Ktdtraliyev S.K.- TeachEYUksek Ogretim Akademisi,
Doc;. Dr. Naaber Yuriy Rudolfovic;- KRSU. Doc;. Dr. Zvyagintseva O.P.- VladimirI letme Enst! Usil-Rusya, Doc;:. Dr.
Drujinin P.V.- Kareliya Ara tlrma Merkezi -Rusya•..Komaldinov S. -Tacikistan Teknik Universitesi, Doc;. Dr.
Serik ay l.S-Uluslararast Kazak-Ti.irk Ahmet YeseY.i Universitesi ..
..
..
ORGANIZASYON KURULU- Prof. Dr. Sahavet GURDAL-KTMU, Doc;:. Dr. Kenan OZDEN- KTMU, Doc;.
Dr. Belkts OZKARA- KTMU, Do<;. Dr. Urdaletova A.B. -KTMU. (Ogr. Gor. ule YILDIZ- KTMU Ara. Gor.
Seyil NAJiMUDiNOVA- KTMU Ara. Gor. Biilent NAMAL- KTMU-sekreterya)
Giri imcilik, gi.ini.imiiz bilgi toplumunda bireysel ve toplumsal geli me ve refahm, rekabetin en onemli
unsuru olarak ortaya 91kmaktadtr.
Sovyetler Birligi'nin dawJmastyla birlikte, ozgiirliiklerine kavu an ve dUnya arenasmda bagtms1z devletler
olarak yerini alan KtrgJzistan, Ozbekstan, Kazakistan, Tacikistan, TUrkmenistan, Gurcistan ve Azerbaycan post­
komiinist donemde serbest pazar ekonomisine gec;:isUrecindedirler. Bu sUrec;te giri imciligin desteklenmesi ve
yaygmla tmlmast, gec;isUrecinin daha k1sa ve sorunsuz olmasm1 saglayacakur.
KtiltUrel donU Umlerin
ekonomik, teknolojik ve politik donil Umlere ktyasla daha uzun bir zaman aldtgJ dU i.intildUgi.lnde, giri imciligin
geli tirilmesi ve yaygml ttnhnas1 da uzun vadede bir yandan egitime, bir yandan da kongre ve sempozyumlarda
dikkat r;ekme, bilgilendirme ve tartJ gJa ortamlannn yarattlmastra baghdtr.
Ktrgtzistan-TUrkiye Manas Universitesi lktisadi ve ldari Bilimler Fakilltesi olarak «Uiuslararast
Giri imcilik Kongresi» TUrk Cumhuriyetleri'nde giri imciligi te vik etmek ic;in, onun onemine dikkat c;:ekmeyi,
onemli sorun alanlannm alt1m c;:izmeyi; bilim adamlan, giri imciler ve giri imci adaylan arasmda etk.ile im
saglamayt ve sorunlara ortak c;ozi.imler geli tirmeyi amac;:Iamaktadtr.
HAYliHhlH COBET: Jl..3.H, npocp. CaxaseT flopJJ.rut- KTYM, ,A. 3. H, npocp. KaM1.Jht6eKOB T.K. 6fJ3n, JJ..3.H.
npO!p. nHpHM6aes }K.T. KTYM, .LJ.. 3. H, npocp. TypcyHOBa c. A. HI1MOn KHY• .LJ..3.H, npocp. HblJ1Ma3)1\aH
weK KTYM. K.3.H• .nou. CaKaphll CeMa - 6occpopcKl'fM ymmepc1-1TeT (TypU!-Ill), K.::J.H, .nou. KeHaH 03.neH­
KTYM. 1<.3.H, .nou. 6eJ1bl<hiC 03Kapa - KTYM, K.3.H, .nou. XyceiiHH AKaM - KTYM, K.3.H, .nou. 3slln1Huesa o.n
Bna.nHMHpCKHM HHCTHTYT 6H3Heca (POCCHll), K.cp-M.H, .nou. PY)KHHHH nasen BaCHJ1heBI14 I1HCTI1TYT
::JKOHOMHKI1 KapenhcKoro Hay4Horo ueHTpa PoccHHCKOM aKa.LJ.eMHI1 HayK (PocCHll), K.3.H, .nou.· KaMrut.LJ.I1HOB
CH6xoH Ta.n)J<HKCKHM TeXHH4eCKHH yHHsepc11TeT, (Ta.LJ.)KHKHCTaH), K.3.H, .nou. Haa6ep l0p11ii Py.nonbcposl1'1
KPCY, K.<p-M.H, .nou. Kbt.LJ.htpamtes C.K. - AKa.neMHll Bbtcwero 06pa3oBaHHll TeachEx, .LJ..3.H, .nou. CepHK6aH
bi.C. Me)K.LJ.yHapo.LJ.HhiM K axcKo-TypeuKHH yHHBepCHTeT HMeHH Ka)KH AxMeTa Rccas11
.
OPrAHH3All,HOHHhiH KOMHTET- .LJ..3.H, npocp. CaxaseT flop.nan- KTYM, K.3.H, .nou. KeHaH 03.LJ.eH­
KTYM, K.3.H, ,LJ,OU. 6eJ1hKhiC 03Kapa - KTYM, K.cp-M.H. Yp,D,aneTosa A.B. - KTYM, (Wyne HbtJl.LJ.ht3,
HIDK11MYA11HOBa C.C. ByneHT HaMan- ceKpeTapHaT)
6 64 ULUSLARARASI GiRi iMCiLiK KONGRESi
MEiK,[(YHAPO,[(HhiH KOHrPECC «llPE,[(TIPHHHMATEJihCTBO»: C6. cTaTeil I B.: KTY
«MaHaC», cp-T 3KOHOMI1KI1 H ynpaBJleHMll, 2006.-572 C.
ISBN 9967-23-748-1
0,LJ,HI1M 113 ycnos11i1 3l<OHOMH'lecKoro pocTa cTpaH c nepexo.nHoii 3KOHOMHKOH JJ.Omtmo CTaTh WHpoKoe
pa3BHTHe npe,D,npHHI1MaTeJlhCTBa, KOTOpOe cnoco6HO nOBh!CI1Th perutbHhiM )J,OXO)J, 11 yseJ1H4HTb 3aHl!TOCTh Hace­
JleHHll. J1MeHHO npe,D,npHHHMaTeJlbCTBO cnoco6Ho B03pO,D,HTb 4aCTHhiM Cei<Top 11 YCHJlHTh 31<0HOMI14eCKI1M pOCT.
Pa3BHTI1e 3KOHOMHKI1 o6ycnasnHsaeTCll KOJ1114eCTBOM ycnewHo .neiicTBYIO!l(I1X cy6beKTOB 4UCTHoro cei<Topa.
aHHhiH KOHrpecc 11MeeT CBOeM UeJlbiO CTHMYl111posaTb npe,D,np11HI1MaTeJ1hCTBO B T10pKOll3bi4HhiX rocy­
,D,UpCTBaX nYTeM np11BJ1e'!eHHll BHHMaH11ll K BU)I<HOCTH npe,D,npHHI1MaTeJlbCTBa; Bhi.LJ.eJlHTh npo6neMHble ccpepbl
npenpHHHMaTeJlhCTsa; noHCK npasHJlhHblX peweHI1H cyll(eCTBYIOW.11X npo6neM o6be,LJ,I1HeHHbiMH ycHJ111liMI1
y'leHhiX, npe.unpHHHMaTeJleH 11 KaH)J,I1)J,aTOB B npe,D,npHHHMaTeJll1, a Tal\)l(e cnoco6CTBOBaTb HaJIUiKI1BaHHIO
KOHTai<TOB Meji<,LJ,Y HHMH. KoHrpecc BKJliO<JaeT B ce6e Hay4Hble )J,OKJla)J,hl y'leHhiX H3 Be.LJ.yW.HX ymiBepCHTeTOB 113
Kblprbi3CTaHa, Typuml, PocCHH, noJlbWH 11 APYrHX CTpaH.CHr.
34030 I 0000-06
ISBN 9967-23-748-l
YK 334
BBK 65.5
© KTY «MaHac», 2006
i<;iNDEKiLER
CO,li;EPJKAHHE
Zamirbek MANASOV. THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL
ENTREPRENEURSIDP IN KYRGYZSTAN................................................................. 7
Abdullah KARAMAN. KONAKLAMAi LETMELERiNDE ViZYON YQNETiMi TURK TURiZM
SEJ<:TORONDE BiR UYGULAMA ............................................................................. 19
0.10. flpaoKo. 3ABHCHMOCTb HHBECTHIJ;HOHHbiX ITPOQECCOB OT KOPPYfll1;HH B
CTPAHAX C 11EPEXO,ll;HOH 3KOHOMI1KOH (HA IIPHMEPE KbiPfbi3CKOH
PECIIYEJ1I1KI1)....................::...................................................................................... 35
fl.B. J{py:J CuHuH. IIPE,ll;I1PHHI1MATEJ1hCTBO H HHHOB.AI.J;MOHHA5I ,ll;E51TEJ1bHOCTb B
IIPHfPAHHliHOM PErHOHE ................................................................................... 43
Asuman AKDOGAN, Aye CiNGOZ. i<; GiRi iMCiLiGE VERiLEN ONEM DUZEYi VE i<;
GiRi iMCiLiGi ETKiLEYEN 0RG0TSEL FAKTQRLERiN BELiRLENMESiNE
YONELiK KAYSERi iLiNDE BiR ARA TIRMA ..................................................... 49
R!fat YILMAZ.i LETME i<;i YENi GiRi iM FiKiRLERiNiN DEGERLENDiRiLMESi VE
i LETME STRATEJiSiNE iLi KiLENDiRiLMESiNDE DENGELi PERFORMANS
OL<;OM SiSTEMi (BALANCED SCORECARD) VE BiR UYGULAMA ORNEGi 65
Adem OGUT, Hasan BULBUL, Nahit YiLMAZ. STRATEJiK YENiLENME ARACI OLARAK
KURUMSAL GiRi iMCiLiK VE BU SURE<;TE YENiLiK<;iLiGiN ONEMi ......... 83
Fariz AHMADOV, Serdar ORHAN. BiR GiRi iMCiLiK ORNEGi OLARAK ULUSLARARASI
ORTAK GiRi iMLERiN BA ARI KRiTERLERi: BAKU-TiFLiS-CEYHAN
PETROL BORU HATTIORNEGi ···············································································90
Sema SAKARYA, Gozde KOSA, Biilent NAMAL.. GiRi$iMCiLiK SURECiNDE FIRSAT VE
KIRGIZiSTAN ORNEGi .............................................................................................. 99
Ayhan SERHATERi, Ennan CO$KUN. GiRi$iMCiLiKTE ELEKTRONiK TiCARETiN QNEMi Ill
F. Asuman YALC';IN, Selda ENE. iNTERNETiN GiRi iMCiLiGE SUNDUGU FIRSATLAR VE
iNTERNETTE BA ARILI BiREYSEL GiRi iMCiLiK i<;iN MARKA YARATMA
YOLLARININ iNCELENMESi iLE iLGiLi ORNEK OLAY ................................... 118
Kutay OKTAY, ismail KIZILIRMAK. KIRGIZiSTAN'DA SEYAHAT ACENTALARINA YATIRIM
YAPAN GiRi iMCiLERiN KAR$1LA TIKLARI PAZARLAMA SORUNLARI .. 130
Kutay OKTAY. KIRGIZiSTAN'DA GiRi iMCiLERE KREDi VEREN FiNANSAL KURUMLAR
VE KREDi VERiLME KO$ULLARI 0ZERiNE BiR iNCELEME .......................... 140
Fehmi KARASiOGLU, Haluk DUMAN. GELi$MEKTE OLAN ULKELERDE GiRi iMCiLiK .
KULTURO VE RiSK SERMAYESi OZERiNE BiR iNCELEME............................ 148
Rabia Q'?.P._lj;fNiRC{! f/_aluk DUMAN, Namrk Kemal ERDEMiR. GiRi$iMCiLiK SURECiNDE
.
FiNANSAL BA ARISIZLIGIN ETKiLERi OZERiNE BiR iNCELEME ................ 160
MiinevverSOYAK. KADIN GiRi iMCiLidi VE MiKROFiNANS: T0RKiYE DENEYiMi ......... 169
Zekeriva MIZIRAK, Biro/ MERCAN, Nadide Sevil HALICI. GiRi iMCiNiN BQLGEYE
.
.
<;EKiLMESiNDE SOSYAL SERMAYENiN ROLO........................................:.· ·.····· 178
Hasan BULBtJL, Ufitk DURNA, Nalzit YILMAZ. YENiLiK<;iLiGi GELi TiRMEDE BiLGi VE BiLGi
TEKNOLOJiLERiNiN QNEMi ...............:...................................................... 188
C.A. Acmwllueea, A. OcMollalluee. HHHOBAQHOHHOCTb KAK KJ1l04EBOH <I>AKTOP
IIPE,ll;IIPI1HI1MATEJ1bCKOfO YCIIEXA .............................................................. 198
Tz/JleK Tcbt3bt Auoa. EI13HEC-HHKYEATOP H EfO POJ1b B PA3BI1TH.YI MAJ10f0 EI13HECA204
Tiirkay DERELi. Dilek KALENDER, Alptekin DURMU$0GLU. GiRi$iMCiLiK
PERFORMANSINA ETKi EDEN FAKTQRLERiN ARA$TIRILMASI: GAZiANTEP
ORNEGi....................................................................................................................... 206
4
Nedim YUZBA$/OGLU, Muhammet BEzjRCi. SUCCESS AND FAILURE PREDICTION OF SMALL
AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESSES THROUGH THE ALTMAN'S Z SCORE
MODEL ......................................................................................................... 216
Belkz.1· OZKARA. Kemal KARAYORMUK, Mehmet Ali KOSEOGLU. GiRi iMCiNiN SON KOYO:
GiRi iMLERiN SUREKLiLidiNiN SORGULANMASI ......................................... 221
Nedim YUZBA$/OGLU. GiRi iMCi FiRMALARIN GELi iMiNi VE YONETiM TARZLARINI
ETKiLEYEN FAKTORLERiN VAKA ANALiZi METODU YARDIMIYLA
DEGERLENDiRiLMESi ............................................................................................ 234
Nilgiin SARIKAYA. Faruk Anzl KONUK. iNTERNET KULLANICILARININ iNTERNET
REKLAMLARINA YONELiK TUTUMLARININ GiRi iMCiLiK A<;ISINDAN
ONEMi OZERiNE BiR ARA TIRMA ...................................................................... 246
El(f"Aszule TUNCA. ULKE iMAJININ VETANITIMININ YABANCI Y ATIRIMLARA ETKiSi:
KIRGIZiSTAN ORNEGi ............................................................................................ 257
3. X <PyKcAtaH. HHHOBAU,HH B PEII1EHHI13AMq YBEJ1]11qEHl151 TIOCTABOK
llPO,ZJ;YKll,l1l1 HA 3KCI10PT................................................................................... 266
Mustafa BOTE. TRABZON iLiNDE GiRi iMCiLiK OZELLiKLERi ARA TIRMASI................ 267
A. Atilla UGUR, Liitfil $AGBAN$UA. THE ROLE OF TAX POLICffiS IN INTERNATIONAL
INVESTMENT DECISIONS: CASE STUDY FOR KAZAKHSTAN AND TURKEY. 279 ·
Raziyalum ABDjyEVA. VERGi iDARESi iLE MUKELLEF ARASINDAKi iLi KiLERiN
GiRi iMCiLiGE ETKiSi (KIRGIZiSTAN ORNEGi)............................................... 288
N. Tolga SARU9, Habib YILDIZ, Erman 90$KUN. HOW ENTREPRENEURSHIP CAN BE ·
ACCELERATED WITH MINIMIZATION OF BUREAUCRACY VIA ONLINE
VENTURE START-UP APPLICATIONS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY................. 295
C. K. KblC)bzpanuee. BJ1l15IHHE HAJ1010B HA llPE.D:TIPHHHMATEJThCKYIO
.D:E5ITEJ1bHOCTb....................................................................................................... 307
Nevin YORUK. GiRi iMCiLiKTE ALTERNATiF FiNANSAL TEKNiKLERiN KULLANIMI... 313
A. OcMOHaflztee. OE AHAJ1HTHliECKHX B03MO)l(HOCT5lX <t>HHAHCOBOH OTliETHOCTH
X035lfiCTBYIOll.IJ IX CYE'bEKTOB ....................................................................... 323
Hiiseyin AKAY. KO<;OK VE ORTA BOY i$LETMELERDE FiNANSAL RAPORLAMA VE
KAZAKiSTAN ORNEdi............................................................................................ 327
lJ. C. KeJHnup6aeea. POJ1b Jlli3HHf'A B 3KOHOMHKE. TIYTH PACillHPEHHJI H
TIOBbllllEHH51 3<t><t>EKTHBHOCTI1 TIPHMEHEHJ.iiJI J1H3l1Hf'A B
AT'POTIPOMbllllJlEHHOM KOMTIJlEKCE KblPT'bl3CTAHA .............................. 335
Ali c;aglar UZUN, Mehmet GUNLUK. KADIN GiRi$iMCiLERiN OZELLiKLERi, HAREKET
NOKTALARI VE KAR$1LA$1LAN SORUNLARA iLi$KiN MUGLA iLl
ARA$TIRMASI .......................................................................................................... 340
Mehmet TURAN, Seyil NACiMUDiNOVA. GiRi$iMCiLERiN SAHiP OLDUGU Ki$iLiKLERiN
KOLTURLER ARASI DEGi$iM GOSTERMESi TURKiYE VE KIRGIZiSTAN'LI
GiRi$iMCiLER UZERiNDE KAR$ILA$TIRMALI BiR ARA$TIRMA ................. 351
Muhsin HALiS, Mahmut DURMAZ, Ozlem Y. UGURLU, Behzat $ENCAY. GiRi$iMCi Ki iLiK VE
POLiTiK DAVRANI$ ................................................................................................ 361
r.J. Kyoa6aeea. TIPO<t>ECClilOHAJ1bHOE llPE.D:llPI1Hl1MATEJ1bCTBO- KAK <t>AKTOP
YCHJ1EHI15l TIOTEH11,11AJ1A CYE'bEKTOB MAJ1010 EI13HECA B
llPOMbllllJ1EHHOCTI1 KhiPfbi3CTAHA .............................................................. 373
)J(.H. 0).1ypoea. POJ1b fOCY,[(APCTBA 11 llPE.Ll:llPMRl1MATEJ1bCTBA B PA3BHTI1H
PbiHKA )KJIIJ1b5l HA COBPEMEHHOM 3TATIE................................................... 383
jl,. jl,;;Jcanapoea. PbiHOK ME.Ll:HUHHCKHX YCJ1YT' B KbiPfbi3CTAHE................................... 389
5
Muhibbi Suat AKSOY. Ferit KULA. GiRi$iMCiLERiN TURKI CUMHURiYETLERDE YATIRIM
NiYETLERiNi ETKiLEYEN FAKTORLER: KAYSERiLi GiRi$iMCiLER
OZERiNE BiR ARA$TIRMA ····················································································396
Tiizin BAYCAN LEVENT. Seda KUNDAK. iSVi<::RE'NiN GiRi$iMCi TURKLERi ...................... 405
Ekrem ERDOGAN, Emel <;ETiNKAYA. M. Numllah KURUTKAN. BiLGi TOPLUMUNDA
GiRi$iMCiLiGiN DEGi$EN BOYUTU: SANAL GiRi$iMCiLiK.......................... 418
Adem OGUT. Asian SENDOGDU, Nahit YILMAZ. BiLi$iMCi GiRi$iMCiLiK TiPOLOJiSi
AqSINDAN BiLGi YqNETi iN.iN iL.KEL?i ·······················:········:················:··:431
Abdiillatf <;EVIKER. Ercan SARIDOGAN. BILGI VE ILETI$1M TEKNOLOJILERI VE YENILIK
URETiMi: OECD ULKELERi OZERiNE EKONOMETRiK BiR ANALiZ ............ 437
A.vhan SEYFULLAHOGULLAR/, Ba ak YAL<;IN, Siileyman TURKOGLU.ELEKTRONiK
.
GiRi$iMCiLiKTE KULLANILAN WEB TEKNOLOJiLERiNiN iNCELENMESi VE
PERAKENDE SATI$ YAPAN SiTELERiN BiLi$iM A<::ISINDAN
KAR$ILA$TIRILMASI .............................................................................................. 459
Abdulhalim <;ELiK. BiR iSTiHDAM POLiTiKASI OLARAK GiRi$iMCiLiK ............................. 467
Ceem.rraHa TyoKoea. COIJ;I1AJibHhiH KATIHTAJI- <PYH,ll;AMEHT PA3BHTH51 MAJ10f0
EH3HECA ................................................................................................................... 477
A.M Kallttmceeea. MHKPO<PHHAHCHPOBAHHE KAK AKTYAJibHhiH HHCTPYMEHT
TIPEO,ll;OJ1EHH.51 EE,ll;HOCTH.................................................................................. 484
3./J. KaTtwHemoe, T.T. Typoamtee. TIOMEP)l(KA MAJ10f0 TIPE,ll;TIPHHHMATEJJbCTBA KAK
CPE,ll;CTBA B EOPhEE C EE,ll;HOCThlO................................................................. 490
K.A. ToKmop6aeea. TIPABOBOE OEECTIEqEHHE PABEHCTBA )l(EHIIJ:HH KhiPfhi3CKOH
PECTIYEJJHKH B CI1CTEME 3KOHOMHqECKHX OTHOlllEHHH................... 495
3.Y. Ha3ap6eKoea. TIPOEJJEMhi fEH,ll;EPHOHTIOJJHTHKH B TIPE,ll;TIPHHl1MATEJibCTBE501
C.lil. CaJZKoea. TIPOEJJEMhi )l(EHCKOfO TIPE,ll;TIPHHHMATEJibCTBA B Kh1Pfhi3CKOH
PECTIYEJJHKE........................................................................................................... 508
Muhsin HALiS, Mehmet DEMiRAG, Serdar K. YAVUZ, H.Murat SAHiN. GiRi$iMCiLiK
KARARLARINA ETKiSi A<::ISINDAN <::EYRE GOVENLidi VE YIKICI
FAALiYETLER .......................................................................................................... 510
Kenan OZDEN. KOBiLER i<::iN KRiZDE FiNANSMAN YONETiMi UZERiNE BiR MODEL
ONERiSi...................................................:.................................................................. 527
Muhammet BEZiRCi. RiSKTEN KA<::INAN YATIRIMCILARIN YENi GiRi$iMCiLiK ARENAS!;
VOB (V ADELi i$LEM VE OPSiYON BORSASI), TORKiYE ORNEGi ............... 544
HOW ENTREPRENEURSHIP CAN BE ACCELERATED WITH MINIMIZATION
OF BUREAUCRACY VIA ONLINE VENTURE START-UP APPLICATIONS:
A COMPARATIVE STUDY
N. Tolga Saru{
Habib YlldiZ*
Erman .;o kun***
OZET
Ki.i Uk ve orta Ol eklii letmelerirket kurmaa amalanndaogu zaman yeterli kaynak ve dam ­
mana sahip degillerdir. Bu yOzden bu tOrirketler geneldeirket kurma prosedUrOnO ve izlenmesi ge­
reken ad1mlan bilmemektedirler. irket kurmaki in gerekeni lemlerin yogunlugu i.ilkeden iilkeye
degi mektedir. Baz1 Ulkelerde bUrokrasi ve klrtasiyecilik olduka yogun olmasma kaqm, diger Ulke­
lerdeirket kurma a amalan net vei lemlerde hizhdir. Bu tUr Ulkelerde yatmrnlann ve yeniirketle­
rin te vik edildigi soylenebilir. <;ah mada degi ik Ulkelerdeki irket kurma a amalan ve internet yo­
luyla ba vuru yapabilrne olanaklan incelenrni tir. Se ilen 5 farklt Ulkede (Kanada, Birle ik Kralhklar,
Singapur, TUrkiye ve K1rg zistan)irket kurmaki in gerekli a amalar ile sUre ve maliyetler incelen­ mi
tir. Geli rnive geli mekte olan farklt ekonorniler sec;ilerek irket kurma a amasmda sunulan internet
ve e-devlet hizmetleri ara tmhm tir. <;ah mamn son kismmda iseirket kurma a amalannda
klrtasiyecilikten kurtularak sisterni verimli bir hale getirmeki in gerekli olan onerilere yer verilrni tir.
SUMMARY
Start-up ventures, especially the small and medium ones, have limited amount of resources and
capital as well as insufficient experts such as lawyers, consultants, accountants and administrators to
support them when they need it most. Thus, most of these businesses do not know how to proceed
with establishing a new firm. They are not aware of bureaucracy and the necessary steps to follow.
The level of bureaucracy's impact changes from country to country. In some countries these processes
can be long, money and time consuming and may take several weeks or months which discourages
new venture start-ups, whereas in others these processes are much more efficient and fast which en­
courages new venture start-ups. These differences and the impact of availability of e-government and
online application possibilities are the subject of our study. The study comparesureaucratic systems
-·-·· for venture start-ups in different countries and discusses to provide an opportunity for adapting the
most effective ones for the developing countries.
In this study, our aim is to analyze and compare the steps and the amount of money and time
spent in. the application process for new ventures in five different selected countries. These five coun­
tries are chosen according to their different leVel of bureaucratic necessities and red tape used. We
analysed some developed countries which have very efficient venture start-up processes and those in
which the process is slow and ponderous. Another objective of the study is to find out how e-gov­
ernment services, i.e. the use of internet and online application availabilities impact on the cost of
start-up both to the firms involved and to government spending.
We look at the steps required for start-up in countries such as Canada, Singapore and England
• Yrd. D. Dr., Sakarya i.lniversitesi t).B.F. Maliye Bol.
•• Yrd. D. Dr., Sakarya i.lniversit si I.t. .F. Maliye BOI.
···Doc;. Dr., Sakarya Universitesi f.I.B.F.l letme Bol.
296
and try to derive some lessons for less effective systems in countries such as Turkey and Kyrgyzstan.
Studying business start-up rules in different countries are not only valuable for cross-comparison, but
they are also helpful for policy makers in reducing the cost involved for start-ups. In this inter-disci­
plinary study, technical and regulatory suggestions to broaden the applications of online start-ups are
placed in the last part of the study.
Key Words: Entrepreneurship, e-govemment, online application, start-up
INTRODUCTION
It just takes 2 days to start-up a business in Australia while it takes 203 days to do the same in
Haiti (Sharader and Werner 2005). Recently many countries are trying to reform their business regis­
tration process in order to reduce informal_economy and increase the investments. There are many
successful reforms in the subject of business registration in countries such as Canada, UK and Singa­
pore. European Union countries also reduced the registration cost by 10% and registration time by
about 15% (Sharader and Werner 2005). Although it is very useful to reform start-up procedure of
business, the job is more difficult than it first seems. The main reason of difficulty of start-up registra­
tion reform is the fact that it requires great deal of coordination between many government depart­
ments (de Sa, 2005).
The business start-up reforms help the economy in a different number of ways. Firstly, if start-up
procedure is burdensome, this would increase informal sector. Secondly, in a country where registra­
tion period is costly and long, business start-up and investments will be low. There is also very strong
evidence that shows the increase in business entry, after successful reforms (Doing Business in 2006,
p.13). According to the same report by Doing Business "fifteen thousands German businesses have
saved on notary and other expenses by registering in London, where the required capital is only £1"
(p.lO). This example shows that easy start-up processes may also result with increased number of for­
eign companies and foreign investment. So businesses take notice of start-up procedure in a country
when they make investment decisions.
Benefits of online start-up is much higher for developing or underdeveloped countries. Accord­
ing to de Sa (2005) "... the worst the business start-up procedures the higher the potential gains from
successful reforms" (p.4). Reforms of start-up increase the level of investment and thus reducing un­
employment rate in the country. For example, a study cited by Doing Busicess indicates that Algeria
can benefit an increase in business investments up to 30%, when the country reforms its start-up
regulation to the same level in Turkey (Alesina eta/., 2003). Some other benefits of simplification of
start-up procedure can be (i) an increase in efficiency since formal businesses are more productive,
and (ii) an increase in tax revenues both because of the fact that productivity is increased and informal
sector is decreased.
Overall, benefits of online start-up can be summarized as:
1. Cost Saving: Online start-up will decrease the cost of starting a new business as well as
simplifying the process. Online WB/IFC Small and Medium Enterprises Department's study
shows that there is a correlation between the number of SMEs per 1000 inhabitants and the
cost to start a business (de Sa, 2005). Thus it can be concluded that decreased cost of starting
a new business will lead more private sector companies.
·
2. Standardization: Online start-up process will standardize the transactions and companies .
must formalize their business. This will lead to bellcr functioning and controlled organiza­
tions which will increase productivity and growth.
3. Time Saving: Reports show that online start-up will minimize the number of agencies to ap­
ply and because all the processes can be automated, the processing time will .be cut signifi­
cantly.
4. Objective Process: Because of standardization provided with online start-up applications and
processing human judgement will be minimized and subjective decisions can be eliminated in
most cases. The information and documents must be provided fully. Better online application
and processing systems will make the process more objective.
5. Simple and Understandable: Page 13 of the report by de Sa (2005) shows that in developing
and developed countries there are 18 different institutions and bodies in the business regis­
tration/start-up mechanisms. With online application and processing these 18 institutions can
be reduced to 3-4 main institutions. This will make everything simpler and more understand-
297
able especially for the smaiJ and medium businesses which have limited amount of resources
and capital as well as insufficient experts such as lawyers, consultants, accountants and ad­
ministrators to support them when they need it most
6. More firms are set up: Simple and understandable processes will result with higher number of
firms set up.
7. Increase in investment: Easy processes will attract foreign companies and firms as well as in­
vestments to that country.
8. New jobs: New companies will be hiring new employees and this will decrease unemploy­
ment rate.
9. Preventing informal economic activities: With online registration all the processes and
information will be accurate and they can be cross-checked easily. Another benefit will be
reducing human error. Online system allows for error checking and minimizes human error.
Since everything will be recorded correctly and information can be checked in a short time,
informal economic activities will be minimized
10. Minimized opportunities to extract bribes: Online registration system will prevent bribes be­
cause it will standardize all the processes.
WHAT WE NEED FOR A SUCCESSFUL START-UP ONLINE APPLICATION AND
REGISTRATION PROCESSING SYSTEM?
Within the 10 countries ranked highest, on the ease of starting a business, some of the important
features in common are availability of online registration in a countrywide database, use of standard­
ized registration forms, and elimination of newspaper publication requirement. All these features are
available because of technology especially because of internet and online start-up applications with
websites standardize forms: Most of new business applications get rejected because of flowed or in­
sufficient paperwork. With standardized forms made available on web pages and better instructions
about how to fill them as well as putting some measures to prevent errors lowers the rejection rate
significantly.
We can classify the components of a successful online start-up system as
a) A well designed, functioning E-government system and applications and integrated e-government
offices throughout the government: If this system is not in place than even though a common registra­
tion organization accepts the application, it cannot send data and information to different government
agencies and cannot serve the purpose.
i) Hardware
ii) Software
iii) Databases
iv) Connectiveness
b) Well educated and trained employees
c) A national registration database
d) Support from government
e) Information infrastructure
t) Educated.and conscious citizens
We can mention 4 stages about the on-line start-up from ]east to the most.
Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly ac­
cessible website or the publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the
administrative responsible level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.
Stage 1The information necessary to start the procedure for registering a new company is avail­
able on a publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative
responsible level.
Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administra­
tive responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the paper form to start the procedure for
registering a new company in a non-electronic way.
Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administra­
tive responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic intake with an official electronic form
to start the procedure for registering a new company.
298
Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service 'provider or by the administra­
tive responsible level offers the possibility to completely treat the declaration of a new company
via the website. Case handling, decision and delivery of a standard procedure to register a new
company can be treated via the web. No other formal procedure is necessary for the applicant via
"paperwork" Capgemini (2004, p. 54).
STARTING A BUSINESS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
After explaining the fundamentals of online start-up, now we analyze 5 selected countries chosen
based on their different sophistication level of online start-up applications.
Canada (information about Canada is mostly taken from cbsc.org website)
Canada is one of the world's leading countries in terms of ease of starting a new business and
. one of the most business friendly regulatory regimes. According to a study of regulations governing
start-up of a new business in 75 countries, Canada has the fewest procedures, speediest process and
lowest cost required (Djankov, 2000). As a result over the past two years, more than 25 000 small
businesses have began operating in Canada. It is predicted that as the Canadian population ages self­
employment will be more feasible and because of the impact of new technology and the internet,
start-up growth will continue to be strong and will exceed 100 000 over the next five years (Start Me
Up, 2004).
When we look at the successful start-up support in Canada we see that Canada Business Service
Centres (CBSC) undertake a broad range of activities to foster entrepreneurship and make sure that
entrepreneurs know about government programs, services and regulations, as well as the assistance
available through the CBSCs themselves. The CBSC mandate is to serve as the primary source of
timely and accurate business related information, and to provide referrals on government programs,
services and regulations, without charge in all regions of Canada. The mission of the CBSCs is four
fold:
• Improve the st.art-up, survival and growth rates of small and medium-sjzed enterprises by
giving business people access to accurate, timely and relevant information and referrals in
every part of Canada.
• Reduce the complexity of dealing with various levels of government by consolidating busi­
ness information from the clients' perspective in one convenient service.
• Enable clients to make well-informed business decisions in a global economy.
• Encourage business success through sound business planning, market research and the use of
strategic business information.
CBSCs started to function in 1992 in Canada. They used basic electronic information manage­
ment tools, lotus notes, groupware and fax services until 1996. In 1996 they launched first national
CBSC web site. In 2000 online Interactive Business Planner was launched. In 2001 Business Start-Up
Assistant and Talk to Us!" (hi-channel service via phone and Web) was launched Online. In 2004
Information management: Content Management System (FatWire) was launched. Now, several
initiatives are under way to modernize the CBSC network's information management/information
technology infrastructure: TheCBSC portal will become the main Web-based desktop entry point for
staff to access and interact with applications, content, tools, services and each other. It will provide
users with an integrated work environment (E-workplace). The Content Management Systerii wHI
handle CBSC Web publishing, from creation to publication, using features such as workflow for
business processes.
Given client preferences, Government On-Line objectives and the positive imp ,ct on operating
costs, CBSCs have adopted a channel management strategy that uses the Internet to tht! maximum, as
both a self-serve option and a way of delivering information to clients being assisted by CBSC infor­
mation officers. To help clients obtaining comprehensive and accurate answers to their questions,
CBSC staff use a variety of databases, the Internet and tools accessible through a customized system.
They promote Web-based information first, and they can deliver information via e-mail or the Web, as
well as via regular mail or fax.
1- Telephone Services
A toll-free telephone inquiry service is promoted as a first stop for business information.
2- "Talk to Us!"
'1'alk to Us!" is a unique service simultaneously using Web and telephone to help business eli-
299
ents to find information online. The Internet is primarily a self-service tool, but the sheer volume of
information can often lead to failed searches and frustrated users. "Talk to Us!" addresses this prob­
lem. Over the telephone, a CBSC business information officer helps the client refine search parame­
ters to obtain the needed Web-based information.
3- In-person Service
CBSCs are walk-in business resource centres, where clients may access information on their own or
receive assistance from business information officers.
4- Internet-based Services
The CBSC Web site (www.cbsc.org) is actually a group of 14 sites-one for each province and
territory, plus a national home site. Each local site posts regionally specific content and reflects any
collaborative arrangements in place. The central site provides national information content and Web
tools, Web publishing/content management-tools and Web hosting. Overall, the CBSC Web presence
received 4.8 million visits in 2003-04. Generally, sites are organized from the business client's per­
spective, with topics and search options to suit various needs.
5- E-mail Service
Clients can e-mail their requests for business-related information and are assured a response
within one business day.
Business Information System
The foundation of the CBSC network is its ability to provide reliable, accurate information that
is easy to access in a number of ways. Its national database, known as the Business Information Sys­
tem (BIS), is the key to many CBSC services and products. The BIS is posted on the Web, is a prime
tool for information officers responding to client questions, and can also be faxed, e-mailed or printed.
It has several components:
The Government Programs, Services and Regulations Database are a collection of federal and
provinciaVterritorial information. They contain up-to-date descriptions of government business pro­
grams, services and regulatory requirements relevant to Canadian businesses. It sets a high standard in
content, design and customer appeal, allowing information officers to· locate requested information
promptly, and to help clients navigate through the government programs and services available to in­
dividuals who are starting, improving or expanding a business. The BIS contains 1100 descriptions of
federal business programs, services and regulations from 42 federal departments, agencies arid Crown
corporations. Plus 2237 documents from provincial and territorial ministries and agencies across the
country, making a total of
3337 documents in the collection.
Info-guides provide a multi-jurisdictional overview of programs, services and regulations. They
are available on specific topics, such as business start-up, financing, exporting and e-business.
"How to Start" guides explain potential steps and requirements in establishing specific types of
businesses. Guides currently available across Canada discuss starting "a bed and breakfast", a con­
venience store and a restaurant, a personal care home for seniors, or an alternative and complementary
health care business. Each CBSC adds guides on other topics, depending on local demand;
Fact sheets consistently rank among the CBSCs' most frequently requested documents. They
cover a wide range of generic business topics, such as business planning, choosing locations, market
researches and analysis, basic book keepings and promotions.
The Online Small Business Workshop provides techniques and information for developing a
business idea; starting, marketing and financing a new venture; and improving an existing small busi­
ness. The workshop was recently expanded to, include an e-business component.
The Business Start-Up Assistant (BSA) :draws on multiple jurisdictions to supply the information
needs of entrepreneurs in the start-up phase in each region of Canada. It features prominently on
BusinessGateway.ca and remains its most popular cluster. At the end of 2003-04, an enhanced ver­
sion of the BSA was released. It responds to evolving needs by adding new content for specific audi­
ences (e.g. women, Aboriginal people), new topics, an improved search page and several user inter­
face improvements.
As it is seen in Table-1, with CBSC system Canada has minimized time and cost for starting a
new business.
300
Table 1 Numbers of procedures and costs for Canada
Duration (days)
Nature of Procedure (2005)
Proc#
Incorporate the company
1
1
2
Register for GST
2
2
Totals:
3
Source: Doing Business
US$ Cost
252.51
0.00
$252.51
Starting a Business in UK
To start-up a business in UK, all the information needed can be obtained from the government's
websites (businesslink.gov.uk, companieshouse.gov.uk). There are free books about business ideas
with success stories. Various forms can be provided and be filled online for start-up process. There are
also interactive tools to help to start-up process and to find out which legal structure is right for the
business and which kind of permits and registrations are needed for the applicants.
As a one-stop shop "Business Unk schemes were established during the 1990s to enhance the
interaction between business and (mostly local) government and to simplify administrative processes
affecting business. These programmes were particularly concerned with supporting small and medium
sized enterprises. The Business Link approach included the Chambers of Commerce, Training and
Enterprise Councils, Local Authorities, Enterprise Agencies, and the Government." (OECD, 2003, p.206).
Beyond this, we also searched for other EU countries since EU has become one of the super
economies in the world. Figure 1 shows the results for 15 EU member countries (blue colour) and 10
recently joined countries (pink colour).
The EU countries' on-line start-up sophistication levels are given below. As it can be seen al­
though some countries received the full-mark, others should improve their processes.
Figure-1 EU countries' on-line start-up sophistication levels
Source:Capgemini2004
Table-2· is taken·from-Doing Business website and shows the duration and cost information for UK.
Table-2 Numbers of procedures and costs for UK
Duration (days)
Nature ?f Procedure (2005)
Proc#
US$ Cost
Check i:ompany name
Prepare company documents in front of a witness
Register with the Companies House
Register for VAT
Register for PAYE
Sign up for employer's liability insurance
Totals:
Source: Doing Business
1
0.00
2
1
Hi2.31
3
1
84.54
4
15
0.00
5
8
0.00
18
$246.85
6
6
0.00
301
Starting a Business in Singapore
Singapore is one of the most "e-ready'' countries in the world. For example, the country has been
ranked among the top three e-Governments by World Economic Forum in 2003. Singapore has started
its study about the e government as early as 1980 (Xinhuanet, 2005). Recently, Prime Minister Lee
Hsien Loong indicated that "Being a city-state, it is possible for us to wire up the entire country and
give every Singaporean access to a computer. This is our unique strength, which we will leverage
upon to provide the best possible public service to our citizens and customers" at the start of e-Gov­
ernment Action Plan 2 in which the Government has been investing S$1.3 billion over the period of
2003-2006 (e-Government Newsletter, 2005). These statements and awards received from different
organizations shows the importance attributed to e-Government in Singapore. This also proves that
successful e-government and online start-up applications can be achieved if the top level leaders believe in it and support it.
-·
There is an online application system for entrepreneurs to register to businesses and also to apply
for necessary licences and permits. The project started in 2003 and it calls The Online Business Li­
censing Service (OBLS). The government side (www.business.gov.sg) offers 69 licences across 19
government agencies at one-stop licence shop. According to Singapore Government Fact Sheet, be­
fore implementing OBSL, a business process reengineering exercise (BPR) was carried out to reduce
bureaucracy, this was resulted about (i) up to 90% reduction in application processing time, (ii) up to
60% reduction in customer data entry, and finally (iii) 10% reduction in the number of licenses due to
aggregation and removal of redundant licences (Fact sheet, p2).
All necessary information for business start-up is given online and Jicence application can be
done with a few clicks. There are many benefits of OBSL. Some of them are as follows (i) Only one
integrated form need to be completed for many licenses, (ii) One time payment can be made for mul­
tiple license fees, (iii) the processing of applications is carried out concurrently which results in valu­
able time saving. Some benefits of OBSL also can be seen from the Table3.
Table 3 Benefits of Online Start-up in Singapore
Business transaction
Incorporating a new company
Over the counter
Cost: S$1,200 (- US$736) and up
Processing time: 5 days
Obtaining a
entertainment licence
public
Applying for a pet shop
licence
Processing time:8 weeks
No. of counter visits:
government agencies
7
Processing time: 2 months
Online
Cost: Flat fee of S$300
US$184)
Processing time:2 hours
Processing time: 2 weeks
No. of counter visits: 0
Processing time: 3 days
Source: Government Fact Sheet, OBLS.
The costs for incorporating a new company has been decreased from 1,200 Singapore dollars to
300 Singapore dollars through e-service, while processing time decreased from 5 days to 2 hours.
Table-4 Numbers of procedures and cos'ts for Singapore
Proc# Duration (days) US$ Cost
Nature of Procedure (2005)
Apply for approval of company name and file the·company incorporation
Purchase the RCB search on the company
·:..•
1
l
187.89
2
1
5.96
Make a company seal
3
71.58
Register with the revenue authority
4
0.00
Register with the provident fund
5
1
0.00
Register for workmen's' compensation
6
1
0.00
Totals:
6
6
$265.43
Source: Doing Business
302
Starting a Business in Turkey
A reform work carried out by Turkish government can be seen as one of the success stories.
There was a high private sector involvement in the reform process and the government accepted over
half of the recommended process changes by private sector (Sharader and Werner 2005).
The reform process in Turkey is highlighted by de Sa (2005, pl0-12), and Han and Ala (2006)
explained in detail the structure of companies and steps involve for start-up businesses. The reform
process in Turkey involved not only legal reforms but also institutional reforms. On 17.06.2003 a
new law, numbered as 4884, Law Amending Turkish Trade Law, Tax Procedure Law, Stamp Duty
Law, Labour Law -and Social Insurance Law, took in place. The law eliminated the requirement of
notarizations and stamp tax at regional registries (de Sa, 2005). There were also institutional develop­
ments such as (i) creation of Coordination Committee for the Improvement of Investment Climate
(YOiKK) which has begun its studies on March 2002, and has built a bridge between public and pri­
vate sectors about business start-up reforms, (see, Akm 2004 for more information about the role of
YOiKK), (ii) Trade Registry Office of the Chamber of Commerce (TROCC) has received the author­
ity of business registration from Ministry of Trade and Industry (MOTI). There are also operational
improvements such as single application form and one-window for trade, tax, labour and insurance
registrations (de Sa, 2005). Although no online application is possible at the moment, Trade Registra­
tion Gazette is available online, and detailed information is available on government sites about how
to start-up business.
As can be seen below, before the reform registration process was very complicated, and time
consuming since businesses needed to register separately with each agency.
Figure-2 Company Start-up Procedures in Turkey: Before reforms
Source: <;anak, 2004.
303
After the reform, registration has become straightforward as can be seen below.
Source: <;anak, 2004.
Table 5 Numbers of procedures and costs for Turkey
Nature of Procedure (2005)
Proc#
Duration (days)
US$ Cost
Notarize deeds
1
1
250.61
Pay to the account of Competition Authority
2
1
15.00
Register at trade registry office
3
2
760.99
Follow up with the tax office
4
1
0.00
Follow up with the Social Security Institution
5
1
0.00
Publish articles
6
1
13.78
Certify tax books
7
I
0.00
Deposit capital
8
1
0.00
Totals:
Source: Doing Business
8
9
$1,040.38
Starting a Business in Kyrgyzstan
If we look at the Table 6, we can see that the number of start-up procedures and days are smaller
in Mongolia and Kyrgyzstan than the other Central Asian countries
·'
Table 6. Numbers for Kyrgyzstan and Other central Asia Countries
Country
Number of procedures Time (days)
25
Kazakhstan
9
Kyrgyz Republic
21
8
20
Mongolia
8
36
Russia
9
35
11
Uzbekistan
Source:Umurzakov, (2005, p.15)
304
There have been recent studies to streamline the start-up process in Kyrgyzstan (see Umurzakov,
2005), however the registration process still remains very complex, costly and burdensome. There is
no online application available and duplicate fillings are not eliminated yet.
Umurzakov (2005) explains the licensing reform in Kyrgyzstan as follows;
"In Kyrgyzstan, the Law on Licensing was adopted in 1997. To streamline the licensing system
the law was amended in 2001, reducing the number of activities subject to licensing from 64 to
29, since then this number has increased to 32. A government decree was also issued setting up a
single procedure for issuing licenses and incorporating all licensing requirements into a single
normative act. As a result, all ministerial acts regulating licensing were abolished. In essence, all
this means that sub-licenses have been legally eliminated, however, some still exist in the areas
of telecoms, internet providers, and construction. The Law on licensing was also amended to in­
corporate tighter procedures for issuing new licenses. Unfortunately, in the three years since
these new procedures were adopted, there have been new types of licenses proposed by the gov­
ernment violating these very procedures. This shows a lack of awareness of the new procedures
among licensing agencies and a disregard for them in supervising legal departments and the
Ministry of Justice." (p.20)
Table 7 Numbers of procedures and costs for
Nature of Procedure (2005)
Deposit capital
Deposit the legally required initial capital in a bank
Apply for license
Notarize deeds
Obtain proof of location
Pick up a company registration fonn
Obtain the Declaration of Sentencing
Register with Ministry of Justice
Register with the State Tax Inspectorate
Register the company with the Ministry of Commerce
Make a sign
Obtain permission to make company seal
Register with the Social Fund
Register with the Financial Department
Make a company seal
Open bank account
Register the workers for social security
Totals:
Proc#
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
Duration (days)
l
l
132
I
2
1
3
10
2
2
5
2
2
2
45
l
7
21
US$ Cost
0.00
0.00
45.55
10.27
0.00
1.82
0.46
4.25
1.37
3.10
0.73
25.12
0.68
0.46
6.83
0.00
0.00
$100.64
Source: Doing Business
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
In this study, we present applications of online start-up in five different countries. Each country
has different levels in terms of online start-up. Some are using it successfully to cut costs and shorten
processing time, to make process more efficient and more understandable, to controLbusinesses better,
to get more foreign investments, and to integrate involved government agencies to the same system,
while others are just trying to figure out how to implement it. As a result start-up procedures and costs
vary significantly in different countries (see Table 8).
Table 8 Comparison of start-up costs
Region or
Economy
Procedures
(number)
Duration
(days)
Cost(% GNI per
capita)
Min. Capital (% GNI per
capita)
Canada
2
3
0.9
0.0
305
Kyrgyz Republic 8
Singapore
6
Turkey
8
United Kingdom 6
Source: Doing Business
21
10.4
6
1.1
0.6
0.0
9
27.7
20.9
18
0.7
0.0
Especially with proliferation of successful e-government application, it is not hard to figure out
that online start-up soon will be a necessity instead of a luxury. Especially, developing countries such
as Turkey and Kyrgyzstan must develop and use online start-up as soon as possible. Now, it is an op­
portunity for them to use this as a competitive advantage against other developing countries which are
trying to invite foreign investment and trying to stabilize their economies with new entrepreneurs and
firms. As with many other opportunities in the business world, this wiJI not be an opportunity for long.
Soon, a11 other countries will be using online start-up and then it wilJ be a necessity. After that period,
it wiU become a threat. If online start-up is not used in a country, even domestic firms and people will
be investing in other countries because of high costs, more bureaucracy, long processing times, and
complex procedures. Thus online start-up is vital especially for developing countries.
The first thing to do for online the use of start-up is One-stop shops. One-stop shops for business
can be described as a single window in which all the necessary government services and information
can be given from one location. They can either be physical or web-based. As explained in a study
carried out by OECD;
Information and advice services provided by such one-stop shops are especially valuable for
business start-ups. One-stop permitting approaches, meaning the establishment of single access
points for the registration of new businesses, can reduce the costs and the time involved. This
can encourage entrepreneurial activities and facilitate the dynamic and the growth of local and
national economies. There are an increasing number of countries following such practices.
(OECD, 2003, p.30).
One-stop shops are used extensively in many countries on the subject of business licensing ser­
vices as a tool to reduce business burdens. But governments should be careful that One-stop shops are
not becoming just one more shops and they do not basically shift the burden of start-up from busi­
nesses to governments.
Other important component of online start-up is the technology. Technology and information
systems are especially useful for integrating complex systems such as government activities. Thus IT
should be utilized for ·>toring, compiling and providing information, providing access to codified
regulations, communicating within and between government departments and between different juris­
dictions (intranets), online filing of applications, and other transactions, compiling and reporting sta­
tistics, assigning business identification numbers, government collecting data from enterprises without
active enterprise involvement, streamlining government contracting.
Finally one of the critical success factors for online start-up is humans. Humans can be users
(customers) or applicants, administrators, and government employees. Information systems literature
is fuU of unsuccessful IT and IS projects. Even most sophisticated systems fail if human side is not
well thought or considered. On the human side of online start-up, customers or business owners must
trust the reliability and functionality of the system. The systems must be easy to use and easy to un­
derstand. The administrators and governmeqt employees must believe in the system and they should
not see it as a threat to their job.
·· -.
REFERENCES
Akin, N (2004) Investment in Turkey and The Role of TOBB on Improving Investment Climate Mobilizing
Investment
for
Development
In
Mena
Region
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/47/28508511.pdf
Alesina, Alberto, Silvia Ardagna, Giuseppe Nicoletti and Fabio Schiantarelli. 2003. Regulation and
Investment. NBER Working Paper 9560. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Eco­
nomic Research.
306
Canada
Business
Service
Centers
Annual
Report
2003-2004,
http://www.ppt.gc.ca/publications/pdfs/ar_03_e.pdf (19.05.2006).
Canak I. Turkish Economy: Recent Developments, Prospects And Investment Opportunities Ibrahim
Canakct
Undersecretary
Of
Treasury
April
2004.
http://www.hazine.gov.tr/iro_files/Reports-Presentations/roadshow-as-apr2004.pdf
Capgemini (2004) Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? Web Based
Survey on Electronic Public Services Report of The Fifth Measurement October 2004.
Prepared by: Capgemini For: European Commission Directorate General for Informa­
tion ·
Society
and
Media.
http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/soccullegov/egov_benchmarking_2005.pdf
(15.5.2006).
de
Sa,
L.
(2005)
"Business · Registration Start-Up: A
Concept
Note"
http://www.ifc.orglifcext/sme.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/BEEBusRegStartup.pdf/$FILE/B
EEBusRegStartup.pdf (15.05.2006).
Djankov, Simeon et al., (2000)''The Regulation of Entry," Harvard Institute of Economic Research
Paper No. 1904, KSG Working Paper No. 01-015.
Doing Business (2006) http://www.doingbusiness.org/documents/DoingBusines2006_fullreport.pdf
(10.05.2006)
Doing Business, http://www.doingbusiness.org (10.05.2006)
E-Government
Newsletter
(2005)
E-Government
achievements,
http://www2.egov.gov.sg/online_newsletter/issue18eGovt%20Achivements.htm
(10.5.2006).
Fact
Sheet,
OBLS,
http://www.egov.gov.sg/NR/rdonlyres!E8AF8006-2130-4C4B-83CDC5922F69BF34/4428/0nlineBusinessLicensingFactSheet.pdf (9.05.2006).
Han, 0 and Ala, S. (2006) Sirket Yapllan ve KuruluA amalan, KOSGEB Giri imciligi Geli tirme
Merkezi, Ankara.
OECD (2003) From Red Tape to Smart Tape: An Administrative Simplification in OECD Countries,
OECD Publication Service, Paris.
Shrader, Hand Werner, W. (2005) "How to Streamline Business Registration" Archived Discussion,
(http:rru.worldbank.org/Discussions/topics/topic65.aspx, 17.05.2006).
Start Me Up: (2004) A Look at New Entrepreneurs in Canada, CIBC World Markets.
Umurzakov, K (2005) United Nations Economic And Social Commission For Asia And The Pacifzc
International Conference on Strengthening Regional Cooperation for Managing Glob­
alization,
Moscow,
Russian
Federation
28-30
September,
2005.
http://www.unescap.org/tid/projects/globalize_kubat.pdf (10.10.2006).
Xinhuanet
(28.02.2005)
E-Govemment:
Singapore's
vision
and
practice,
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-02/28contetnt_2630888.htm (15.5.2006).

Benzer belgeler