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proje rehberi
21
MEF EĞİTİM KURUMLARI
ARAŞTIRMA PROJELERİ YARIŞMASI
Proje Rehberi
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI fiARTNAMES‹
1. MEF E¤itim Kurumlar›; ülkemizdeki fen ö¤renimini desteklemek, bu alanda yetenekli ö¤rencileri
bilimsel araflt›rmalara yöneltmek ve onlar›n "Gelece¤in Bilim Adamlar›" olarak yetiflmelerini
sa¤lamak amac›yla lise ve dengi okul ö¤rencileri aras›nda yirmi y›ld›r "Araflt›rma Projeleri
Yar›flmas›" düzenlemektedir.
2. Yar›flmaya, Türkiye'den ve yurtd›fl›ndan ilkö¤retim sonras› e¤itim yapan lise ve dengi okul
ö¤rencileri kat›labilecektir.
3. Yar›flmaya yurtd›fl›ndan kat›lan projeler kendi aralar›nda yar›flacaklard›r.
4. Araflt›rma Projeleri Fizik, Kimya, Biyoloji dallar›nda haz›rlanacakt›r.
5. Projeler bilimsel bir araflt›rma niteli¤i tafl›mal›, orijinal olmal› ve daha önce herhangi bir
yar›flmaya kat›lmam›fl olmal›d›r. Bu özelliklere sahip olmayan projeler baflvuru aflamas›nda
elenecektir. (Orijinal olmayan projelerin sorumlulu¤u, proje sahipleri ve dan›flman ö¤retmenlere
aittir.)
6. Yar›flmaya bir ö¤renci ancak bir proje ile kat›labilir. Projeler bir ö¤renci taraf›ndan haz›rlanabilece¤i
gibi, grup çal›flmas› biçiminde (maksimum 3 ö¤renci 2 ö¤retmen) de haz›rlanabilir. (Ödüller, projeyi
haz›rlayan kifli say›s›na bak›lmaks›z›n proje bafl›na verilecektir.)
7. Yar›flmaya baflvuracak ö¤rencilerin dolduraca¤› Proje Baflvuru Formlar›, en geç 24 fiubat 2012
tarihinde kurumumuzda olacak flekilde, Okul Müdürlü¤ü taraf›ndan imzalanarak varsa ekleriyle
birlikte MEF Okullar› posta adresine veya [email protected] elektronik posta adresine
gönderilecektir. Bu tarihten sonraki baflvurular de¤erlendirmeye tabi tutulmayacakt›r.
8. Projeler, Üniversitelerin Ö¤retim Üyeleri'nden oluflan Jüri taraf›ndan de¤erlendirilecektir.
9. Jüri, projenin içeri¤ine göre projenin bilim alan›n› de¤ifltirebilir. Örne¤in, kimya alan›nda
gönderilmifl bir projenin içeri¤i biyoloji a¤›rl›kl› ise, o proje, bir biyoloji projesi olarak de¤erlendirilebilir.
10. Yar›flmaya kat›lanlardan, projeleri sergilenmeye de¤er görülen proje sahiplerine, ‹stanbul'da
düzenlenecek serginin yeri ve tarihi Nisan ay› içerisinde bildirilecektir.
11. Sergi düzenleme (masa ve pano temini), MEF E¤itim Kurumlar› taraf›ndan yap›lacakt›r. Haz›rlanan
proje kapsam›nda kullan›lmas› gerekli malzemeler önceden belirtilen telefonlar arac›l›¤› ile Proje
Yar›flmas› Koordinatörlü¤ü'ne bildirilmeli ve olumlu-olumsuz teyidi al›nmal›d›r.
12. fiehir d›fl›ndan gelecek proje sahibi ö¤renciler ile dan›flman ö¤retmenlerin gelifl-gidifl (tren, otobüs,
gemi), yol ücret bedelleri, yar›flma salonunda ulafl›m stand› görevlilerince taraf›n›za ödenecektir.
13. fiehir d›fl›ndan ve yurtd›fl›ndan gelecek kat›l›mc›lar›m›z›n, sergi süresince (Pazartesi, Sal›,
Çarflamba, Perflembe) konaklama masraflar› kurumumuzca karfl›lanacakt›r. Konaklama
plan›ndaki oda düzeni 2 veya 3 kifliliktir. Bu planlama, taraf›n›zca doldurulan ve kurumumuza
gönderilen bilgi formlar› ile belirlenmektedir.
01
14. Sergi süresince yemek ihtiyaçlar›n›z -sabah kahvalt›lar› ve ö¤le yemekleri- kurumumuzca
karfl›lanacakt›r. Akflam yemekleri kiflilere aittir. (Akflam organizasyonlar› hariç)
15. Yar›flmada her dalda birincilik, ikincilik, üçüncülük ve teflvik ödülü kazanan ö¤rencilerle,
projeyi yöneten dan›flman ö¤retmenlere afla¤›da belirtilen miktarlarda para ödülü ve
ayr›ca sergiye kat›lan tüm ö¤rencilere, dan›flman ö¤retmenlere ve/veya Okul
Müdürlüklerine baflar› belgesi ve an› plaketi takdim edilecektir.
16. Yar›flmada ayr›ca jürinin uygun gördü¤ü say›daki çal›flmaya 'Jüri Özel Ödülü' verilecektir.
DERECES‹
B‹R‹NC‹L‹K ÖDÜLÜ
‹K‹NC‹L‹K ÖDÜLÜ
ÜÇÜNCÜLÜK ÖDÜLÜ
TEfiV‹K ÖDÜLÜ
JÜR‹ ÖZEL ÖDÜLÜ
Ö⁄RENC‹ ÖDÜLÜ
2.200 TL.
1.900 TL.
1.650 TL.
1.350 TL.
1.000 TL.
Ö⁄RETMEN ÖDÜLÜ
2.200 TL.
1.900 TL.
1.650 TL.
1.350 TL.
1.000 TL.
Ayr›nt›l› Bilgi ‹çin: Tel: (0212) 287 69 00
Faks: (0212) 257 90 95
E-mail: [email protected]
Web sitesi: www.mef.k12.tr
Baflvuru Adresi:
MEF E¤itim Kampüsü
Ulus Mah. Öztopuz Cad. Leylak Sok. 34340
Ulus - Befliktafl / ‹stanbul
02
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
MEF E⁄‹T‹M KURUMLARI
L‹SE Ö⁄RENC‹LER‹ ARASI 21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
MEF E¤itim Kurumlar›, Türkiye genelindeki lise ve dengi okul ö¤rencileri aras›nda yap›lan geleneksel
ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI'n›n bu y›l 21. sini düzenlemektedir. Bilindi¤i gibi büyük ilgi gören
ve takdir toplayan bu yar›flma; F‹Z‹K, K‹MYA, B‹YOLOJ‹ dallar›nda haz›rlanan projelerin kat›l›m› ile
gerçekleflmektedir.
MEF E¤itim Kurumlar›, bu organizasyonla, yar›n›n Türkiye'sini yaratacak olan yetenekli ve istekli liseli
gençlerimizi, temel ve uygulamal› bilim dallar›nda çal›flmaya teflvik etmeyi amaçlamaktad›r. Okulunuzun
Müdürlü¤üne gönderilen baflvuru ve de¤erlendirme formlar›nda son baflvuru tarihi bildirilmifltir (24
fiubat 2012). 21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI'na kat›lmak isteyen lise ö¤rencileri, belirtilen
tarihe kadar baflvuru formlar›n› düzenleyerek, ilgili bölümlerini Okul Müdürlü¤ü'ne onaylatt›ktan sonra
kurumumuza göndereceklerdir. Baflvurular, üniversite ö¤retim üyelerinden oluflan jüri üyeleri taraf›ndan
incelenecek, sergilenmeye de¤er bulunan projeler belirlenecektir.
PANO DÜZEN‹
Serginin temel amac› ise, yap›lan proje çal›flmas›n›, sergiyi gezenlere anlat›p tan›tmakt›r. Bunun için
MEF E¤itim Kurumlar›, ö¤renciye 100 x 140 cm ölçülerinde bir masa ile 100 x 140 cm ölçülerinde
bir pano verecektir. Ö¤renci, projesiyle ilgili deneysel düzene¤i ya da uygulama modelini masa üzerinde;
proje ile ilgili raporu da A4 boyutunda k⤛tlara yaz›lm›fl olarak pano üzerinde sergileyecektir.
DE⁄ERLEND‹RME
Jüri üyeleri, sergiyi gezip projeyi gerçeklefltiren ö¤rencilerle görüflerek projeleri de¤erlendireceklerdir.
Jüri üyelerinin ayr› ayr› yapt›klar› de¤erlendirmeler, MEF Ulusal ve Uluslararas› Araflt›rma Projeleri
Yar›flmas› Genel Koordinatörlü¤ünün yar›flma yürütme kurulunda toplanacakt›r. Yürütme Kurulu, verilen
notlar›n ortalamalar›na göre s›ralama yapacak ve dereceye giren ö¤rencileri belirlemeye yönelik listeyi
haz›rlayacakt›r. Proje Yar›flmas› Koordinatörlü¤ü bu listeyi esas alarak kazanan ö¤rencileri aç›klayacakt›r.
Bu ö¤rencilerin ödülleri sergi sonunda düzenlenecek törende kendilerine verilecektir.
B‹L‹ME DESTEK PLATFORMU
Geçti¤imiz y›llarda, büyük merkezlerin d›fl›nda ve üniversiteler çevresinden uzak yörelerdeki liselerimizde
okuyan baz› ö¤renciler çal›flmalar›nda kullanacaklar› malzemeleri bulmakta güçlük çektiklerini, bu
zorluklar nedeniyle yar›flmaya kat›lamad›klar›n› ve deste¤e ihtiyaç duyduklar›n› ifade etmifllerdir.
Bu tür zorluklar çeken ö¤renci ve dan›flman ö¤retmenlerimiz için ifl dünyas›, giriflimciler bu konuya
e¤ilerek, gelece¤in bilim adamlar›na destek olmak amac›yla aralar›nda bir insan kayna¤› yaratm›fllard›r.
Böylece gençlerimiz projelerini haz›rlarken imkâns›zl›klarla bafl bafla kalmayacaklard›r.
Bilime Destek Plâtformu'nun aslî görevi, bu tür zorluklar çeken ö¤renci ve dan›flman ö¤retmenlerimiz
ile ifl dünyas› ve giriflimcileri, gelece¤in bilim adamlar›na destek olmak, sorunlar›na çözüm bulmak
amac›yla bir araya getirmektir.
03
Platformun iflleyifli son derece basit:
-
Liseler, yar›flmam›za kat›lmay› düflündükleri proje kapsam›ndaki ihtiyaçlar›n› dan›flman ö¤retmen / ö¤retmenler
önerisi ve okul müdürlü¤ünün onay› ile talep formunu doldurarak bize bildirirler.
-
Talep taraf›m›za ulafl›nca, koordinatörlü¤ümüz bir de¤erlendirme yapmaktad›r.
-
Uygun görülen talepler, seçece¤imiz gönüllü bilim dostu bir platform üyesi ile paylafl›lmaktad›r.
-
Bundan sonra üyemiz, okul ile temasa geçerek koordinatörlü¤ümüzden edindi¤i bilgiler ve
talep formu sureti ile uygun gördü¤ü biçimde ihtiyac› karfl›lamaktad›r.
-
Sonuçtan Yar›flma Koordinatörlü¤ü de bilgi sahibi olmaktad›r.
B‹L‹M VE B‹L‹MSEL ÇALIfiMA NE DEMEKT‹R?
Bilim, insano¤lunun ilk ça¤lardan bafllayarak günümüze kadar düzenli olarak biriktirdi¤i bilgiler
bütünüdür. Bu bilgiler, insanlar›n kendilerini ve çevrelerindeki tüm varl›klar› anlamak, meydana gelen
olaylar› aç›klayabilmek amac›yla yapt›klar› çal›flmalar›n bir birikimidir. Bilime, dünyan›n de¤iflik yerlerinden
pek çok bilim adam›n›n katk›s› olmufl ve olmaya devam edecektir. "Çok say›da bilim adam›n›n ortak
çal›flmas›n›n sonucu" diye niteleyebilece¤imiz bilimin temelinde, insan›n düflünme yetene¤i, yarat›c›l›¤›
ve sistemli çal›flmas› yatmaktad›r.
B‹L‹MSEL ARAfiTIRMA NASIL YAPILIR?
1. Araflt›r›lacak konu saptan›r.
2. Bu konuda daha önce yap›lan çal›flmalar incelenir.
3. Araflt›r›lacak olay›n gözlemlenmesi amac›yla ön deneyler yap›l›r, uygulanacak deney yöntemleri ve
yap›lacak deneyler plânlan›r.
4. Deneylerden elde edilen bilgiler düzenlenir.
5. Düzenlenen bilgiler aras›nda anlaml› bir iliflki olup olmad›¤› araflt›r›l›r.
6. Elde edilen bulgular ›fl›¤›nda hipotezler kurulur.
7. Elde edilen anlaml› iliflkiler incelenip tart›fl›larak belirli sonuçlara var›l›r.
8. Var›lan sonuçlar ve elde edilen bulgular bilim adamlar›na ve gelecek kuflaklara aktar›lmak üzere
yaz›l› hale getirilir.
04
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
PROJE RAPORU NASIL YAZILMALIDIR?
Yapt›¤›n›z proje çal›flmas›n›n en önemli ad›mlar›ndan birini, araflt›rma konunuzla ilgili haz›rlayaca¤›n›z
proje raporu oluflturur. Proje raporu, gözlem, deney ve ölçüm sonuçlar›n›n kaydedilerek, elde edilen
sonuçlar›n yaz›l› olarak ortaya konmas›d›r. Çal›flman›z sonucunda elde etti¤iniz bilgiler, böylece korunacak,
baflkalar›na ve gelecek kuflaklara aktar›lacakt›r. Ayr›ca yapt›¤›n›z çal›flman›n de¤erlendirilmesinde
raporunuzun önemli rolü oldu¤unu hiçbir zaman unutmamal›s›n›z.
Bu nedenle gerek yaz›m ve gerekse içerik bak›m›ndan raporunuzun yaz›l›m›na çok özen göstermelisiniz.
Proje raporunda gereksiz uzatma ve tekrarlara kesinlikle yer vermeyiniz. Raporunuzu mutlaka afla¤›daki
s›raya uyarak yaz›n›z.
Projenin Ad›
K›sa ve öz olarak tek bir cümle fleklinde yaz›lmal›, yap›lan çal›flma hakk›nda fikir verecek bir ad olmal›d›r.
Girifl ve Amaç
Bu k›s›mda, kendi çal›flman›z›n konusundan ve baflkalar›n›n daha önce bu konuyla ilgili yapt›klar›
çal›flmalardan söz ediniz. Sizin çal›flman›z›n, di¤er çal›flmalardan hangi yönleriyle farkl›l›klar
gösterdi¤ini belirtiniz ve çal›flman›zda neleri amaçlad›¤›n›z› aç›kça yaz›n›z.
Araç ve Yöntemler
Bu k›s›mda,
- Proje çal›flman›zda izledi¤iniz yolu,
-
Kulland›¤›n›z materyal ve ölçü aletlerini,
-
Yapt›¤›n›z deneyleri,
-
Kontrollü deneyleri nas›l yapt›¤›n›z›,
-
Verileri toplama ve istatistiksel de¤erlendirme yöntemlerinizi,
-
Gözlemlerinizi,
-
Grafikleri çizmek için yapt›¤›n›z hesaplamalar› k›sa ve anlafl›l›r bir dille yaz›n›z.
Sonuçlar ve Tart›flma
Bu bölümde proje çal›flman›zdan elde etti¤iniz sonuçlar› yaz›n›z. Bu bölüm, raporunuzun en önemli
k›sm›d›r. Bulgular›n›z; say›sal de¤erler, matematiksel eflitlikler veya sözlü ifadeler olabilir. Say›sal
sonuçlar›n›z› mümkün oldu¤u kadar çizelgeler ve grafikler fleklinde veriniz. (Bulgular, uluslararas› birim
sistemine uygun olmal›d›r.)
Bulgular›n›z› tart›fl›rken geçerlilik s›n›rlar›n› da belirtiniz ve sonuçlar› olumsuz yönde etkileyen nedenler
varsa, bunlar› aç›klay›n›z. Kendi bulgular›n›z›, konunuzla ilgili daha önce yap›lm›fl olan çal›flmalar›n
bulgular›yla karfl›laflt›r›n›z. Yapt›¤›n›z çal›flmayla amac›n›za ne ölçüde ulaflt›¤›n›z› belirtiniz. Ayn› konuda
yap›labilecek di¤er çal›flmalardan da söz ederek, konuya ilgi duyanlara yol gösterecek önerilerde
bulununuz.
05
Yararlan›lan Kaynaklar
Bilimsel araflt›rmalarda kaynak gösterme bir yandan bilim ahlâk›n›n bir gere¤i, di¤er yandan da çal›flman›n
ve dayand›¤› temellerin do¤rulu¤unun ve güvenilirli¤inin bir kan›t›d›r. Bir bilimsel çal›flmada kaynak
göstermenin amaçlar› "Bir bilimsel çal›flmada neden kaynak kullan›l›r?" bafll›¤› alt›nda aç›klanm›flt›r.
B‹R B‹L‹MSEL ÇALIfiMADA NEDEN KAYNAK KULLANILIR?
1. Bilgilerin kayna¤›n› göstererek, araflt›rmay› yapan kiflinin katk›s›n›n neler oldu¤unu belirtmek
ve bu bilgilerin gerçek sahiplerinin hakk›n› vermek,
2. Araflt›rmac›n›n savundu¤u görüflleri ve/veya ulaflt›¤› sonuçlar› desteklemek,
3. Okuyucuya verilen bilgilerin do¤rulu¤u ve güvenilirli¤i konusunda denetim olana¤› sa¤lamak,
4. ‹lgili konuda yeni araflt›rmalar yapmak isteyenlere baflvurabilecekleri kaynaklar sunmak, amac›yla
bilimsel çal›flmalarda kaynak kullan›lmal›d›r. Kaynak gösterilirken mutlaka gösterilen kaynak ile ilgili
bilgiler eksiksiz ve do¤ru olarak verilmelidir.
ÇALIfiMANIZDA YARARLANDI⁄INIZ KAYNAKLARI NASIL GÖSTERMEL‹S‹N‹Z?
Bir Kitab› Kaynak Gösterdi¤inizde;
Yazar›n Soyad› Ad› (veya ad›n›n bafl harfi ve nokta), Kitab›n ad›, varsa derleyen, haz›rlayan veya
çevirenin ad› ve soyad›, bask› say›s›, Yay›nevi (veya yay›nlayan kurum), Yay›n yeri, Yay›n tarihi
belirtilmelidir. Örne¤in:
•
GÜNDÜZ T., Kantitatif Analiz Ders Kitab›, Ankara Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Yay›nlar›, Ankara,
1975.
•
BRAUN R. D., Introduction to Instrumental Analysis, Mc Graw-HiII Book Co., New York, 1987.
•
MAHAN B. H., Üniversite Kimyas›, Çev. C. fienvar ve E. Edgüer, 5. bask›, Hacettepe Üniversitesi
Yay›nlar›, Ankara, 1989. gibi yaz›lmal›d›r.
Bir Makaleyi Kaynak Gösterdi¤inizde;
Yazar›n Soyad› Ad› (veya ad›n›n bafl harfi ve nokta), Makalenin ad›, Derginin ad› (Derginin tam
ad› veya varsa uluslararas› k›saltmas›), Cilt No., Say› No., Makalenin bafllang›ç ve bitifl sayfalar›,
Y›l› belirtilmelidir. Örne¤in:
•
SMITH MA, "The Nature of Distribution Functions for Colliding Systems", Journal of Chemical
Education, Cilt 7, say› 3, s. 218-223, 1993. gibi yaz›lmal›d›r.
Herhangi Bir Yay›n içerisindeki Bir Makaleyi Kaynak Gösterdi¤inizde;
• D‹NÇKAYA E., "Aljinatta peroksidaz immobilizasyonu", IX. Kimya ve Kimya Mühendisli¤i
Sempozyumu Bildiri Özetleri Kitab›, KTÜ Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Yay›nlar›, s 397, Trabzon, 1993.
fleklinde bilgi vermelisiniz.
06
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
F‹Z‹K PROJE ÖZET‹
(18. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Fizik 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: Uzun Mesafeli fiifreli Kablosuz Veri Aktar›m›
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: Sarp KAYA - Can SELÇ‹K
Okulu
: Özel ‹zmir Amerikan Koleji - ‹zmir
Dan›flman Ö¤retmen
: Oktay ÜNAL
Girifl ve Amaç
21.yüzy›lda, geliflen teknoloji ile baz› sorunlar ortaya ç›km›flt›r. Mesela, h›z› artan ve altyap›s›n› güçlendiren
telekomunikasyon flirketlerinde, baz› pahal› çözümler; altyap›s› düzgün olmayan yerleflim birimlerine
geç gelmekte ya da gelmemektedir. Bunun gibi durumlarda telekomunikasyon flirketlerinin kablosuz
altyap›ya yönlenip, mesafe sorununu ortadan kald›r›p, altyap›s› kötü ve ya olmayan yerleflim birimlerine
daha ucuza altyap› getirebilirler.
Yöntem ve Materyal
Yapm›fl oldu¤umuz proje, sadece flirketlerin kendi aralar›nda ba¤lant› kurmas› de¤il, bir flehirde altyap›s›
yetmeyen bölgeye internet, telefon hatta televizyon yay›n› aktarmaya da ifle yaramaktad›r. Bu da flehir
merkezine uzakta olan köylerin d›flar›ya iletiflimini açmaktad›r. Üstelik maaliyet olarak sadece fiberoptik
kablo kullan›m› için gerekli olan cihazlar›n (sonland›rma cihazlar› gibi, fiberoptik kablo dahil de¤il)
ücretinden çok daha düflüktür.
Bulgular
Projemizi ‹zmir körfezinin iki yakas›nda bulunan Karatafl (A noktas›) - Maviflehir (B Noktas›) semtleri
aras›nda kurarak sistemimizi baflar›l› bir flekilde gerçeklefltirdik. Yapt›¤›m›z h›z testi ise 802.11b
teknolojisinin son s›n›rlar›ndad›r. Yani 450 KB/sn civar›ndad›r. Wi-Fi teknolojisinde belirtilen h›z Al›fl+Verifl
h›z›d›r. E¤er A noktas› B noktas›na ba¤l› ise, A noktas› al›fl yapaca¤› zaman B noktas› mutlaka verifl
yapmal›d›r. Yani Al›fl+Verifl h›z›m yaklafl›k 9000KB/sn dir, bu da 11 Mbps h›z›na çok yak›n bir de¤erdir.
07
F‹Z‹K PROJE ÖZET‹
(19. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Fizik 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, Cu(InGa)Se2 Gibi Üç veya Dört Bileflenli Yar›iletken
Nanokristallerin Sentezi ve Yeni Nesil Günefl Pilleri Olarak Kullan›m
Potansiyellerinin ‹ncelenmesi
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: ‹dil ÖZDAMAR
Okulu
: ‹zmir Özel Fatih Fen Lisesi - ‹zmir
Dan›flman Ö¤retmenler
: Ümit KARACA
Girifl ve Amaç
Silikon günefl pillerinde %5 verim al›nmas›na karfl›l›k Kadmiyum günefl pillerinde verim %7-12'ye kadar
ç›kabilir. Fakat Kadmiyum, çevre için zararl› bir maddedir. Bu projede çevreci maddelerle yeni nesil
günefl pillerinde kullan›lmak üzere uygun kompozisyonlar›n sentezlenmesi ve bunlar›n elektriksel
özellikleri de¤erlendirilerek günefl pillerinde kullan›lma potansiyelinin belirlenmesi amaçland›.
Yöntem ve Materyal
CuInSe2 gibi ikili ve üçlü bileflenlerden oluflan yar›iletkenler, düflük toksik etkili olmas›, yüksek dönüflüm
verimleri nedeniyle fotovoltaik hücre olarak umut verici özellikler göstermektedirler. Bu çal›flmada düflük
toksik etkili ve yüksek verimli günefl pilleri elde etmek için CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, Cu(InGa)Se2 yar›iletken
nanokristaller sentezlendi. SEM, AFM ve SAX analiziyle yüzey ve boyut özellikleri incelendi. Bak›r
levhalara kaplayarak karanl›k ortam, UVB ve c›va lambas› alt›ndaki direnç ölçümleri karfl›laflt›r›larak
iletkenliklerindeki de¤iflimleri incelendi.
Bulgular
Örneklerin dirençleri iki noktadan al›nan ak›m-voltaj ölçüleriyle yap›ld›. CuInSe2, CuGaSe2 ve CuInGaSe2
UVB lambas› kullan›larak ›fl›¤a maruz b›rak›ld›¤›nda, süre ile üstel olarak direncinin azald›¤› gözlendi.
‹letkenli¤inin artt›¤›n› göstermektedir. En verimli sonuçlar CuInSe2’de görüldü. C›va lambas› ile yap›lan
ölçüm sonuçlar›, di¤er ›fl›k kayna¤› ile elde edilen sonuçlar› desteklendi.
Tart›flma
Sonuç olarak CuInSe2, CuGaSe2 ve Cu(InGa)Se2'un elektriksel özellikleri ve test sonuçlar› incelendi.
Sonuçlar karfl›laflt›r›ld›¤›nda günefl pillerinde materyal olarak en uygun maddenin CuInSe2 oldu¤u
belirlendi. CuInSe2'un yeni nesil günefl pillerinde umut vaat etti¤i yap›lan testlerle kan›tland›. Ayr›ca
yap›lan SEM ve AFM testleriyle boyutlar›n›n ideal ölçülerde oldu¤u belirlendi.
Kaynak
1. ATAGÜNDÜZ, G., (1989), Günefl Enerjisi Temelleri ve Uygulamalar›, Ege Üniversitesi Günefl
Enerjisi Enstütüsü
2. ERKOÇ, fi., (2007), Nanobilim ve Nanoteknoloji, ODTÜ yay›nlar›, Ankara, 72-74s.
3. GOETZBERGER, A. ve arkadafllar› (1998), Cristalline Sillicon Solar Cells
4. VARINCA, K. B. ve GÖNÜLLÜ T. M., Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynaklar›n›n Kullan›m›n›n Çevresel
Olumlu Etkileri, YTÜ Çevre Mühendisli¤i Bölümü
5. TANG, J., H‹DS S., KELLEY S.O., and SARGENT E.H., (2008), Synthesis Of Colloidal CuGaSe2,
CuInSe2 and Cu(InGa)Se2 Nanoparticles, Chem. Mater 20, sayfa 6906-6910
6. WANG, W. ve arkadafllar› (2009), Intermediate-band Photovoltaic Solar Cell Based On ZnTe:O,
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 95
08
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
F‹Z‹K PROJE ÖZET‹
(20. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Fizik 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: S›cak Foto¤raf
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: Ada DO⁄RUCU, Alp Eren ELÇ‹, Kaan KARACA
Okulu
: Özel ‹zmir Amerikan Koleji - ‹zmir
Dan›flman Ö¤retmen
: Oktay ÜNAL
Girifl ve Amaç
Projemizde amac›m›z dijital foto¤raf teknolojisinde yeni bir düflünceyle resmin içerisine s›cakl›k verilerini
ifllemek ve kullan›lacak bir program sayesinde, resmin görüntülenmesi s›ras›nda bilgisayar faresi ile
resim bölgeleri üzerinde gezerken s›cakl›k de¤erlerini de resmin yan›nda kullan›c›ya göstermektir.
Materyal ve Metot
Bir ortamdaki ›s› enerjisini ve onun göstergesi olan s›cakl›¤› gösteren en önemli belirteç enerjili cisimlerin
ortama sald›¤› ›fl›n›md›r. Yapt›¤›m›z araflt›rmalarda dijital foto¤raf makinelerinin ve bilgisayarlarda
kullan›lan web kameralar›n resim al›c›lar› k›z›löteye de duyarl› oldu¤unu ancak bu duyal›l›¤› engellemek
için kamera objektiflerinde bir cam plaka yer ald›¤›n› ve bu cam plakan›n ç›kar›lmas› sonucu k›z›löte
bölgeden de objektife ›fl›n›m al›nd›¤›n› saptad›k. Bu nedenle projemizde baz› gelifltirmeler yaparak ikinci
bir web kamera ile resmini çekece¤imiz ortam›n ayn› anda k›z›löte görüntüsünü alacak bir web kamera
gelifltirdik. Bilgisayar malzemeleri satan bir firmadan temin etti¤imiz ayn› model iki web kameradan
bir tanesi üzerinde yapt›¤›m›z gelifltirmeler flu fleklildedir. Web kameralar üzerinde bulunan renk alg›lay›c›
merkezinin önünde bulunan k›z›löte engelleyici cam filtreyi ç›kararak bunun yerine bir foto¤raf negatifi
parças› kullanarak sadece k›z›löte alg›layan bir web kamera gelifltirdik.
Sonuç ve Tart›flma
Projemizin flu anki durumu bir tafl›nabilir bilgisayar (laptop) ve iki kameran›n bulundu¤u bir sistem
halindedir ve görüntü iflleme s›ras›nda k›z›löte resimdeki s›cakl›k de¤erleri belli durumlarda el ile
ifllenmektedir ancak projemizi gelifltirme çal›flmalar› ve tamam›yle bilgisayar kontrollü yapma aflamalar›
devam etmektedir.
Bu proje güvenlikten - savunmaya, t›ptan - mühendisli¤e bir çok alanda kullanabilece¤i öngörülmektedir.
Gelecekte gelifltirilecek bir sistem ile (bilinen dijital kameralara benzer yap›da) çekilen foto¤raflar
otomatik olarak s›cakl›k de¤erlerini de alacak daha sonra foto¤raf incelenirken s›cakl›k de¤erleri de
foto¤raf ile birlikte gözükerek istenilen uygulamalarda çok baflar›l› bir flekilde kullan›labilecektir.
Kaynaklar
Projemizdeki düflünce tamam›yle özgündür ancak, ›s›-s›cakl›k-foto¤raf teknolojisi-k›z›löte kavramlar›
üzeründe çok çeflitli kaynaklardan (kütüphanemiz ve internet) okuma ve araflt›rmalar›m›z olmufltur.
Bunun yan›nda google arama motoru ve google scholar da yapt›¤›m›z kaynak taramalar›nda bizim
projemize benzer bir düflünce yoktur, termal kameralar ve k›z›löte kameralar vard›r ancak bizim
düflüncemizde çekilen bir foto¤raf ortmadaki s›cakl›k de¤erlerinide saklayarak daha sonra bir izleme
program› ile incelenirken s›cakl›k verilerini de göstermektedir. Ayr›ca bu projede bizlere yol gösterici
olan ve her zaman yan›m›zda olan de¤erli ö¤retmenimiz Oktay ÜNAL'a çok teflekkür ederiz.
09
K‹MYA PROJE ÖZET‹
(18. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Kimya 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: Bask›lanm›fl Polimerle Plazmadaki Sitrüline Lizozimin Tutuklanarak
Erken ve Etkin Bir Teflhis Yönteminin Gelifltirilmesi
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: Adil Arca fiENEY - Cenk ‹brahim ÖZDEM‹R
Okulu
: Ankara Fen Lisesi - Ankara
Dan›flman Ö¤retmen
: Erdal K‹N‹R
Girifl ve Amaç
Romatoid Artrit (RA), eklemlerde meydana gelen, hareket zorlu¤u rahats›zl›klar›na ve organlarda
iltihaplanmalara neden olan kronik bir hastal›kt›r. Bu nedenle, hastalar›n yaflam kalitesini yükseltmekte
erken teflhis çok önemlidir.
RA hastalar›nda plazmadaki lizozim de¤erlerinde art›fl bulunmufl ve sitrüline lizozimlere karfl› antikorlar›n
varl›¤› keflfedilmifltir.
Amac›m›z, RA hastalar›nda sitrüline lizozimin yüksek oranda bulunmas›ndan yararlanarak, sitrüline
lizozimin hastal›¤›n erken ve etkin teflhisinde kullan›labilirli¤ini göstermektir.
Materyal ve Metot
Sitrüline lizozimin varl›¤›n›n tespiti için, çeflitli modifikasyonlar uygulanarak Yüzey Plazmon Rezonans
(SPR) çipleri haz›rland›. Haz›rlanan SPR çiplerine, moleküler bask›lama teknolojisi uygulan›larak sadece
sitrüline lizozimin ba¤lanabilece¤i bir polimer yüzeyi oluflturuldu. Yüzeyden, kontrol grubu olarak
kullan›lan sa¤l›kl› plazmaya paralel lizozim çözeltisi ile hastal›kl› plazmaya paralel deney grubu lizozim
çözeltisi geçirilerek yüzeyle ayr› ayr› etkilefltirildi. SPR cihaz›nda her örnek için sapma aç›lar› ölçüldü.
Bulgular
Çal›flmalardan elde edilen veriler do¤rultusunda, kontrol grubu çözeltisine oranla hastal›kl› lizozim
çözeltisi geçirilen yüzeyde farkl› sapma aç›lar› oldu¤u tespit edildi. Çözelti yo¤unlu¤una ba¤l› olarak
sapma aç›lar›ndaki farkl›l›klar›n de¤iflti¤i gözlemlendi.
Sonuç ve Tart›flma
Çal›flmalar›m›z›n sonucunda, sapma aç›lar›ndaki farkl›l›klar›n lizozim çözeltisinde oluflmas›, sitrüline
lizozimin yüzeye ba¤land›¤›n› göstermektedir. Bu sayede RA teflhisinde %97 spesifik olan sitrüline
lizozimin, etkili bir teflhis yöntemi olarak kullan›labilece¤i gösterilmifltir.
Uygulamadan sonra SPR çip basit bir yöntemle geri kazan›lmakta ve ayn› amaçla yüksek verimle tekrar
tekrar kullan›lmaktad›r.
Ayr›ca bu yöntemin; insan sa¤l›¤› üzerinde olumsuz etkileri olan uyuflturucular›n kandan uzaklaflt›r›lmas›,
zararl› kimyasallar›n ortamdan uzaklaflt›r›lmas›, tespit edilmesinde zorlan›lan eser miktardaki kimyasallar›n
belirlenmesi, de¤erli kimyasallar›n yüksek verimle geri kazan›lmas› gibi genifl kullan›m alanlar› oluflturulabilir.
10
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
Kaynaklar
1. AKIMITSU KUGIMIYA and TOSHIFUMI TAKEUCHI, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Using
Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Detection of Sialic Acid”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics,
Cilt 16, say› 9-12, s. 1059-1062, Aral›k 2001
2. Dr. ALPER GÜMÜfi “Romatoid Artritli Hastalarda Vasküler Endotelial Büyüme Faktörü ve
Anti Siklik Sitrülinlenmifl Protein Antikoru Seviyelerinin De¤erlendirilmesi” (Uzmanl›k Tezi),
‹stanbul, 2007
3. Dr. DERYA GÜLTEK‹N “Romatoid Artritli Hastalarda Accp (Anti-Cyclic citrullinated Pept›de)
Düzeyleri” (Uzmanl›k Tezi), ‹stanbul, 2005
4. ERG‹N S., “Romatoid Artrit ve Sjögren Sendromu”, Fiziksel T›p ve Rehabilitasyon, Cilt 2, Günefl
Kitabevi Ltd. fiti, Ankara, 2000
5. ERKUT YILMAZ, “Romatoid Artrit Tedavisine Yönelik Poli(HEMA-MAH) Adsorbentin Üretimi
ve Dolgulu Kolon Dizayn›” (Uzmanl›k Tezi), Ankara, 2007
6. SCHELLEKENS GA, DE JONG BA, VAN DEN HOOGEN FH, VAN DE PUTTE LB, VAN VENROOIJ
WJ., “Citrulline is an Essential Constituent of Antigenic Determinants Recognized by
Rheumatoid Arthritis-spesific Autoantibodies”, J Clin Invest, say› 101, s. 273-281, 1998
7. NAKAMURA R.M. “Progress in The Use of Biochemical and Biological Markers for Evaluation
of Rheumatoid Arthritis”, J.Clin.Lab.Anal., say› 14, s. 305-313, 2002
8. VAN BOEKEL MA, VOSSENAAR ER, VAN DEN HOOGEN FH, VAN VENROO WJ., “Autoantibody
Systems in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Specificity, Sensitivity and Diagnostic Value”, Arthritis
Res., say› 4, s. 87-93, 2002
9. SCHELLEKENS GA, VISSER H, DE JONG BAW, VAN DEN HOOGEN FH, HAZES JM, BREEDEVELD
FC, VAN VENROOIJ WJ., “The Diagnostic Properties of Rheumatoid Arthritis Antibodies
Recognizing Anti-cyclic Citrulinated Peptide”, Arthritis Rheum, say› 43, s. 155-163, 2000
10. MEHMET ODABASI, RIDVAN SAY and ADIL DENIZLI, “Molecular Imprinted Particles for Lysozyme
Purification”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Cilt 27, say› 1, s. 90-99, Ocak 2007
11. HUNG-YIN LIN, CHUNG-YI HSU, JAMES L. THOMAS, SHU-E WANG, HSIAO-CHI CHEN and TSECHUAN CHOU, “The Microcontact Imprinting of Proteins: The Effect of Cross-Linking
Monomers for Lysozyme”,
11
K‹MYA PROJE ÖZET‹
(19. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Kimya 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: Çevre Dostu Ve Ekonomik Lif Üretimi
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: Damla Didem AKYILDIZ
Okulu
: Ankara Fen Lisesi - Ankara
Dan›flman Ö¤retmen
: Erdal K‹N‹R
Proje Özeti
Lignoselülozik maddeleri lifsel hale dönüfltürmeden onlardan lif levha ve ka¤›t yap›lmas› olanaks›zd›r.
Hammaddenin lifsel hale getirilmesi, bu amaca ulafl›lmas› için at›lmas› gereken ilk ad›md›r. Kimyasal
hamur üretmede amaç odundaki lifleri bir arada tutan ve ço¤unlukla ligninden oluflan orta lameli
kimyasal yolla çözerek (delignifikasyon=lignin giderme) lifleri bireysel hale getirmektir. Fakat kimyasal
yöntemlerle ka¤›t üretiminde hem enerji tüketimi fazla olmakta hem de kullan›lan kimyasallar nedeni
ile çevreye zararl› at›klar oluflmaktad›r. Ayn› flekilde termomekanik lif üretiminde de enerji tüketimi
oldukça fazla olmaktad›r. Oysa biodelignifikasyon yöntemi ile çevreye verilen zarar ve tüketilen enerji
miktar› azalmaktad›r.
Bu projenin amac›; Ka¤›t ve MDF (liflevha) üretimine yönelik lif üretimindeki kimyasal madde kullan›m›n›
ve enerji tüketimini azaltarak hem çevre kirlili¤ini en aza indirmek hem de ekonomik bir üretim
gerçeklefltirmeye katk› sa¤lamakt›r. Ayr›ca, tüm bunlara ilave olarak liflendirme öncesinde yongalar
üzerinde yenilebilir bir mantar üretimi sa¤lanarak ekonomiye katk›da bulunmakt›r. Bunun için Pleurotus
ostreatus mantar› kullan›lm›flt›r.
Bu amaçla yap›lan deneyler sonucunda, yongalardaki lignin oran›ndaki de¤iflim sürekli olarak düzenli
bir azalma göstermifltir ki bu de¤er mantarlar›n odunda lignini tahrip etti¤ini göstermektedir. Ayr›ca,
lignindeki ayr›flmaya paralel olarak bir odun örne¤indeki mantar tahribat›n›n en önemli göstergelerinden
birisi olan %1 NaOH çözünürlük de¤erlerinde de sürekli olarak düzenli bir art›fl gerçekleflmifltir. Bunlar,
çal›flman›n amac›na ulaflt›¤›n›n birer kan›t›d›r. Ayr›ca, tüm bu olumlu sonuçlar yan›nda mantar üretimi
de projenin baflka bir ç›kt›s›n› oluflturmaktad›r.
Bu proje sonucunda hem yenilebilen bir mantar üretilerek ekonomik gelir sa¤lanacak, hem ka¤›t hamuru
ve lif üretiminde daha az enerji kullan›m› sa¤lanacak hem de çevreye daha az zarar vererek ka¤›t ve
lif üretimi gerçeklefltirilmifl olacakt›r.
Bu çal›flman›n sonuçlar›, projenin uygulamaya adapte edilmesi ile ülke ekonomisi, çevre kirlili¤i ve enerji
tüketimi aç›s›ndan büyük katk›lar sa¤lanaca¤› göstermektedir ve umut vericidir.
12
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
K‹MYA PROJE ÖZET‹
(20. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Kimya 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: Antibadi Saflaflt›r›lmas› ‹çin Ekonomik Bir Model:
Moleküler Bask›lanm›fl Is›ya Duyarl› Ak›ll› Polimerler
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: Furkan ÇET‹N - Kemal ‹NEC‹K
Okulu
: Özel Samanyolu Fen Lisesi - Ankara
Dan›flman Ö¤retmen
: Zeynel Abidin BÜTÜNER
Girifl ve Amaç
Antibadileri flu ana kadarki olimpiyat (TÜB‹TAK 18. Ulusal Bilim Olimpiyatlar› Kimya Dal› Gümüfl Madalya)
ve lise çal›flmalar›m›zdan dolay› biliyorduk. Kandaki antibadilerin % 75-80'ini ‹mmunoglobulin G (IgG)
oluflturmaktad›r.
‹mmünglobulinler (=Antikorlar) antijenik uyar›m sonucu B-lenfositlerin de¤iflimi ile oluflan plazma
hücreleri taraf›ndan sentezlenirler. Antikorlar kimyasal, fiziksel ve immünolojik olarak incelendiklerinde
aralar›nda önemli farkl›l›klar bulundu¤u saptanm›flt›r. Bu farkl›l›klar antikor moleküllerinin karbonhidrat
miktarlar›, elektroforez h›zlar›, molekül a¤›rl›klar›, aminoasit yap›lar›, tafl›d›klar› H(=a¤›r) polipeptid zinciri
tipi gibi özelliklere dayanmaktad›r. Buna göre de birbirinden farkl› befl ayr› özellikte immünglobulin
grubu ayr›lm›fl ve ‹mmünglobulin G (IgG), ‹mmünglobulin A (IgA), ‹mmünglobulin M (IgM), Immünglobulin
D (IgD), Immünglobulin E (IgE) olarak adland›r›lm›fllard›r. ‹mmünglobulinler glukoprotein yap›s›ndad›rlar
ve yaklafl›k %90'› polipeptid, %10'u karbonhidratt›r Bir Ig molekülü elektron mikroskopta incelendi¤inde
Y harfi fleklinde görülür. Ig'ler globulin yap›s›nda protein olduklar›na göre, polipeptid zincirlerinden
meydana gelmifllerdir. Monomer (= bir temel birim) den oluflan IgG molekülünde iki çeflit polipeptid
zinciri vard›r ve her bir çeflitten ikifler adet bulunmaktad›r
•
Hafif zincir = L zinciri (L = Light = Hafif): Molekül a¤›rl›¤› daha az olan k›sa zincirlerdir. K (kappa)
ve (lambda) olmak üzere iki tipi vard›r. Her iki tip L zinciri de tüm Ig çeflitlerinde bulunabilir. Ancak
bir Ig molekülündeki iki k›sa zincirin tipi ayn›d›r ve birbirine özdefltir, biri di¤erinden farkl› olmaz.
Bir antikor molekülünde her iki tip L zinciri beraber bulunmaz.
•
A¤›r zincir = H zinciri (H = Heavy = A¤›r): Molekül a¤›rl›¤› fazla olan, uzun zincirlerdir. Befl Ig
çeflidinin de H zincirleri birbirinden farkl› yap›dad›r. Bunlar s›ras›yla flöyle isimlendirilir.
IgG (gamma) H zinciri IgM (mü) H zinciri IgA (alfa) H zinciri IgD (delta) H zinciri IgE (epsilon) H zinciri
Yukar›da da yap›s›ndan genifl olarak sözünü etti¤imiz IgG moleküllü Y harfi fleklinde, monomer yap›da
ve 150.000 molekül a¤›rl›¤›ndad›r. Eriflkinde 100 ml. serumda 1000 mgr IgG bulunur. IgG molekülünde
bulunan 2 tane Fab parças›na iki antijen ba¤lanabilir. Bu nedenle IgG iki de¤erlidir.
Buradan hareketle; ‹nsan ve hayvan kan›ndan, oldukça fazla kullan›lan ve oldukça pahal› olan
antibadi, saflaflt›r›lmas› için daha ekonomik yeni bir yöntem olarak makro gözenekli polimer
kolon haz›rlanmas› ve karakterize edilmesi; böylece ülkemiz ekonomisine katk› sa¤lamak
amaçlanmaktay›z.
13
Materyal ve Metot
Çal›flma Yöntemi sekiz ana basamaktan oluflmaktad›r:
1. Polimerin yap›s›na katmak istedi¤imiz histidini monomer haline getirmek için Metakroilamidohistidin
(MAH) monomeri sentezlendi.
2. Haz›rlanan MAH monomeriyle NIPA monomeri, Metilen bisakrilamit çapraz ba¤lay›c›s›,
amonyumpersülfat (APS) bafllat›c›s› ve N,N,N,N-Tetrametilendiamin (TEMED) h›zland›r›c›s›yla
-20 derecelik etanol kriyostad›nda polimerimizi sentezledik.
3. Sentezledi¤imiz p(NIPA-MAH) polimerimizin (LCST)si Low Critical Solution Temperature SAXS
la 34°C olarak belirlendi ve 34°C’nin üstünde ve alt›ndaki s›cakl›klarda fliflme davran›fllar›
belirlendi. Ayn› zamanda nonoyap›lar ve s›cakl›k davran›fllar›da SAXS la ayd›nlat›ld›. FT-IR
Spektrofotometresiyle (Perkin Elmer SpctrumOne, Nicolet 520) yap›s› do¤ruland›, Taramal›
Elektron Mikroskobu (SEM) (Düflük Gerilim Elektron Mikroskobu, LVEM5) ile makro gözenekli
yap›s› görüntülenerek karakterize edildi.
4. p(NIPA-MAH) polimeriyle IgG saflaflt›rma deneyleri ilk olarak sadece IgG'li çözeltiyle ve daha
sonra kandaki proteinlerin oran›nda çözelti haz›rlanmas›ya peristaltik pompa ile sürekli sistemde
yap›ld›.
5. ‹lk deney için elde edilen sonuçlar UV-Visible Spektrofotometresiyle (ShimadzuUV-1601) 280
nm dalgaboyunda kontrol edildi. ‹kinci deney (yani saflaflt›rma) için SDS PAGE jel elektroforeziyle
kontrol gerçeklefltirildi.
6. Tam olarak istedi¤imiz sonucu elde edemememiz üzerine moleküler bask›lama yöntemini
kullanmak için girifl k›sm›nda anlatt›¤›m›z ön kompleks, polimerizasyon, hedef molekülü
uzaklaflt›rma ifllemlerini yapt›k.
7. 4. ve 5. Basamaklar›n tekrarlanmas›yla yeni sonuçlar›m›z› elde ettik.
8. Maliyet hesab› da yaparak yöntemin ekonomik durumunu kontrol ettik.
Sonuç ve Tart›flma
IgG antikoru bask›lanmam›fl olan›n IgG yi do¤al ortam›ndan 63mg, IgG antikoru bask›lanm›fl olan›n
ise 86mg IgG yi adsorplad›¤› tespit edilmifltir. Polimer taraf›ndan tutunan IgG ler + 4ºC s›cakl›kdaki
100 ml 1M NaCl çözeltisi yard›m› ile %97 oran›nda geri kazan›lm›flt›r.
Bask›lanmam›fl kiyojelde ise safl›k oran› %90 bulunmufltur. Bask›lanm›fl kriyojeldeyse saflaflt›rma baflar›yla
gerçekleflmifltir.
14
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
Kaynaklar
1. Organik Kimya, Solomons
2. A.Denizli Protein Kromatografisi ve Yeni Nesil Polimerik Sistemler
3. El-Kak,A., Manjini,S., Vijayalakshmi,M.A., (1992) Interaction of immunoglobulin G with
immobilized histidine: mechanistic and kinetic aspects, Journal of Chromotography A, say› 604,sayfa
29-37
4. Huang, P.Y., Carbonell, G.R., (1999) Affinity chromatographic screening of soluble combinatorial
peptide libraries, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Say› 63, sayfa 633-641
5. Herak, D.C., Merrill, E.W., (1990), Affinity Cross-Flow Filtration: Some New Aspects, Biotechnology
Progress, Say› 6, sayfa 33-40
6. Vijayalakshm›, A., Nedonchelle, E., Pitiot, O,. (2000) A Preliminary Study for Isolation of Catalytic
Antibodies by Histidine Ligand Affinity Chromotography, as an Alternative to Conventional
Protein A/G Methods, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Say› 83, Sayfa 287-295
7. Vijayalakshmi A., Kamalanathan, A.S., (2007) Puri_cation of oligouronides by immobilized l- histidine
pseudoaffnity chromatography, Journal of Chromatography B, 23 June 2007
8. El-Kak, A., Vijayalakshmi, M.A., 1991, J. Chromatogr: Biomedical Applications, 570, 29-41.
9. El-Kak, A., and Vijayalakshmi, M.A., 1992, J. Chromatogr. B, 604, 29-37.
10. Fassina, G., Ruvo, M., Palombo, G., Verdoliva, A., Marino, M., 2001, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods,
49, 481-490.
11. Füglistaller, P., 1989, J. Immunol. Methods, 124, 171-7.
12. Hasnaoui, M., Debbia, M., Cochet, S., Cartron, J.P., Lambin, P., Bertrand, O., 1997, J. of Chromatogr.
A, 766, 49-60.
13. Herak, D.C. and Merrill, E.W., 1990, Biotechnol. Prog., 6, 33.
14. Hjorth, R., 1997, Trends Biotechnol., 15, 230-235.
15. Huang, P.Y., and Carbonell, R.G., 1999, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 63, 633-641.
16. Say, R., Garipcan, B., Emir, S., Pat›r, S., Denizli, A., Macromolecular Materials and Engineering,
287(8) 539-545, 2002.
15
B‹YOLOJ‹ PROJE ÖZET‹
(18. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Biyoloji 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: Glutatyon Peroksidaz Enziminin In S›l›co Analizi:
”Biyoinformatik Yaklafl›m”
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: Melike KAZAK
Okulu
: Özel TAKEV Fen Lisesi-‹zmir
Dan›flman Ö¤retmen
: Funda SEMENDERO⁄LU
Girifl ve Amaç
Biyoinformatik, genom projesi kapsam›nda ortaya ç›kan; moleküler biyoloji ,biyokimya, t›p, genetik,
bilgisayar mühendisli¤i ve istatistik gibi bilim dallar›n› yap›s›nda bar›nd›ran multidisipliner bir bilim dal›d›r.
Biyoinformatik, genomics ve proteomics projeleri sonucunda ortaya ç›kan binlerce aminoasit
ve DNA dizinim sonuçlar›n›n oldukça h›zl› bir flekilde karfl›laflt›r›lmas›n› sa¤lamaktad›r.
Materyal ve Metot
Sunulan projede, önemli bir antioksidan sistem enzimi olan glutatyon peroksidaz enziminin insan
metabolizmas›nda yer alan izoformlar›n›n saptanmas›, de¤iflik izoformlar›n aminoasit frekans farklar›,
filogenetik akrabal›klar›, aktif merkez yap›lar›, her bir izoformun biyokimyasal özellikleri, üç boyutlu
yap› içerisindeki katlanmam›fl bölgeleri, bu izoform enzimlerin hangi kromozomlarda yer ald›¤› ve baz›
canl› gruplar›nda yer alan ayn› enzimin aminoasit dizinim benzerlikleri gibi araflt›rma sorular›n›n in silico
analizi yap›lm›flt›r.
Bulgular
Proje sonuçlar›na göre, izoformlar ayn› biyokimyasal reaksiyonu katalizlemelerine ra¤men moleküler
yap›lar›nda oldukça ciddi farkl›l›klar saptanm›flt›r.
Sonuç ve Tart›flma
Projenin en önemli ç›kt›lar›ndan bir tanesi de GPX-1 enziminin 198.pozisyonundaki aminoasitin Prolin
yerine Lösin olmas› kanser riskinin art›fl› ile. Toplumumuzda kanserin önceden tespitine yönelik, GPX1 enziminin saflaflt›r›l›p, 198.pozisyonunun saptanmas› toplum sa¤l›¤›na yönelik önemli katk›lar
sa¤layabilir. Sunulan proje, Türkiye'deki ilk biyoinformatik projesi olma bak›m›ndan orjinallik içermektedir.
Kaynaklar
• European Bioinformatics Institute, www.ebi.ac.uk
•
Swiss Bioinformatics Institute, www.expasy.ch
16
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
B‹YOLOJ‹ PROJE ÖZET‹
(19. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Biyoloji 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: ‹nsektisit'in Salmo Turutta Macrostigma (DUMER‹L 1858) Üzerindeki
Genotoksik Etkisinin Eritrosit Mikronükleus Testi ile Belirlenmesi
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: Burcu DEM‹R - Sinem GÜLfiEN
Okulu
: Mu¤la Anadolu Lisesi - Mu¤la
Dan›flman Ö¤retmen
: Mehmet Ali ONARAN
Girifl ve Amaç
Bu çal›flmada organofosforlu insektisitlerden biri olan chlorpyrifos ethyl'in Salmo trutta macrostigma
üzerindeki genotoksik etkisinin belirlenmesi için eritrosit mikronukleus testi kullan›lm›flt›r. Çal›flmada
96 saat süreyle 125, 150, 175, 200 ve 225 ppm'lik dozlarda chlorpyrifos ethyl'e maruz b›rak›lan 24
adet S.trutta macrostigma bireyinin eritrositlerinde mikronukleus oluflum frekanslar› hesaplanm›flt›r.
Sonuçta en yüksek mikronukleus frekans› %2.19 ile 225 ppm'lik doza maruz b›rak›lan S. trutta
macrostigma bireylerinde tespit edilmifl ve doz art›fl›na ba¤l› olarak mikronukleuslu eritrosit say›s›nda
artma oldu¤u gözlenmifltir.
Materyal ve Metod
- Pestisitin Uygulanmas›
S. trutta macrostigma örnekleri, 80 x 35 x 45 cm ebatlar›nda olan ve daha önceki çal›flmalara dayan›larak
belirlenen 125, 150, 175, 200 ve 225 ppm'lik dozlarda organofosforlu bir insektisit olan chlorpyrifos
ethyl (0,0-diethyl 0-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate) ihtiva eden akvaryumlara al›narak 96
saat süreyle insektisite maruz b›rak›lm›fllard›r.
- Preparatlar›n ‹ncelenmesi
Preparatlar haz›rland›ktan sonra binoküler ›fl›k mikroskobu alt›nda eritrositlerdeki mikronukleus say›mlar›
için tarama ifllemine tabi tutulmufllard›r. Her bir preparatta 1000 tane eritrosit taranarak, bunlar›n
sitoplazmas› içerisinde ana nukleus yan›nda küçük mikronukleuslar içeren eritrositler kaydedilmifltir.
Bulgular
Yap›lan say›mlar sonucunda uygulanan insektisit doz art›fl›na ba¤l› olarak mikronukleuslu eritrosit
frekans›nda art›fl oldu¤u saptanm›flt›r. Buna göre kontrol grubunda belirlenen mikronukleuslu eritrosit
frekans› %0.06 iken 225 ppm'lik doz grubunda bu say›n›n %2.19'a yükseldi¤i ve doz art›fl› ile birlikte
mikronukleuslu eritrosit say›s› aras›nda giderek artan bir iliflkinin oldu¤u görülmüfltür. Yap›lan istatisti¤i
de¤erlendirmelerde ise bal›klara uygulanan doz gruplar› aras›ndaki farkl›l›klar›n anlaml› oldu¤u (P<0,0001)
gözlenmifltir.
Sonuç ve Tart›flma
Bu çal›flmada Eflen Çay› etraf›ndaki ova bölgesi olarak bilinen tar›m arazilerinde ve seralarda en çok
kullan›lan organofosforlu insektisitlerden biri olan chlorpyrifos ethyl'in uygulanan dozlar› Salmo trutta
macrostigma'y› genotoksik bir etki yapt›¤› eritrosit MN testi ile saptanm›flt›r. Akuatik ortamlardaki toksik
maddelerin genotoksik etkileri hakk›nda daha kolay ve ucuz bir yöntemle bilgi sa¤lanacakt›r.
17
Kaynaklar
1. Al-Sabti, K., Metcalfe, C.D. 1995. Fish Micro-nuclei for Assesing Genotoxicity in Water. Mutat.
Res.,343 pp. 121-135..
2. Al-Sabti, K. 1994. Micronuclei Induced By Selenium, Mercury, Methyl Mercury and Their Mixtures
in Binucleated Blocked Fish Erythrocyte Cells. Mutat. Res.320 pp. 157-163.
3. Al-Sabti, K. 1992. Monitoring The Genotoxicity of Radiocontaminants in Swedish Lakes By Fish
Micronuclei. Cytobios 70, pp 101-106.
4. Al-Sabti, K. 1991. Handbook of Genotoxic Effects and Fish Chromosomes. Josef Stephan ‹nstitute
Press. Ljubjina Slovenia pp.230.
5. Bahari, I.B.,Noor, F.M., Daud, M.N. 1994. Micronucleated Erythrocytes as an Assay to Assess
Actions By Physisal Genotoxic Agents in Clarias gariepinus. Mutat. Res. 313 pp. 1-5.
6. Burgeot, T., His, E., Galgani F. 1995. The Micronucleus Assay in Crassostera gigas for The
Detection of Seawater Genotoxicity. Mutat. Res. 342 pp, 125-140.
7. Elaz›¤ Tar›m ‹l Müdürlü¤ü. 2004. 2004 Y›l› Program›na Göre Yönetimli Çiftçi Pestisit Mücadele
‹htiyaç Listesi.
8. Heddle,E., et all.. 1983. The Induction of Micro-nuclei as a measure of Genotoxicity. Mutat.
Res.,123pp. 61-118.
9. Karacan, A.R. 2007. Çevre Ekonomisi ve Politi-kas›. Ege Üni.. Yay›nlar›. No. 6,‹zmir.
10. Kocabatmaz,M., Ekingen,G. 1984. De¤iflik Tür Bal›klarda Kan Örne¤i Al›nmas› ve Hematolojik
Metodlar›n Standardizasyonu. Do¤a Bil. Der., Seri D1, 8(2), 149-159.
11. Majone, F.,et all.. 1990. Induction of Micro-nuclei by Mitomycin C and Colchicine in the Marine
Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mutat. Res. 244 pp,147-151.
12. Minisi, S., Ciccotti, E., Rizzoni, M. 1996. Micronucleus Test in Erythrocytes of Barbus plebejus
(Teleostei, Pisces) From Two Natural Environments: A Bioassay For The in-Situ Dedection of
Mutagenesis in Freshwater. Mutat. Res. 367pp. 245-251.
13. Poongothai, K., Shayin, S., Usharani, V. 1996. Induction of Micronuclei in Fish By Polluted Water
and Heavy Metals. Cytobios 86 pp. 17-22.
18
MEF ULUSAL VE ULUSLARARASI
21. ARAfiTIRMA PROJELER‹ YARIfiMASI
B‹YOLOJ‹ PROJE ÖZET‹
(20. Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Biyoloji 1. si)
Projenin Ad›
: Drosophila melanogaster' in yaflam döngüsünün 3 evresinde (EmbriyoLarva -Ergin) Y kromozomu etkinli¤inin araflt›r›lmas›.
Projeyi Haz›rlayanlar
: Berflan ÖZCAN
Okulu
: Ankara Fen Lisesi-Ankara
Dan›flman Ö¤retmen
: Murat SARIZ
Girifl ve Amaç
Drosophila melanogaster'in Y kromozomu cinsiyet üzerinde etkili de¤ildir, çok fazla intron içerir ve k›sa
kod dizilerine sahip birkaç gen tafl›r. Yap›lan baz› araflt›rmalar›n Y kromozomu tafl›mayan Drosophila
melanogaster organizmalar›n›n da belli bir süre yaflayabildi¤ini göstermesi Y kromozomlar›n›n yaflam
döngüsünün her evresinde transkripsiyona u¤ramad›¤›n› düflündürmektedir. Bu çal›flmada organizman›n
Y kromozomlar› üzerindeki mevcut genlerin transkripsiyona u¤ray›p u¤ramad›¤› ve yaflam döngüsünün
embriyo, larva, ergin gibi evrelerinin hangilerinde etkin oldu¤u araflt›r›lm›flt›r.
Materyal ve Metot
Drosophila melanogaster'in yaflam döngüsündeki embriyo, larva ve ergin evrelerinin her biri için DNA
izolasyonu, ters transkripsiyon, PCR ve jel elektroforezi prosedürleri uyguland›.
Bulgular
• Su(Ste) ve psi3'ün Drosophila melanogaster'in larva ve ergin dönemlerinde Y marker olarak
kullan›labilece¤i tespit edildi.
•
Su(ste) için en iyi PCR metodu tan›mland›: Birinci içerik ve 62 0C s›cakl›k
•
Embriyo üzerinde yap›lan deneyler en iyi PCR metodu ve erginlerde en iyi çal›flan Su(Ste)
primeri ile tekrarland›. Buna ra¤men Y kromozomu üzerindeki genlerin ifadesi embriyolarda
gözlemlenemedi.
•
Y kromozomu bulunmayan Drosophila melanogasterler'in embriyonik geliflimlerini nas›l
tamamlayabildi¤ini aç›klayabilme imkân› bulunmufltur.
•
Y kromozomu olmayan bireylerin yaflamlar›n›n k›sa sürmesinin nedeni ise, Y kromozomuna ihtiyac›n
organizma gelifltikçe artmas›d›r: Larva ve erginlerde Y kromozomu etkinli¤i aç›kça görülmüfltür.
Sonuç ve Tart›flma
Test deneylerinde sadece 3 primerin çal›flt›¤› görülebildi. Gelecekte yap›lacak deneylerde her primer
için PCR'da çok say›da s›cakl›k ve içerik denenerek, Y marker olarak kullan›labilecek daha fazla say›da
primer bulunabilir. Embriyo deneyleri farkl› primerler ve PCR içerikleri kullan›larak farkl› PCR s›cakl›klar›nda
tekrar yap›labilir.
19
Kaynaklar
1. Bernardo Lemos, et al. . 4 Ocak 2008. Polymorphic Y Chromosomes Harbor Cryptic Variation
with Manifold Functional Consequences . Science 319-91
2. Ashburner M, Thompson JN. 1978. "The laboratory culture of Drosophila" In Ashburner M,
Wright TRF. The Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. 2A. Academic Press. 1-81
3. Spring 2008. More on Sexual Differences in Drosophila melanogaster. “Introduction to Biological
Sciences Lab” at Vanderbilt University
www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bsci111b/drosophila/sexual-differences.htm (01/072009)
20
21
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
Science Support Platform
SPECIFICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
1. MEF Educational Institutions has been organizing “Research Projects Contest” among the high
school level students for twenty years in order to support the science education in Turkey, to
motivate the students who are capable in this area to perform scientific research and enable them
to be grown up as the “Scientists of the Future”
2. All the students of high schools from Turkey and abroad and giving an education based on the
primary school education can take part in the contest.
3. A separate contest shall be organized exclusively for international projects.
4. The research projects shall be prepared in Physics, Chemistry, Biology branches.
5. The projects should have a scientific research characteristic, be original and not have been taken
part in any other contest. The projects that do not meet these cri-teria shall be eliminated at the
application stage. (The project owners and the guide teachers shall be responsible for the originality
of the projects).
6. A student can take part in the contest with only one project. The projects can be prepared by a
single student or a group (maximum 2 students and 1 teachers). (The awards shall be given to the
project without taking the number of the people into consideration).
7. The Project Application Forms to be filled by the students applying the contests shall be sent
to the mailing address of MEF Educational Institutions or e-mailed to [email protected] together
with their annexes after they are signed by the relevant school management to be delivered to
our school no later than 24 February 2012. The applications after the deadline shall not be
accepted.
8. The projects shall be evaluated by a jury consists of the academicians from the universities.
9. The jury shall have the right to change the scientific branch of the project on the basis of the
project content. For example if the content of a project sent for chemis-try branch is dominant
with biology, this project shall be evaluated under biology branch.
10. The owners of the projects that are chosen to be exhibited shall be informed about the date and
place of the exhibition to be held in April in Istanbul.
11. The exhibition arrangements (supplying the tables and the stands) shall be made by MEF Educational
Institutions.The materials required to be used for the pro-jects should be notified to the Project
Contest Coordination Office via the tele-phones assigned for this purposes and negative /
positive confirmation should be obtained.
12. Teachers and students coming from abroad, are responsible for their round-trip flight fees.
13. The accommodation expenditures during the exhibition (on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and
Thursday) for the contestants from other cities and abroad shall be paid by our institution. The
room arrangement in the accommodation plan is for 2 or 3 persons. This plan is made on the basis
of the information forms filled and send by you.
22
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
14. The meals during the exhibition period - the breakfasts and lunches-shall be
supplied by our institution. The dinners shall be paid by you (except the evening organizations).
15. The students who get the first, second and third places and encouragement awards
and their project guide teachers shall also be awarded with money at the amounts
stated below and certificate of success and memory plackets shall be given to all
the students, teacher and/or school managements taking part in the contest.
16. Besides this “jury special awards” shall be given to a number of projects deemed
suitable by the jury.
PLACE
FIRST PLACE
SECOND PLACE
THIRD PLACE
ENCOURAGEMENT PRIZE
JURY SPECIAL PRIZE
STUDENT PRIZE
1,300 $
1,100 $
1.000 $
800 $
600 $
TEACHER PRIZE
1,300 $
1,100 $
1.000 $
800 $
600 $
For detailed information:
Tel: (0212) 287 69 00
Fax: (0212) 257 90 95
E-mail: [email protected]
Web sitesi: www.mef.k12.tr
Application address:
MEF Education Campus
Ulus Mah. Öztopuz Cad. Leylak Sok. 34340
Ulus-Befliktafl / ‹stanbul
23
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST AMONG THE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
MEF Educational Institutions holds the 21st Traditional RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST among the high
school level students in Turkey. As it is already known, this contest which attracts great interest and
appreciation is held on PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY and BIOLOGY categories. In this organization, MEF
Educational Institutions aims to encourage the capable and eager high school students that shall create
the Turkey of tomorrow to study on the basic and applied sciences. The application deadline (24
February 2012) is stated in the application and evaluation forms sent to your school. The high school
students who want to take part in the contest shall fill in the application and evaluation forms before
the deadline and sent them to our school after having them approved by their school management.
The applications shall be examined by a jury consists of the academicians from several universities and
the projects to be exhibited shall be determined.
STAND ARRANGEMENT
The main purpose of the exhibition is to demonstrate and explain the project work to the visitors of
the exhibition. For this purpose, MEF Educational Institutions shall give a 100 x 140 cm table and
a 100 x 140 cm board to the students. The students shall exhibit the experimental arrangements or
application models on the table and the project report written in A4 papers shall be exhibited on the
board.
EVALUATION
The jury members shall evaluate the projects by visiting the exhibition and having inter-views with the
students. The evaluations shall be gathered by the MEF Educational Institutions contest execution
board. The execution board shall determine the ranking on the basis of the average of the marks given
for each project and prepare the list to de-termine the students who win the prizes. The Project Contest
Coordination shall announce the winners on the basis of this list. The prizes for these students and
the certificate of achievements for all the students taking part in the exhibition shall be given to them
with a ceremony to be held in the exhibition hall.
SCIENCE SUPPORT PLATFORM
In the previous years, some students from the schools away from the big centers and the universities
said that they had difficulties to find the materials to be used in their projects and they couldn't
take part in the projects due to these differences and they needed support.
The business world and the entrepreneurs have created a human resource in order to support our
students and guide teachers who suffer from such difficulties. In this way our students shall not
encounter this kind of problems any more.
The essential duty of the Science Support Platform is to support the students and the teachers suffering
from such problems and bring the business world and the entrepre-neurs in order to
support the scientists of the future and have solutions for their prob-lems.
24
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
This platform operates in a very simple way:
-
The high schools inform us about their needs for their contest project by filling a demand form
with a proposal of the guide teacher/teachers and the approval of the school management.
-
When we receive the demand, our coordination office makes and evaluation.
-
The demands that are deemed suitable shall be shared with a science-friendly platform member.
-
After that our member shall contact with the school and meet their demand on the basis of the
information obtained from our coordination office and demand form.
-
The contest coordination office is informed about the result.
WHAT IS SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC WORK?
Science is the set of knowledge that has been accumulated regularly by the human being since the
first ages. This knowledge is a result of the works of human being per-formed in order to understand
themselves and everything surrounding them and to ex-plain the events happening around them.
Lots of scientists from different parts of the world have had contributions to science and these
contributions shall continue in the future. On the basis of the science which can be defined as “the
result of the joint work of several scientists” lay the ability to think, creativ-ity and systematic work
of human beings.
HOW IS SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PERFORMED?
1. The research subject is determined.
2. The previous works on this subject are examined.
3. Pre-experiments are made in order to observe the event to be searched and the experiment
methods and experiments to be performed are planned.
4. The data obtained from the experiment is arranged.
5. It is checked if there is a meaningful relationship among the arranged data.
6. Hypotheses are established under the light of the findings.
7.
The meaningful relations found are examined and specific conclusions are ob-tained.
8. The results and findings obtained are recorded in the written form in order transfer to the
scientists and future generations.
25
HOW SHOULD THE PROJECT REPORT BE WRITTEN?
Project report on your research subject is one of the most significant steps in your project work. Project
report is recording the results of the observations, experiments and meas-urements and demonstrating
the obtained results in written format. In this way the infor-mation you obtained at the end of your
work shall be saved and transferred to the others and the future generations. Furthermore, please
keep in mind that your project report shall have a significant role in the evaluation of your work.
Therefore, while writing your report, you should give a great care both in writing and content.
Please avoid from extending your report with unnecessary extensions and repetitions. Write your report
in the following format
Project Title
It shall be written shortly and briefly in a single sentence and give and idea about the project work.
Introduction and Purpose
In this part, give information about your work and talk about the previous works per-formed on this
subject. State the different aspects of your work than the previous ones and write your goals in this
project work clearly.
Methodology
In this part write the followings clearly and briefly:
- The method employed in the project work
-
Materials and measurement tools employed
-
Experiments performed
-
How the controlled experiments have been performed
-
Data collection and statistical analysis methods
-
Your observations
-
Calculations made to draw the graphs
Conclusion and Discussions
In this part, write the results obtained from the project work. This is the most important part in your
report. Your findings might be numeric values, mathematical equations or verbal expressions. Please
express your numeric results in the form of graphs and draw-ings as much as possible (the findings
should be in compliance with the international unit systems).
While discussing your findings, define the validity limitations and if there are any reasons affecting
the results negatively please explain them. Compare your own findings with the findings of the previous
works on this subject. State the level of achievement to reach your project goals. Talk about the further
research that can be performed in the same subject and make proposals for those interested in the
subject.
26
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
References
Referring the sources for the scientific research is both a requirement of the science ethics and a proof
for the validity and reliability of the basis of the work.
The aims of referring the sources for a scientific research are given under the title of “Why the sources
are used in a scientific study?
WHY THE SOURCES ARE USED IN A SCIENTIFIC STUDY?
The sources should be employed in scientific studies for the following reasons:
1. To show the contribution of the researcher by giving the sources and respect the right of the
real owners of this knowledge,
2. To support the opinions and/or the findings of the researcher,
3. To enable the reader to check the reliability and validity of the knowledge sub-mitted to the reader,
4. To offer new sources to those who want to carry out further research on the same subject.
While referring 1the sources, the information about the source should be correct and complete.
HOW SHOULD YOU REFER THE SOURCES EMPLOYED IN YOUR WORK?
When you refer to a book;
Name and surname of the writer (or the Initial of his name and point), name of the book, if exists
the name and surname of the arranger, preparer or translator, edition number, publisher, place and
year of publish should be given. For example:
•
GÜNDÜZ T., Quantitative Analysis Course book, Ankara University, Faculty of Science Publishers,
Ankara, 1975
•
BRAUN, R.D. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis, Mc Graw Hill Book Co. New York, 1987.
•
MAHAN, B.H. University Chemistry, Translated by C. fienvar and E. Edgüer, 5th edition, Hacettpe
University Publications, Ankara,1989.
When you refer to an article
Name and surname of the writer (or the Initial of his name and point), name of the article, Name
of the Magazine (the full name or if exists the international abbreviation), Volume No, Issue No,
first and last pages of the articles Year should be given. For example:
•
SMITH MA, “The Nature of Distribution Functions for Colliding Systems” Journal of Chemical
Education, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 218-223, 1993
When you refer to an article in any publishing:
• D‹NÇKAYA E. “Alginate peroxides immobilization” IX. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Symposium Paper Summary Book, KTU Faculty of Arts and Science Publications, p 397, Trabzon,
1993.
27
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR PHYSICS (First Place in Physics - 18th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
: Coded Wireless Data Transfer for Long Distances
Project Owners
: Sarp KAYA - Can SELÇ‹K
School
: Özel ‹zmir Amerikan Koleji - ‹zmir
Guide Teacher
: Oktay ÜNAL
Introduction and Purpose
21st century introduced some new challenges for mankind along with the improvements in technology.
For example, some costly solutions devised by telecommunications com-panies developing in terms
of infrastructure and growing more speedy can reach settle-ments with insufficient infrastructure either
very late or not reach at all. To that end, tele-communications companies could prefer wireless
infrastructure to eliminate the problems caused by long distances and therefore introduce affordable
infrastructure to settlement with problematic or no infrastructure.
Methodology
The present project serves not only to ensure that companies form connection by and between
themselves but also to transfer internet, telephone, and even television broad-casts to a settlement
with insufficient infrastructure. That, in turn, makes it possible for villages far from city center connect
to the outside world. Besides, costs are lower than the prices of those requiring fiber optic cable use
(such as termination devices, not in-cluding fiber optic cable).
Findings
The project was carried out successfully between Karatafl (Point A) - Maviflehir (Point B) situated in two
separate sides of Izmir. The speed test conducted proved that it was at the last point of 802.11b
technology, which means that it was around 450 KB/sn. The speed stated in Wi-Fi technology refers
to Reception + Delivery speed. If point A is connected to point B, point should deliver whenever point
A receives. That is, the Reception + Delivery Speed is approximately 9000KB/sn which is close 11 Mbps
speed
28
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR PHYSICS (First Place in Physics - 19th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
: Synthesis of Three or Four-Component Semiconductor Nanocrystals
such as CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, and Cu(InGa) and analysis of their use
potentials as New Generation Solar Bat-teries
Project Owners
: ‹dil ÖZDAMAR
School
: ‹zmir Özel Fatih Fen Lisesi - ‹zmir
Guide Teacher
: Ümit KARACA
Introduction and Purpose
The efficiency of silicon solar batteries is 5% whereas the efficiency could increase up to 7-12% in
cadmium solar batteries. Yet, cadmium has negative effects on environment. This project aims to
synthesize suitable compositions to employed in new generation solar batteries and evaluate
their electrical characteristics with a view to identifying the potential to use them in solar batteries.
Methodology
Semiconductors composed of two or three components such as CuInSe2 have a great potential as
photo-voltaic cells due to the fact that they have low toxic effects and high transformational efficiency.
CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, Cu(InGa)Se2 semiconductor nanocrystals were synthesized in order to acquire solar
batteries with low toxic effects and high effi-ciency in this study. Surface and dimension characteristics
were studied through the analysis of SEM, AFM, and SAX analyses. The changes as to their conductivity
were also analyzed through making a comparison as to resistance under darkness, UVB, and mercurycontaining lamp after they were wrapped in copper sheets.
Findings
The resistance values of samples were measured through flow-voltage measurements from two different
points. When CuInSe2, CuGaSe2 veCuInGaSe2 is subjected to light by using UVB lamp, the resistance
decreased exponentially with the duration, which means that the conductivity increased. The most
efficient results were observed in CuInSe2. The results of the measurements through mercury-containing
lamp confirmed those acquired through the use of that other light source.
Discussions
Finally, electrical properties of CuInSe2, CuGaSe2 veCu(InGa)Se2 were analyzed along with the test
results. CuInSe2 turned out to be the most suitable substance to be used in solar batteries. The tests
conducted further proven that CuInSe2 was highly promising for new generation solar batteries. In
addition, it was revealed that its dimensions were ideal through SEM and AFM tests.
References
1. ATAGÜNDÜZ, G., (1989), Günefl Enerjisi Temelleri ve Uygulamalar›, Ege Üniver-sitesi Günefl
Enerjisi Enstütüsü
2. ERKOÇ, fi., (2007), Nanobilim ve Nanoteknoloji, ODTÜ yay›nlar›, Ankara, pp. 72-74.
3. GOETZBERGER, A. ve arkadafllar› (1998), Cristalline Sillicon Solar Cells
4. VARINCA, K. B. ve GÖNÜLLÜ T. M., Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynaklar›n›n Kullan›m›n›n Çevresel
Olumlu Etkileri, YTÜ Çevre Mühendisli¤i Bölümü
5. TANG, J., H‹DS S., KELLEY S.O., and SARGENT E.H., (2008), Synthesis Of Colloi-dal CuGaSe2,
CuInSe2 and Cu(InGa)Se2 Nanoparticles, Chem. Mater 20, pp. 6906-6910
6. WANG, W. ve arkadafllar› (2009), Intermediate-band Photovoltaic Solar Cell Based On ZnTe:O,
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 95
29
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR PHYSICS (First Place in Physics - 20th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
: Thermal Photograph
Project Owners
: Ada DO⁄RUCU, Alp Eren ELÇ‹, Kaan KARACA
School
: Özel ‹zmir Amerikan Koleji - ‹zmir
Guide Teacher
: Oktay ÜNAL
Introduction and Purpose
The project aims to process thermal data into a photograph as part of the digital photo-graph technology
and to ensure that computer users may see thermal values as they move the mouse on the photograph
by making use of a special computer program.
Methodology
The most important indication of thermal energy and heat, the embodiment of that en-ergy, is the
radiance released by energized materials. The investigations conducted revealed that photo receptors
of digital cameras and web cameras were sensitive to infrared but that there was a glass plate on
lenses of cameras to restrain such sensitivity; that is was possible to receive radiance into the lens from
infrared section as well in case that glass plate is removed. In that sense, the project was further
improved and a web camera was designed to re-ceive the infrared image of the environment while
taking photos of the same environment with a second camera. To that end, two web cameras of the
same model were purchased from a store and one of them were modified as follows. The infrared
restraining glass filter in front of color sensing center in web cameras was replaced with a photo
negative to design an infrared sensing web camera.
Result and Discussions
The project is now composed of a system embracing a laptop computer and two cam-eras which
requires manual processing of thermal values in infrared picture under certain conditions for the time
being. At that point, it should be asserted that the project is still under way to ensure that the process
is undertaken digitally as a whole.
The project is anticipated to be suitable for use in a number of sectors from security to defense,
medicine, and engineering.
The system shall be able to sense the thermal values of pictures (taken with digital cam-eras). Later
on, as the photograph is analyzed, it shall be possible to employ the new technology in a number of
areas since thermal values shall also be detected.
References
The motive behind the project is truly original yet it should be admitted that several refer-ences were
analyzed (from the library and internet) on terms such as thermal-heat-photograph technology-infrared.
In addition, google search engine and google scholar were scanned to confirm that no such project
has been designed up to now. It is true that projects on thermal cameras and infrared cameras exist
but the project offered is different in that the current project aims to show thermal values through a
follow-up program by keeping those thermal values for future use. Finally, we would like to offer our
special thanks to Mr. Oktay ÜNAL, our guide teacher, for assisting and directing us with his suggestions
and comments.
30
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR CHEMISTRY (First Place in Chemistry - 18th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
: Devising an Early and Efficient Diagnosis Method by Retaining
Citrulinated Lysozyme in Plasma through Pressurized Polymer
Project Owners
: Adil Arca fiENEY - Cenk ‹brahim ÖZDEM‹R
School
: Ankara Fen Lisesi - Ankara
Guide Teacher
: Erdal K‹N‹R
Introduction and Purpose
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease in arthroses which causes mobility disor-ders and
inflammations in organs. In that sense, early diagnosis is of critical importance in increasing quality
of life.
The examinations conducted revealed that lysozyme values in plasma increased in pa-tients with RA
and it was discovered that some antibodies resisting against citrulinated lysozymes existed.
The aim of this study, therefore, is to prove that citrulinated lysozyme could be employed in early ad
efficient diagnosis of RA due to the fact that citrulinated lysozyme values are higher in patients with
RA.
Methodology
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) chips were prepared through several modifications so that the
existence of citrulinated lysozyme could be verified. A polymer surface was created to which only
citrulinated lysozyme could be bound to those SPR chips by using molecular pressurizing technology.
Lysozyme solution was transferred to healthy plasma from the surface (control group) in parallel with
the lysozyme solution transferred to the ailing plasma (experiment group). The two separate interactions
were observed. Devia-tion angle was measured for each sample with SPR device.
Findings
In line with the data acquired from the abovementioned studies and experiments, it was detected that
the deviation angles of surface with ailing lysozyme solution was different from that of control group.
It was also observed that the deviation angles changed ac-cording to the density of the solution.
Result and Discussions
Our study reveals that citrulinated lysozyme is bound to the surface as the differences in deviation
angles are observed in lysozyme solution. In that sense, it could well be as-serted that citrulinated
lysozme could be employed as an efficient method for diagnosis of RA with an exactness of 97%.
Following the application, SPR chip is recovered through a simple method and could be reused for
several times.
Furthermore, the method could be applied for other reasons as it cleans the blood from drugs with
negative effects on human health; removes harmful chemicals; detects small amounts of chemicals
that are hard to spot for the time being; and recovers valuable chemicals with high efficiency levels.
31
References
1- AKIMITSU KUGIMIYA and TOSHIFUMI TAKEUCHI, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Using
Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Detection of Sialic Acid”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics,
Volume 16, issue 9-12, pp. 1059-1062, Aral›k 2001
2- Dr. ALPER GÜMÜfi “Romatoid Artritli Hastalarda Vasküler Endotelial Büyüme Faktörü ve
Anti Siklik Sitrülinlenmifl Protein Antikoru Seviyelerinin De¤erlendirilmesi” (Uzmanl›k Tezi),
‹stanbul, 2007
3- Dr. DERYA GÜLTEK‹N “Romatoid Artritli Hastalarda Accp (Anti-Cyclic citrullinated Peptide)
Düzeyleri” (Uzmanl›k Tezi), ‹stanbul, 2005
4- ERG‹N S., “Romatoid Artrit ve Sjögren Sendromu”, Fiziksel T›p ve Rehabilitasyon, Volume 2,
Günefl Kitabevi Ltd. fiti, Ankara, 2000
5- ERKUT YILMAZ, “Romatoid Artrit Tedavisine Yönelik Poli (HEMA-MAH) Adsorbentin Üretimi
ve Dolgulu Kolon Dizayn›” (Uzmanl›k Tezi), Ankara, 2007
6- SCHELLEKENS GA, DE JONG BA, VAN DEN HOOGEN FH, VAN DE PUTTE LB, VAN VENROOIJ
WJ., “Citrulline is an Essential Constituent of Antigenic Determinants Recognized by
Rheumatoid Arthritis-spesific Autoantibodies”, J Clin Invest, issue 101, pp. 273-281, 1998
7- NAKAMURA R.M. “Progress in The Use of Biochemical and Biological Markers for Evaluation
of Rheumatoid Arthritis”, J.Clin.Lab.Anal., issue 14, pp. 305-313, 2002
8- VAN BOEKEL MA, VOSSENAAR ER, VAN DEN HOOGEN FH, VAN VENROO WJ., “Autoantibody
Systems in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Specificity, Sensitivity and Diagnostic Value”, Arthritis
Res., issue 4, pp. 87-93, 2002
9- SCHELLEKENS GA, VISSER H, DE JONG BAW, VAN DEN HOOGEN FH, HAZES JM, BREEDEVELD
FC, VAN VENROOIJ WJ., “The Diagnostic Properties of Rheumatoid Arthritis Antibodies
Recognizing Anti-cyclic Citrulinated Peptide”, Arthritis Rheum, issue 43, pp. 155-163, 2000
32
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR CHEMISTRY (First Place in Chemistry - 19th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
: Production of Environmentally Friendly and Economical Fiber
Project Owners
: Damla Didem AKYILDIZ
School
: Ankara Fen Lisesi - Ankara
Guide Teacher
: Erdal K‹N‹R
Project Summary
It is impossible to manufacture fiberboard and paper from lignocellulosic substances unless they are
turned into fibrous material. To that end, the first step is to turn raw mate-rial into fibrous material.
The aim of producing chemical pulp is to disintegrate fibers through resolving middle lamella composed
mainly of lignin and holding fibers in wood together chemically (delig-nification). Yet, paper production
through chemical methods causes excessive energy consumption; besides, wastes have proven harmful
for nature due to the use of chemi-cals. Similarly, energy consumption is relatively high in production
of thermomechanical fiber. Biodelignification method, on the other hand, reduces the harm afflicted
to the nature and the energy consumption.
The aim of this project is to minimize environmental pollution and contribute to a more economical
production process by reducing the use of chemicals and energy consump-tion in manufacture of
fibers for paper and MDF (fiberboard). Another objective is to contribute to the economy by ensuring
the cultivation of an edible mushroom type on chips prior to fibering process. Pleurotus ostreatus
mushroom was used to that end.
The experiments conducted revealed that the amount of lignin on chips decreased gradually, which
means that the mushrooms destroy lignin on chips. In addition, the solution values of 1% NaOH
increased in parallel with the disintegration of lignin which displays the destruction caused by mushrooms.
Such findings point out that the study has proven fruitful. Furthermore, cultivation of mushrooms
turns out to be another impor-tant output of the project along with all the other positive results.
The project shall both contribute to economic prosperity through the cultivation of edible mushrooms
and ensure that paper and fiber production processes become environmen-tally friendly through low
energy consumption levels.
The study reveals that the implementation of the project shall prove highly beneficial for the country
in terms of economy, environmental pollution, and energy consumption.
33
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR CHEMISTRY (First Place in Chemistry - 20th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
: An Economical Model for the Purification of Antibody:
Molecular-Pressurized Heat-Sensitive Intelligent Polymers
Project Owners
: Furkan ÇET‹N - Kemal ‹NEC‹K
School
: Özel Samanyolu Fen Lisesi - Ankara
Guide Teacher
: Zeynel Abidin BÜTÜNER
Introduction and Purpose
We were familiar with antibodies due to our projects for Olympics (Silver Medal for Chemistry in 18th
National Science Olympics of TUBITAK) and our high school studies. 75-80% of antibodies in blood
are known to be composed of Immunoglobulin G (IgG).
Immunoglobulins (=Antibodies) are synthesized by plasma cells constituted through the transformation
lymphocytes undergo due to antigenic stimulation. Chemical, physical, and immunological studies on
antibodies have revealed that there are important differ-ences between and among them. Such
differences are due to the individual properties of antibody molecules such as their carbohydrate
amounts, electrophoresis speeds, mo-lecular weights, aminoacid constitutions, and H (=heavy)
polypeptide chains they have. In that sense, immunoglobulins have been classified into five groups,
namely Immuno-globulin G (IgG), Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Immunoglobulin M (IgM), Immunoglobulin
D (IgD), and Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Immunoglobulins are of glucoprotein structure 90% of which
is polypeptide and the remaining 10% is carbohydrate. When an Ig molecule is analyzed under electron
microscope, it would be seen that it has Y shape. Since Igs are proteins with globulin structure, they
are made up of polypeptide chains. There are two types of polypeptide chains in an IgG molecule
composed of Monomer (= one essential unit) and each type has two chains.
•
Light chain = L chain: Short chains with lighter molecular weight. It has two different types
known as K (kappa) and (lambda). Both are available in all lg types. Yet, the two short chains
in the same lg molecule are of the same type and identical to each other; that is, one cannot
be different from the other. A single antibody molecule cannot contain two different types of
L chain at the same time.
•
Heavy chain = H chain: Long chains with heavier molecular weight. All five Ig types have different
H chain structures, which are named as follows.
IgG (gamma) H chain, IgM (mü) H chain, IgA (alfa) H chain, IgD (delta) H chain, and IgE (epsilon) H
chain.
IgG molecule, as described in detail above, is shaped as Y, has monomer structure and is of 150.000
molecular weight. For adults, 100 ml serum has 1000 mgr IgG. Two antigens could be connected to
2 Fab particles in IgG molecule. That is why IgG bears two values.
In that sense, we aim to prepare and characterize macroporous polymer columns as a more
economical method of purifying antibodies from human and animal blood and to contribute
to the economy of the country.
34
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
Methodology
The Methodology employed consists of eight main steps:
1. Methacrylamidohistidine (MAH) monomer was synthesized to turn his-tidine into monomer
structure so that it could be blended into polymerine structure.
2. MAH monomer prepared was synthesized into polymer in ethanol cryostat of -20 degrees with
NIPA monomer, methylene bisacrylamide cross linker, ammonium persulphate (APS) initiator,
and N,N,N,N-Tetramethylendiamine (TEMED) accelerator.
3. LCST (Low Critical Solution Temperature) of p(NIPA-MAH) polymere syn-thesized was specified
as 34oC through the use of SAXS and it was de-tected that it had inclination to swell under and
above 34oC. Besides, nanostructures and reactions to heat were clarified though SAXS. The
structure was confirmed through FT-IR Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer SpctrumOne, Nicolet
520). It was further characterized by imaging the macroporous structure with Scanning Electron
Microscope (SEM) (Low Voltage Electron Microscope, LVEM5).
4. IgG purification experiments with p(NIPA-MAH) polymer were first per-formed with IgG solution
and then with peristaltic pump on steady system after a solution was prepared with the same
ratio of proteins in blood.
5. The results acquired for the same experiment was checked in 280 nm wavelength with UVVisible Spectrophotometer (ShimadzuUV-1601). The second experiment (purification) was
checked with SDS PAGE gel elec-trophoresis.
6. We employed prior complex, polymerization, and target molecule removal practices, as defined
in introduction part, to use molecular pressurizing method as we could not achieve the desired
results.
7. We could achieve the new results after the repetition of step 4 and 5.
8. We checked the economic advantages of the method through cost analy-sis.
Result and Discussions
The one whose IgG antibody is not pressurized adsorbs 63 mg IgG from its natu-ral milieu whereas
the one whose IgG is pressurized adsorbs 86 mg IgG. 97% of IgGs adsorbed by polymer could be
recovered with the help of 100 ml 1M NaCl solution at + 4˚C.
As for unpressurized cryogel, purity rate is 90%. Purification proved successful in pressurized cryogel.
35
References
1. Organik Kimya, Solomons
2. A.Denizli Protein Kromatografisi ve Yeni Nesil Polimerik Sistemler
3. El-Kak,A., Manjini,S., Vijayalakshmi,M.A., (1992) Interaction of immunoglobulin G with immobilized
histidine: mechanistic and kinetic aspects, Journal of Chromotography A, issue 604, pp. 29-37
4. Huang, P.Y., Carbonell, G.R., (1999) Affinity chromatographic screening of soluble combinatorial
peptide libraries, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Issue 63, pp. 633-641
5. Herak, D.C., Merrill, E.W., (1990), Affinity Cross-Flow Filtration: Some New Aspects, Biotechnology
Progress, issue 6, pp. 33-40
6. Vijayalakshmi, A., Nedonchelle, E., Pitiot, O,. (2000) A Preliminary Study for Isolation of Catalytic
Antibodies by Histidine Ligand Affinity Chromotography, as an Alternative to Conventional
Protein A/G Methods, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, issue 83, pp. 287-295
7. Vijayalakshmi A., Kamalanathan, A.S., (2007) Puri_cation of oligouronides by immobilized lhistidine pseudoaf_nity chromatography, Journal of Chromatography B, 23 June 2007
8. El-Kak, A., Vijayalakshmi, M.A., 1991, J. Chromatogr: Biomedical Applications, 570, 29-41.
9. El-Kak, A., and Vijayalakshmi, M.A., 1992, J. Chromatogr. B, 604, 29-37.
10. Fassina, G., Ruvo, M., Palombo, G., Verdoliva, A., Marino, M., 2001, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods,
49, 481-490.
11. Füglistaller, P., 1989, J. Immunol. Methods, 124, 171-7.
12. Hasnaoui, M., Debbia, M., Cochet, S., Cartron, J.P., Lambin, P., Bertrand, O., 1997, J. of Chromatogr.
A, 766, 49-60.
13. Herak, D.C. and Merrill, E.W., 1990, Biotechnol. Prog., 6, 33.
14. Hjorth, R., 1997, Trends Biotechnol., 15, 230-235.
15. Huang, P.Y., and Carbonell, R.G., 1999, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 63, 633-641.
16. Say, R., Garipcan, B., Emir, S., Pat›r, S., Denizli, A., Macromolecular Materials and Engineering,
287(8) 539-545, 2002.
36
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR BIOLOGY (First Place in Biology - 18th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
: In Silico Analysis of Glutathione Peroxidase Enzyme: “Bioin-formatics
Approach”
Project Owners
: Melike KAZAK
School
: Özel TAKEV Fen Lisesi - ‹zmir
Guide Teacher
: Funda SEMENDERO⁄LU
Introduction and Purpose
Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary science embracing different disciplines such as mo-lecular biology,
biochemistry, medicine, genetics, computer engineering, and statistics under genome project. It ensures
that sequencing results of thousands of aminoacids and DNA brought about by genomics and proteomics
projects could be compared quickly.
Methodology
This project offers in silico analysis of a number of important issues such as detecting the isoforms of
glutathione peroxidase enzyme, an important antioxidant system embed-ded in human metabolism;
aminoacidic frequency differences of various isoforms; their philogenetic relations; active central
structures; biochemical properties of each isoform; unfolded areas within three dimensional structure;
the placement of those isoform en-zymes as to chromosomes; and aminoacidic sequencing similarities
of the same enzyme in different animate beings.
Findings
The project reveals that molecular structures of isoforms are substantially different from one another
although they catalyze the same biochemical reaction.
Result and Discussions
One of the most significant results of the project is that purification of GPX-1 enzyme and specifying
its location in 198th position could contribute to the improvement of public health since cancer diseases
could be detected earlier by changing proline in the amino-acid in 198th position of GPX-1 enzyme
into leucine. The project is quite original in that it is the first bioinformatics project in Turkey.
References
• European Bioinformatics Institute, www.ebi.ac.uk
•
Swiss Bioinformatics Institute, www.expasy.ch
37
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR BIOLOGY (First Place in Biology - 19th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
Project Owners
: Determining the Genotoxic Effect of Insecticides on Salmo Turutta
Macrostigma (DUMERIL 1858) through Erythrocyte Mi-cronucleus
Test
: Burcu DEM‹R - Sinem GÜLfiEN
School
: Mu¤la Anadolu Lisesi - Mu¤la
Guide Teacher
: Mehmet Ali ONARAN
Introduction and Purpose
This study employs erythrocyte micronucleus test to determine the genotoxic effect of chlorpyrifos
ethyl, one of the organophosphoric insecticides, on Salmo trutta mac-rostigma. Micronucleus origination
frequencies have been found for erythrocites of 24 S. trutta macrostigma units subjected to chlorpyrifos
ethyl of 125, 150, 175, 200, and 225 ppm dose for 96 hours. The highest micronucleus frequency
turned out to be S. trutta macrostigma units subjected to 225 ppm dose with 2.19%. It was observed
that there was an increase in the number of erythorocites with micronucleus in parallel with the
increase in dose.
Methodology
- Implementation of Pesticide
S. trutta macrostigma samples were subjected to insecticide for 96 hours after they were taken to
aquariums with chlorpyrifos ethyl (0,0-diethyl 0-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phos-phorothioate), an
organophosphoriz insecticide, with doses of 125, 150, 175, 200 ve 225 ppm as specified according
to previous studies with dimensions of 80 x 35 x 45 cm.
- Study of Preparations
The preparations underwent a scanning process with a view to counting micronuclei in erythrocytes
under binocular light microscope. 100 erythrocytes were scanned in each preparation to record
the erythrocytes containing small micronuclei along with the main nucleus inside the cytoplasm.
Findings
The studies revealed that the frequency of erythrocytes with micronucleus increased in parallel with
the increase in the dose of insecticide. In that sense, the frequency of eryth-rocytes with micronucleus
was 0.06% in control group whereas the number increased as high as 2.19% for the dose group 225
ppm and that there was a direct correlation be-tween the increase of dose and that of erythrocytes
with micronucleus. The statistical evaluations further revealed that there were suggestive differences
between the dose groups applied to fish (P<0,0001).
Result and Discussions
The study which was conducted for agricultural lands and greenhouses around Eflen River proves that
chlorpyrifos ethyl, an organophosphoric insecticide widely used in the region, has a genotoxic effect
on Salmo trutta macrostigma according to the doses em-ployes through erythrocyte MN test. The
project would make it possible to acquire infor-mation on genotoxic effects of toxic substances in
aquatic media with an easy-to-use and affordable method.
38
MEF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
21st RESEARCH PROJECTS CONTEST
References
1. Al-Sabti, K., Metcalfe, C.D. 1995. Fish Micro-nuclei for Assesing Genotoxicity in Water. Mutat.
Res.,343 pp. 121-135..
2. Al-Sabti, K. 1994. Micronuclei Induced By Selenium, Mercury, Methyl Mercury and Their Mixtures
in Binucleated Blocked Fish Erythrocyte Cells. Mutat. Res.320 pp. 157-163.
3. Al-Sabti, K. 1992. Monitoring The Genotoxicity of Radiocontaminants in Swedish Lakes By Fish
Micronuclei. Cytobios 70, pp 101-106.
4. Al-Sabti, K. 1991. Handbook of Genotoxic Effects and Fish Chromosomes. Josef Stephan ‹nstitute
Press. Ljubjina Slovenia pp.230.
5. Bahari, I.B.,Noor, F.M., Daud, M.N. 1994. Micronucleated Erythrocytes as an Assay to Assess
Actions By Physisal Genotoxic Agents in Clarias gariepinus. Mutat. Res. 313 pp. 1-5.
6. Burgeot, T., His, E., Galgani F. 1995. The Micronucleus Assay in Crassostera gigas for The
Detection of Seawater Genotoxicity. Mutat. Res. 342 pp, 125-140.
7. Elaz›¤ Tar›m ‹l Müdürlü¤ü. 2004. 2004 Y›l› Program›na Göre Yönetimli Çiftçi Pestisit Mücadele
‹htiyaç Listesi.
8. Heddle,E., et all.. 1983. The Induction of Micro-nuclei as a measure of Genotoxicity. Mutat.
Res.,123pp. 61-118.
9. Karacan, A.R. 2007. Çevre Ekonomisi ve Politi-kas›. Ege Üni.. Yay›nlar›. No. 6,‹zmir.
10. Kocabatmaz,M., Ekingen,G. 1984. De¤iflik Tür Bal›klarda Kan Örne¤i Al›nmas› ve Hematolojik
Metodlar›n Standardizasyonu. Do¤a Bil. Der., Seri D1, 8(2), 149-159.
11. Majone, F.,et all.. 1990. Induction of Micro-nuclei by Mitomycin C and Colchicine in the Marine
Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mutat. Res. 244 pp,147-151.
12. Minisi, S., Ciccotti, E., Rizzoni, M. 1996. Micronucleus Test in Erythrocytes of Barbus plebejus
(Teleostei, Pisces) From Two Natural Environments: A Bioassay For The in-Situ
Dedection of Mutagenesis in Freshwater. Mutat. Res. 367pp. 245-251.
39
PROJECT SUMMARY FOR BIOLOGY (First Place in Biology - 20th Research Projects Contest)
Project Title
: Investigation of the influence of Y chromosome on the 3rd stage
(Embryo-Larva-Pubescence) in life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster.
Project Owners
: Berflan ÖZCAN
School
: Ankara Fen Lisesi-Ankara
Guide Teacher
: Murat SARIZ
Introduction and Purpose
Y chromosome of drosophila melanogaster is not influential over sex as it contains a great amount of
introns and conveys some genes with short code sequences. Since some of the studies revealed that
drosophila melanogaster organisms with no Y chromo-some could survive for a while, it could well be
speculated that Y chromosomes do not undergo transcription under every phase of their life cycle. This
study, therefore, investi-gates whether the existing genes on Y chromosomes have undergone any
transcription and in which phases of life cycle (such as embryo, larva, pubescence) they are influen-tial.
Methodology
DNA isolation, reverse transcription, PCR, and gel electrophoresis procedures were implemented
for embryo, larva, and pubescence phases of drosophila melanogaster respectively.
Findings
• It was revealed that Su(Ste) and psi3 could be substituted as Y marker in larva and pubescence
phases of drosophila melanogaster.
•
The most suitable PCR method for Su(ste) turned out to be Primary content and temperature of 62 0C.
•
Experiments on embryo were repeated with the best PCR method and Su(Ste) primer, that is
the most suitable method for pubescence period. nev-ertheless, the genes on Y chromosome
could not be detected on embryos.
•
Therefore, it became possible to explain how drosophila melanogaster could complete its
embryonic evolution although it has no Y chromosome.
•
The short lifespan of those with no Y chromosome is due to the fact that the need for Y
chromosome increases in parallel with aging. The influence of Y chromosome on larva and
pubescence period could easily be observed.
Result and Discussions
Only 3 primers turned out to be operational on test experiments. For future experiments, it might be
possible to find out a number of primers that could be substituted as Y marker by experimenting with
a variety of temperature and content sequences for each primer. Embryonic experiments could be
carried out again under different PCR temperatures and primers.
References
1. Bernardo Lemos, et al. . 4 Ocak 2008. Polymorphic Y Chromosomes Harbor Cryptic Variation
with Manifold Functional Consequences . Science 319-91
2. Ashburner M, Thompson JN. 1978. "The laboratory culture of Drosophila" In Ashburner M,
Wright TRF. The Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. 2A. Academic Press. 1-81
3. Spring 2008. More on Sexual Differences in Drosophila melanogaster. “Introduction to Biological
Sciences Lab” at Vanderbilt University www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bsci111b/drosophila/sexualdifferences.htm (01/072009)
40
MEF Ulusal ve Uluslararas› Araflt›rma Projeleri Yar›flmas› Genel Koordinatörlü¤ü
MEF E⁄‹T‹M KAMPÜSÜ, Ulus Mah. Öztopuz Cad. Leylak Sok. 34340 Ulus - Befliktafl / ‹stanbul
Tel: (0212) 287 69 00 Dahili: 1190 - 1165 Faks: (0212) 257 90 95
www.mef.k12.tr

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